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QUICK MENU CLICK FOR CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENTS TUNING MAINTENANCE FUEL IGNITION TIMING ELECTRICAL POWERHEAD LOWER UNIT TRIM AND TILT REMOTE CONTROLS HAND STARTERS APPENDIX TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:33 blank) 1 SAFETY 1J FUEL (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:37 blank) INTRODUCTION 1-1 INTRODUCTION IJ-1 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:40 blank) CLEANING, WAXING, & POLISHING 1-1 GENERAL CARBURETION INFO. IJ-1 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:43 blank) CONTROLLING CORROSION 1-1 FUEL SYSTEM IJ-4 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:47 blank) PROPELLERS 1-2 Leaded Gasoline & Gasohol IJ-4 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:50 blank) LOADING 1-7 Removing Fuel From System "-5 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:52 blank) HORSEPOWER 1-7 TROUBLESHOOTING "-5 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:55 blank) FLOTATION Fuel Problems 4-6 (Cross-Out comment Andre 05.05.2011 03:13:58 blank) BOATING ACCIDENT REPORTS "Sour" Fuel IJ-6 Fuel Pump Test 4-7 2 TUNING Rough Engine Idle "-10 Excessive Fuel Consumption IJ-10 INTRODUCTION 2-1 CARBURETOR MODELS IJ-11 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE 2-2 COMPRESSION CHECK SIDE BOWL AND BACK DRAG SPARK PLUG INSPECTION 2-3 CARBURETORS-REFERENCED IGNITION SYSTEM 2-4 "A" IN APPENDIX 4-11 TIMING & SYNCHRONIZING 2-4 Removal & Disassembling 4-12 BATTERY CHECK Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-14 CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENT 2-6 Assembling IJ-18 FUEL PUMPS 2-8 CRANKING MOTOR & SOLENOID 2-9 INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP INTERNAL WIRING HARNESS 2-9 CARBURETOR --REFERENCED WATER PUMP CHECK 2-10 "B" IN APPENDIX 11-23 PROPELLER 2-11 Removal & Disassembling 11-25 LOWER UNIT 2-11 Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-25 BOAT TESTING 2-12 Assembling IJ-26 3 MAINTENANCE CENTER ROUND BOWL INTRODUCTION 3-1 CARBURETOR --REFERENCED OUTBOARD SERIAL NUMBERS 3-2 "C" IN APPENDIX "-30 LUBRICATION 3-2 Removal & Disassembling IJ-30 PRESEASON PREPARATION 3-3 Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-32 Units With Oil Injection FIBERGLASS HULLS Assembling IJ-32 3-6 BELOW WATERLINE SERVICE 3-7 SUBMERGED ENGINE SERVICE 3-7 MIKUNI RECTANGULAR BOWL PROPELLER SERVICE 3-9 SIDE-DRAFT CARBURETOR POWER TRIM/TILT 3-9 REFERENCED "D" INSIDE THE BOAT 3-10 IN APPENDIX IJ-37 LOWER UNIT 3-10 Removal & Disassembling WINTER STORAGE 3-11 Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-40 Units With Oil Injection 3-12 Assembling IJ-41 4 FUEL (CONTINUED) TYPE I IGNITION SYSTEM PHELON -MAGNETO WITH POINTS MIKUNI ROUND BOWL SIDE-DRAFT CARBURETOR Description Troubleshooting REFERENCED Servicing .5-10 "E" IN APPENDIX Disassembling .5-10 Removal & Disassembling Cleaning & Inspecting Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-46 IJ-48 Assembling .5-15 Assembling TYPE II IGNITION SYSTEM BOWL --DOUBLE FLOAT TILLOTSON "BC" RECTANGULAR THUNDERBOLT --FLYWHEEL CARBURETOR WITH INTEGRAL PHASE MAKER-WITH POINTS FUEL PUMP --REFERENCED Description .5-18 Troubleshooting .5-18 "F" IN APPENDIX IJ-51 Removal & Disassembling IJ-51 Servicing .5-23 Phase Maker W /0 Module Cleaning & Inspecting Assembling Disassembling .5-24 Assembling .5-26 Phase Maker With Module WALBRO "WMC" RECTANGULAR BOWL --DOUBLE FLOAT Disassembling 5-27 Assembling .5-29 CARBURETOR WITH INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP --REFERENCED TYPE III IGNITION SYSTEM "G" IN APPENDIX IJ-58 Removal & Disassembling THUNDERBOLT --FLYWHEEL Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-61 Assembling IJ-63 ROUND BOWL --SINGLE FLOAT CARBURETOR --STAMPED "F" WITH "KEIKHIN" INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP REFERENCED "H" IN APPENDIX 4-68 Removal & Disassembling IJ-68 Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-72 Assembling & Installation IJ-72 CD --POINTLESS Description .5-31 Troubleshooting .5-32 Servicing .5-34 Removal .5-34 Installation .5-35 TYPE IV IGNITION SYSTEM THUNDERBOLT --FLYWHEEL CD -COIL PER CYLINDER Description .5-36 Troubleshooting .5-37 Disassembling .5-41 FUEL PUMP IJ-76 Assembling Theory of Operation IJ-76 6 TIMING AND SYNCHRONIZING Pressure Check Removal INTRODUCTION & PREPARATION 6-1 Cleaning & Inspecting IJ-80 Assembling IJ-80 MODEL 39, 40, 60, 75, & 110 1965-1969 6-2 MODEL 200 1965-1966 6-3 OIL INJECTION IJ-81 Operation 4-82 MODEL 350 1965-1969 6-4 Troubleshooting IJ-82 MODEL 200 1967-1969 6-6 Preparation For Use IJ-84 MODEL 40 1970 6-7 MODEL 200 1970-1 977 TO SERIAL NO. 4709592 OF 1978 6-8 MODEL 75 & 110 1970 5 IGNITION MODEL 40, 75 & 110 1971-1974 MODEL 45 1975-1979 MODEL 4.5 1979-1985 INTRODUCTION MODEL 4.0 1986 --Mid '87 MODEL 90cc 1986-87 SPARK PLUG EVALUATION WIRING HARNESS 5-5 6 TIMING AND SYNCHRONIZING (CONn POWERHEAD "A" SPLIT BLOCK WITHOUT HEAD MODEL 400 1970-1971 6-1 1 INTERNAL REED BOX AROUND MODEL 402 1972-1 979 THE CRANKSHAFT MODEL 40 1979-1983 (See Tune-up Specs. Last Col.) MODEL 35 1984-89 6-13 Removal & Disassembling MODEL 40 1976-1981 MODEL 75 & 110 1975-1 979 MODEL 7.5 & 9.8 1979-1985 6-14 6-16 MODEL 200 1978-1981 SERIAL NO. 4709592 & UP MODEL 3.5 & 3.6 1980-1985 6-17 6-18 MODEL 18 & 25 1980-1983 MODEL 18XD & 25XD 1984-1985 MODEL 20 1979-80 & 1986 & ON 6-19 MODEL 25 1986 & ON 6-19 Model 2.2 --1984-89 and Model 3.0 --1990 & on 6-21 MODEL 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 15, & 210cc 1986 & ON 6-21 MODEL 4.0 Mid 1987 & ON MODEL 5.0 1988 & ON Assembling 8-11 Installation &-21 POWERHEAD "8 SPLIT BLOCK WIHOUT HEAD EXTERNAL REED BLOCK (See Tune-up Specs. Last Col.) Removal & Disassembling &-24 Assembling &-34 Installation 8-43 POWERHEAD "C0 SPLIT BLOCK WITH HEAD REEDS INSTALL ED UNDER THE CRANKSHAFT (See Tune-up Specs. Last Col.) 6-23 Removal & Disassembling Assembling Installation CLEANING & INSPECTING &-58 7 ELECTRICAL INTRODUCTION 7-1 ALL POWERHEADS 8-62 BATTERIES 7-1 Reed Block Service 8-62 Construction 7-2 Crankshaft & End Cap Bearings 8-64 Ratings 7-2 Connecting Rods &-65 Piston Service &-67 Jumper Cables Storage 7-6 Honing Procedures 8-69 THERMOMEL T STICKS 7-6 Cylinder Block Service 8-70 TACHOMETER 7-7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 9 LOWER UNIT GENERAL INFORMATION 7-7 CHARGING CIRCUIT SERVICE 7-8 DESCRIPTION 9-1 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION 9-1 CRANKING MOTOR TROUBLESHOOTING 9-2 CIRCUIT SERVICE PROPELLER REMOVAL 9-4 Troubleshooting CRANKING MOTOR SERVICE Disassembling Large Motor Disassembling Small Motor Cleaning & Inspecting 7-10 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-17 TESTING CRANKING MOTOR ASSEMBLING Large Motor Small Motor 7-18 7-20 7-23 8 POWERHEAD INTRODUCTION Chapter Organization &-1 &-3 LOWER UNIT TYPE "A" NO REVERSE GEAR (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) Description 9-6 Removal & Disassembling 9-6 Cleaning & Inspecting 9-12 Assembling 9-15 Installation 9-23 LOWER UNIT TYPE "B" REVERSE CAPABILITY (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) Description 9-25 Removal & Disassembling 9-25 Cleaning & Inspecting 9-33 Assembling 9-37 Installation 9-49 9 LOWER UNIT (CONTINUED) LOWER UNIT TYPE "C" REVERSE CAPABILITY UNIQUE SHIFT ARRANGEMENT (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) Description 9-51 Removal & Disassembling 9-51 Cleaning & Inspecting 9-53 Assembling 9-55 Installation 9-58 LOWER UNIT TYPE "D" NO REVERSE CAPABILITY WATER PUMP INSTALLED ON PROPELLER SHAFT (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) Disassembling 9-59 Cleaning & Inspecting 9-64 Assembling 9-66 10 TRIM/TILT INTRODUCTION 10-1 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION 10-1 MECHANICAL TILT PIN ALL UNITS 10-2 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION TRIM/TILT SYSTEM 10-3 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS 10-5 SERVICING TRIM TILT SYSTEM Hydraulic Bleeding 10-6 Troubleshooting 10-8 Testing Components 10-8 Cleaning & Inspecting 10-9 lnstalla ti on 10-9 Solenoid Testing 10-10 Hydraulic Trim Service 10-12 Hydraulic Pump Service 10-14 Electric Motor Service 10-17 11 REMOTE CONTROLS INTRODUCTION 11-1 COMMANDER CONTROL SHWT BOX Removal & Disassembling 11-2 Cleaning & Inspecting 11-9 Assembling & Installation 11-11 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-6 Assembling & Installation 12-8 TYPE "B (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-15 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-16 Assembling & Installation 12-17 TYPE "C (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-19 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-22 Assembling & Installation 12-22 TYPE "D" (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-25 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-28 Assembling & Installation 12-29 TYPE "E" (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-34 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-36 Assembling & Installation 12-36 TYPE "F" (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-37 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-40 Assembling & Installation 12-40 TYPE "G" (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-44 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-47 Assembling & Installation 12-49 TYPE "H" (See Introduction) Removal & Disassembling 12-52 Cleaning & Inspecting 12-56 Assembling & Installation 12-56 APPENDIX METRIC CONVERSION CHART A-1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS AND TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS A-2 CARBURETOR JET SIZE/ ELEVATION CHART A-13 PISTON & CYLINDER SPECS. A-14 REED STOP OPENING A-15 LOWER UNIT OIL CAPACITY AND GEAR CHART A-16 LOWER UNIT TYPE AND GEAR BACKLASH TABLE A-17 12 HAND REWIND STARTER STATOR AND COIL CHECKS A-18 TORQUE VALUES -COMPLETE UNIT INTRODUCTION 12-1 ALL MODELS A-24 TYPE "A" (See Introduction) WIRING DIAGRAMS Removal & Disassembling 12-3 Model 350 Elec. 1965-69 A-34 Model 402 Manual 1976-78; Model 40 Manual 1979-81 A-34 Model 60 Elec. 1965-68; Model 110 Elec. 1965-69; Model 200 Elec. 1965-71 A-35 Model 400 Elec. 1970-71 A-36 Model 200 Elec. 1972 A-37 Model 402 Elec. 1972-74 A-38 Model 200 Elec. 1973-75 A-39 Model 200 w/Alternator 1973-78 A-39 Model 200 Elec. 1976-78; Model 20 (20hp) 1979-80 A-40 Model 7 5 &: 110 Manual 197 5; Model 40 Manual 1976-80 A-41 Model 7 5 &: 110 Manual w/ Alternator 1976-78 Model 7.5 and Model 9.8 w/Alternator 1979-85 A-41 Model 7 5 &: 110 1 976-78; Model 7.5 &: 9.8 w/o Alternator 1979-85 A-42 Model 4-0 Manual 1970-74-; Model 4-.5 1979-85; Model 4.0 1986-Mid 1987 A-42 Model 4.0 Mid 1987 &: On; Model 5.0 1988 &: On and Model 90cc --1986-87 A-43 Model 402 Elec. 1 97 5; Model 40 1979-81 A-44 Model 402 Manual 1976-78; Model 40 Manual 1979-81 A-44 Model 18 Manual 1981-83; Model 18XD Manual 1984-85; Model 25 Manual 1980-83; Model 25XD Manual 1984-85; Model 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 15, 20, 25, 210cc Manual 1986 &: On A-45 Model 18 Elec. 1981-83; Model 18XD Elec. 1984-85; Model 25 Elec. 1980-83; Model 25XD Elec. 1984-85; Model 6.0, 8.0, 9. 9, 15, 20, 25, &: 21 Occ Elec. 1986 &: On All w/o Remote Control A-46 Model 18 Elec. 1981-83; Model 18XD Elec. 1984-85; Model 25 Elec. 1980-83; Model 25XD Elec. 1984-85; Model 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 15, 20, 25, &: 21 Occ Elec. 1986 &: On All w/Remote Control A-47 Model 35 Manual 1984-89 and Model 40 Manual 1982-83 A-48 Model 35 Elec. --1984-89; Model 40 Elec. --1982-83 A-49 Model 3.5 --1983-85; Model 3.6 --1980-82 Model 2.2 --1984-89 and Model 3.0 -1990 &: On A-50 Commander Remote Control A-51 2 TUNING 2-1 INTRODUCTION The efficiency, reliability, fuel economy and enjoyment available from engine performance are all directly dependent on having it tuned properly. The importance of performing service work in the sequence detailed in this chapter cannot be over emphasized. Before making any adjustments, check the specifications in the Appendix. NEVER rely on memory when making critical adjustments. Before beginning to tune any engine, check to be sure the engine has satisfactory compression. An engine with worn or bro- BURNED AREA ken piston rings, burned pistons, or scored cylinder walls, cannot be made to perform properly no matter how much time and expense is spent on the tune-up. Poor compression must be corrected or the tuneup will not give the desired results. A practical maintenance program that is followed throughout the year, is one of the best methods of ensuring the engine will give satisfactory performance at any time. With his "best friend", this man is off to a good day Damaged piston, probably caused by inaccurate fuel on the water with a properly tuned outboard to get him mixture, or improper timing. to where the "big ones" are hidin'. The extent of the engine tune-up is usually dependent on the time lapse since the last service. A complete tune-up of the entire engine would entail almost all of the work outlined in this manual. A logical sequence of steps will be presented in general terms. If additional information or detailed service work is required, the chapter containing the instructions will be referenced. Each year higher compression ratios are built into modern outboard engines and the electrical systems become more complex, especially with electronic (capacitor discharge) units. Therefore, the need for reliable, authoritative, and detailed instructions becomes more critical. The information in this chapter and the referenced chapters fulfill that requirement. 2-2 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE During a major tune-up, a definite sequence of service work should be followed to return the engine to the maximum performance desired. This type of work should not be confused with attempting to locate problem areas of "why" the engine is not performing satisfactorily. This work is classified as "trouble shooting". In many cases, The following list is a suggested sequence of tasks to perform during the tuneup service work. The tasks are merely listed here. Generally procedures are given in subsequent sections of this chapter. For more detailed instructions, see the referenced chapter. 1-Perform a compression check of each cylinder. See Chapter 8. 2-Inspect the spark plugs to determine their condition. Test for adequate spark at the plug. See Chapter 5. 3-Start the engine in a body of water and check the water flow through the engine. See Chapter 9. 4-Check the gear oil in the lower unit. ChapSee Chapter 9. 5-Check the carburetor and the need for an overhaul. ter 4. 6-Check the fuel pump for adequate performance and delivery. See Chapter 4. 7-Make a general inspection of the ignition system. See Chapter 5. 8-Test the starter motor and the solenoid, if so equipped. See Chapter 7. 9-Check the internal wiring. 10-Check the timing and synchronization. See Chapter 6. these two areas will overlap, because many times a minor or major tune-up will correct the malfunction and return the system to normal operation. Removing the spark plugs for inspection. Worn "OIL LEVEL" and "OIL" are cast into the lower unit plugs are one of the major contributing factors to poor housing near the two openings. Both screws are removengine performance. ed and lubricant added through the lower opening. 2-3 COMPRESSION CHECK A compression check is extremely important, because an engine with low or uneven compression between cylinders CANNOT be tuned to operate satisfactorily. Therefore, it is essential that any compression problem be corrected before proceeding with the tune-up procedure. See Chapter 8. If the powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such as discolored or scorched paint, inspect the cylinders visually thru the transfer ports for possible scoring. It is possible for a cylinder with satisfactory compression to be scored slightly. Also, check the water pump. The overheating condition may be caused by a faulty water pump. Checking Compression Remove the spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp the molded cap and pull it loose with a twisting motion to prevent damage to the connection. Remove the spark plugs and keep them in ORDER by cylinder for evaluation later. Ground the spark plug leads to the engine to render the ignition system inoperative while performing the compression check. Insert a compression gauge into the No. 1, top, spark plug opening. Crank the engine with the starter thru at least 4 complete strokes with the throttle at the wide-open position, to obtain the highest possible reading. Record the reading. Repeat the test and record the compression for each cylinder. A variation between cylin ders is far more important than the actual readings. A variation of more than 15 psi (103 kPa), between cylinders indicates the lower compression cylinder is defective. The problem may be worn, broken, or sticking piston rings, scored pistons or worn cylinders. Use of an engine cleaner will help to free stuck rings and to disolve accumulated carbon. Follow the directions on the can. 2-'1 SPARK PLUG INSPECTION Inspect each spark plug for badly worn electrodes, glazed, broken, blistered, or lead fouled insula tors. Replace all of the plugs, if one shows signs of excessive wear. Make an evaluation of the cylinder performance by comparing the spark condition with those shown in Chapter 5. Check each Damaged spark plugs. Notice the broken electrode on the left plug. The broken part MUSI' be found and removed before returning the powerhead to service. A compression check should be taken in each cylinToday, numerous type spark plugs are available for der before spending time and money on tune-up work. service. ALWAYS check with the local marine dealer Without adequate compression, efforts in other areas to to be sure the proper plug is purchased for the unit regain powerhead performance will be wasted. being serviced. spark plug to be sure they are all of the same manufacturer and have the same heat range rating. Inspect the threads in the spark plug opening of the block, and clean the threads before installing the plug. When purchasing new spark plugs, ALWAYS ask the marine dealer if there has been a spark plug change for the engine being serviced. Crank the engine through several revolutions to blow out any material which might have become dislodged during cleaning. Install the spark plugs and tighten them to a torque value of 17 ft-lbs (23 Nm). ALWAYS use a new gasket and wipe the seats in the block clean. The gasket must be fully compressed on clean seats to complete the heat transfer process and to provide a gas tight seal in the cylinder. If the torque value is too high, the heat will dissipate too rapidly. Conversely, if the torque value is too low, heat will not dissipate fast enough. 2-5 IGNITION SYSTEM Four, yes, four different ignition systems are used on the outboard engines covered in this manual. If the engine performance is less than expected, and the ignition is diagnosed as the problem area, refer to Chapter 6 for detailed service procedures. The various types are clearly identified and crossreferenced in the Appendix. Once the Type syste:n for the engine being serviced is known, the work can proceed smoothly. To properly time and synchronize the ignition system with the fuel system, see Chapter .5. Breaker Points SOME GOOD WORDS: High primary voltage in Thunderbolt ignition systems (referenced as Type I and Type II in the Appendix), will darken and roughen the breaker points within a short period. This is not cause for alarm. Normally points in this condition would not operate satisfactorily in the conventional magneto, but they will give good service in the Thunderbolt systems. Therefore, DO NOT replace the points in a Type I or Type II Thunderbolt system unless an obvious malfunction exists, or the contacts are loose or burned. Rough or discolored contact surfaces are NOT sufficient reason for replacement. The earn follower wlll usually have worn away by the time the points have become unsatisfactory for efficient service. Check the resistance across the contacts. If the test indicates zero resistance, the points are serviceable. A slight resistance across the points will affect idle operation. A high resistance may cause the ignition system to malfunction and loss of spark. Therefore, if any resistance across the points is indicated, the point set should be replaced. 2-6 TIMING AND SYNCHRONIZING Correct timing and synchronization are essential to efficient engine operation. An engine may be in apparent excellent mechanical condition, but perform poorly, un- A fouled spark plug. The condition of this plug indicates problems in the cylinder which should be Worn ignition points are a common problem area corrected. with units having a distributor with points. less the timing and synchronization have been adjusted preciseIy, according to the Specifications in the Appendix. To time and synchronize the engine, see Chapter 7. 2-7 BATTERY CHECK Inspect and service the battery, cables and connections. Check for signs of corrosion. Inspect the battery case for cracks or bulges, dirt, acid, and electrolyte leakage. Check the electrolyte level in each cell. Fill each cell to the proper level with distilled water or water passed thru a demineralizer. Clean the top of the battery. The top of a 12-volt battery should be kept especially clean of acid film and dirt, because of the high voltage between the battery terminals. For best results, first wash the battery with a diluted ammonia or baking soda solution to neutralize any acid present. Flush the solution off the battery with clean water. Keep the vent plugs tight to prevent the neutralizing solution or water from entering the cells. Check to be sure the battery is fastened securely in position. The hold-down device should be tight enough to prevent any movement of the battery in the holder, but not so tight as to place a strain on the battery case. If the battery posts or cable terminals are corroded, the cables should be cleaned separately with a baking soda solution and a wire brush. Apply a thin coating of Multipurpose Lubricant to the posts and cable clamps before making the connections. The lubricant will help to prevent corrosion. If the battery has remained under-charged, check for high resistance in the charging circuit. If the battery appears to be using too much water, the battery may be defective, or it may be too small for the job. Jumper Cables If booster batteries are used for starting an engine the jumper cables must be connected correctly and in the proper sequence to prevent damage to either battery, or diodes in the circuit. The fuel and ignition systems on any powerhead MUST be properly synchronized before maximum perA check of the electrolyte in the battery should be a formance can be obtained from the unit.. regular task on the maintenance schedule on any boat. DISCONNECT the battery ground cable before replacing an alternator or before connecting any type of meter to the alternator. If it is necessary to use a fast-charger on a dead battery, ALWAYS disconnect one of the boat cables from the battery first, to prevent burning out the diodes in the circuit. NEVER use a fast charger as a booster to start the engine because the diodes will be DAMAGED. Alternator Charging When the battery is partially discharged, the ammeter should change from discharge to charge between 800 to 1000 rpm for all models. If the battery is fully-charged, the rpm will be a ll ttle higher. 2-8 CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENT Fuel and Fuel Tanks Take time to check the fuel tank and all of the fuel lines, fittings, couplings, valves, flexible tank fill and vent. Turn on the fuel supply valve at the tank. If the gas was not drained at the end of the previous season, Common set of jumper cables for use with a second battery to crank and start the engine. EXTREME care should be exercised when using a second battery, as explained in the text. ALWAYS connect a cable from the positive terminals of the dead battery to the positive terminal of the good battery FIRST. NEXT, connect one end of the other cable to the negative terminals of the good battery and the other end of the ENGINE for a good ground. By making the ground connection on the engine, if there is an arc when you make the connection it will not be near the battery. An arc near the battery could cause an explosion, destroying the battery and causing serious personal injury. An ideal fuel tank and fuel line arrangement for an outboard unit. The tank should be kept clean and well secured in the boat. The quick-disconnect device affords easy removal for filling and safety. Quicksilver Gasoline Stabilizer and Conditioner may be used to keep the gasoline in the tank fresh. Such an additive will prevent the fuel from "souring" for up to twelve months. make a careful inspection for gum formation. When gasoline is allowed to stand for long periods of time, particularly in the presence of copper, gummy deposits form. This gum can clog the filters, lines, and passageway in the carburetor. If the condition of the fuel is in doubt, drain, clean, and fill the tank with fresh fuel. Check other than a Mercury fuel tank for the following: 1-Adequate air vent in the fuel cap. 2-Fuel line of sufficient size, should be 5/16" to 3/8" (8 mm to 9.5 mm). 3-Filter on the end of the pickup is too small or is clogged. 4-Fuel pickup tube is too small. High-speed Adjustment The high-speed jet is fixed at the factory and is NOT adjustable. However, larger or smaller jets may be installed for different elevations. These jet sizes are clearly identified in the Appendix. Idle Adjustment Integral Fuel Pump Type Carburetor Only The idle mixture and idle speed are set at the factory. Due to local conditions, it may be necessary to adjust the carburetor while the engine is running in a test tank or with the boat in a body of water. For Filters used with the side-bowl carburetor. The two on the left are obsolete and should be replaced with the new type on the right. maximum performance, the idle mixture and the idle rpm should be adjusted under actual operating conditions. Refer to the idle adjustment procedures on the carburetor being serviced for the correct idle setting. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. NEVER, AGAIN NEVER, operate the engine at high speed with a flush device attached. The engine, operating at high speed with such a device attached, would RUN-AWAY from lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. With the engine running in forward gear, slowly turn the idle mixture screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the affected cylin- The tank and fuel line can be easily removed for Side view of the powerhead showing the idle speed draining and flushing to remove stale fuel or deposits. adjustment and the throttle cam. ders start to load up or fire unevenly, due to an over-rich mixture. Slowly turn the idle mixture screw CLOCKWISE until the cylinders fire evenly and engine rpm increases. Continue to slowly turn the screw CLOCKWISE until too lean a mixture is obtained and the rpms fall off and the engine begins to misfire. Now, set the idle mixture screw one-quarter (1/4) turn out (counterclockwise) from the lean-out position. This adjustment will result in an approximate true setting. A too-lean setting is a major cause of hard starting a cold engine. It is better to have the adjustment on the rich side rather than on the lean side. Stating it another way, do not make the adjustment any leaner than necessary to obtain a smooth idle. When working on units equipped with the Mikuni side-draft carburetor (referenced "D" and "E" in the Appendix), the adjustment controls the amount of air instead of fuel. If the engine hesitates during acceleration after adjusting the idle mixture, the mixture is too lean. Enrich the mixture slightly, by turning the adjustment screw inward until the engine accelerates correctly. Loosen the locknut and adjust the idle stop screw on the stop bracket until the engine idles the recommended rpm in forward gear. Tighten the locknut to hold the adjustment. Repairs and Adjustments For detailed procedures to disassemble, clean, assemble, and adjust the carburetor, see the appropriate section in Chapter 4 for the carburetor type on the engine being serviced ' 2-9 FUEL PUMPS Many times, a defective fuel pump diaphragm is mistakingly diagnosed as a problem in the ignition system. The most common problem is a tiny pin-hole in the diaphragm. Such a small hole will permit gas to enter the crankcase and wet foul the spark plug at idle-speed. During high-speed operation, gas quantity is limited, the plug is not foul and will therefore fire in a satisfactory manner. If the fuel pump fails to perform properly, an insufficient fuel supply will be delivered to the carburetor. This lack of fuel will cause the engine to run lean, lose rpm or cause piston scoring. Tune-up Task Remove the fuel filter on the carburetor. Wash the parts in solvent and then dry them with compressed air. Install the clean element. A fuel pump pressure test should be made any time the engine fails to perform satisfactorily at high speed. NEVER use liquid Neoprene on fuel line fittings. Always use Permatex when making fuel line connections. Permatex is available at almost all marine and hardware stores. To service the fuel pump, see Chapter 4. Typical separate fuel pumps installed on the powerThe fuel pump on late model powerheads is an heads covered in this manual. integral part of the carburetor. 2-10 CRANKING MOTOR AND SOLENOID Cranking Motor Test Check to be sure the battery has a 70 ampere rating and is fully charged. Would you believe, many cranking motors are needlessly disassembled, when the battery is actually the culprit. Lubricate the pinion gear and screw shaft with No. 10 oil. Connect one lead of a voltmeter to the positive terminal of the cranking motor. Connect the other meter lead to a good ground on the engine. Check the battery voltage under load by turning the ignition switch to the START position and observing the voltmeter reading. If the reading is 9-1/2 volts or greater, and the cranking motor fails to operate, re pair or replace the cranking motor. See Chapter 7. Solenoid Test A magneto analyzer is required for this test. Turn the selector switch of the magneto analyzer to position No. 2 (distributor resistance). Clip the small red and black leads together. Turn the meter adjustment knob for Scale No. 2 un til the meter pointer aligns with the set position on the left side of the OK block on Scale No. 2. Separate the red and black leads. Connect the small red test lead to one large terminal of the solenoid. Connect the small black test lead to the other large terminal. NEVER connect the battery leads to the large terminals of the solenoid, or the meter will be damaged. Using battery jumper leads, connect the positive lead from the positive terminal of the battery to the the small "S" terminal of the solenoid. Connect the negative lead to the negative battery terminal and the "I" terminal of the solenoid. If the meter pointer hand moves into the OK block, the solenoid is serviceable. If the pointer fails to reach the OK block, the solenoid must be replaced. 2-11 INTERNAL WIRING HARNESS Check the internal wiring harness if problems have been encountered with any of the electrical components. Check for frayed or chafed insulation and/or loose connections between wires and terminal connections. FUEL PUMPS 2-9 -.. Simple functional diagram of a cranking circuit. Check the harness connector for signs of corrosion. Inspect the electrical "prongs" to be sure they are not bent or broken. If the harness shows any evidence of the foregoing problems, the problem must be corrected before proceeding with any harness testing. Verify that the "prongs" of the harness connector are clean and free of corrosion. Convince yourself that a good electrical connection is being made between the harness connector and the remote control harness. Short Test (See the Wiring Diagram in the Appendix) Disconnect the internal wiring harness from the electrical components. Use a magneto analyzer, set on Scale No. 3 and check for con tinuity between any of the wires in the harness. Use Scale No. 3 and check for continuity between any wire and a good ground. If continuity exists, the harness MUST be repaired or replaced. Resistance Test (See the Wiring Diagram in the Appendix.) Use a magneto analyzer, set on Scale No. 2. Clip the small red and black leads together. Turn the meter adjustment knob for Scale No. 2 until the meter pointer aligns with the set position on the left side of the "OK" block on Scale No. 2. Separate CONTACTDISC PLUNGE.. SPRINGS WINDING Exploded view of a cranking motor solenoid. Worn water pump impeller, Wl{it for service. the small red and black leads. Use the Wiring Diagram in the Appendix, and check each wire for resistance between the harness connection and the terminal ends. If resistance exists (meter reading outside the "OK" block) the harness MUST be repaired or replaced. 2-12 WATER PUMP CHECK FIRST A GOOD WORD: The water pump MUST be in very good condition for the engine to deliver satisfactory service. The pump performs an extremely important function by supplying enough water to prop erly cool the engine. Therefore, in most cases, it is advisable to replace the com plete water pump assembly at least once a year, or anytime the lower unit is disassem bled for service. Sometimes during adjustment proce dures, it is necessary to run the engine with a flush device attached to the lower unit. NEVER operate the engine over 1000 rpm with a flush device attached, because the engine may "RUNAWAY" due to the no-load condition on the propeller. A "run-a-way" engine could be severely damaged. As the name implies, the flush device is primarily used to flush the engine after use in salt water or contaminated fresh water. Regular use of the flush device will prevent salt or silt deposits from accumulating in the water passage-way. During and immedi ately after flushing, keep the motor in an upright position until all of the water has drained from the drive shaft housing. This will prevent water from entering the power head by way of the drive shaft housing and the exhaust ports, during the flush. It will also prevent residual water from being trapped in the drive shaft housing and other passageways. Most of the engines covered in this manual have water exhaust ports which deliver a tattle-tale stream of water, if the water pump is functioning properly during engine operation. Water pressure at the cylinder block should be checked if an overheating condition is detected or suspected. To test the water pump, the lower unit MUST be placed in a test tank or the boat moved into a body of water. The pump must Flush attachment and garden hose attached to a small horsepower Wlit to clean the engine with fresh water. This arrangment may also be used while operating the engine at IDLE speeds only while making Major parts included in a water pump kit, available adjustments. at the local marine dealer at modest cost. now work to supply a volume to the engine. A tattle-tale stream of water should be visible from the ports. Lack of adequate water supply from the water pump thru the engine will cause any number of powerhead failures, such as stuck rings, scored cylinder walls, burned pistons, etc. To service the water pump, see Chapter 9. 2-13 PROPELLER Check the propeller blades for nicks, cracks, or bent condition. If the propeller is damaged, the local marine dealer can make repairs or send it out to a shop specializing in such work. Remove the propeller and the thrust hub. Check the propeller shaft seal to be sure it is not leaking. Check the area just forward of the seal to be sure a fish line is not wrapped around the shaft. Operation At Recommended RPM Check with the local marine dealer, or a propeller shop for the recommended size and pitch for a particular size engine, boat, and in tended operation. The correct propeller should be installed on the engine to enable operation at the upper end of the factory recommended rpm. 2-14 LOWER UNIT NEVER remove the vent or filler plugs when the lower unit is hot. Expanded lubricant would be released through the plug hole. Check the lubricant level after the unit has been allowed to cool. Add only This rope became entangled behind the propeller aroWld the propeller shaft. The propeller should be removed periodically and this area checked for foreign material. Super-Duty Gear Lubricant. NEVER use regular automotive-type grease in the lower unit, because it expands and foams too much. Outboard lower units do not have provisions to accommodate such expansion. Damage was caused to this Wlit when the propeller struck an Wlderwater object. If the propeller should Filling the lower Wlit with new lubricant. Notice suffer this much abuse, the propeller shaft should be the Wlit is filled through the lower plug, but the upper carefully checked. plug MUST be removed to allow trapped air to escape. If the lubricant appears milky brown, or if large amounts of lubricant must be added to bring the lubricant up to the full mark, a thorough check should be made to determine the cause of the loss. Draining Lower Unit Remove the FILL plug from the lower end of the gear housing on the port side and the VENT plug just above the anti-cavitation plate. Filling Lower Unit Position the drive unit approximately vertical and without a list to either port or starboard. Insert the lubricant tube into the FILL/DRAIN hole at the bottom plug hole, and inject lubricant until the excess begins to come out the VENT hole. Install the VENT plug first then replace the FILL plug with NEW gaskets. Check to be sure the gaskets are properly positioned to prevent water from entering the housing. For detailed lower unit service procedures, see Chapter 9. For lower unit lubrication capacities, see the Appendix. 2-15 BOAT TESTING Operation of the outboard unit, mounted on a boat with some type of load, is the ultimate test. Failure of the power unit or the boat under actual movement through the water may be detected much more quickly than operating the power unit in a test tank. Hook and Rocker Before testing the boat, check the boat bottom carefully for marine growth or evidence of a "hook" or a "rocker" in the bottom. Either one of these conditions will greatly reduce performance. Performance Mount the motor on the boat. Install the remote control cables (if used), and check for proper adjustment. Make an effort to test the boat with what might be considered an average gross load. The boat should ride on an even keel, without a list to port or starboard. Adjust the motor tilt angle, if necessary, to permit the boat to ride slightly higher than the stern. If heavy supplies are stowed aft of the center, the bow will be light and the boat will "plane" more efficiently. For this test the boat must be operated in a body of water. If the motor is equipped with an adjustable trim tab, the tab should be adjusted to permit boat steerage in either direction with equal ease. Check the engine rpm at full throttle. The rpm should be within the Specifications in the Appendix. If the rpm is not within specified range, a propeller change may be in order. A higher pitch propeller will decrease rpm, and a lower pitch propeller will increase rpm. For maximum low speed engine performance, the idle mixture and the idle rpm should be readjusted under actual operating conditions. HOOK ROCKER Boat performance will be drastically impaired, if the bottom is damaged by a dent (hook) or bulge (rocker). 3 MAl NTENANCE 3-1 INTRODUCTION GOOD WORDS: The authors estimate 75% of engine repair work can be directly or indirectly attributed to lack of proper care for the engine. This is especially true of care during the off-season period. There is no way on this green earth for a mechanical engine, particularly an outboard motor, to be left sitting idle for an extended period of time, say for six months, and then be ready for instant satisfactory service. Imagine, if you will, leaving your automobile for six months, and then expecting to turn the key, have it roar to 11fe, and be able to drive off in the same manner as a daily occurrence. --FORWARD (FRONT) Common terminology used throughout the world for reference designation on boats of all sizes. These are the terms used in this book. It is critical for an outboard engine to be run at least once a month, preferably, in the water, but if this is not possible, then a flush attachment MUST be connected to the lower unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. NEVER, AGAIN NEVER, operate the engine at high speed with a flush device attached. The engine, operating at high speed with such a device attached, would RUNAWAY from lack of load on the propeller, causing extensive damage. At the same time, the shift mechanism should be opera ted through the full range several times and the steering operated from hard-over to hard-over. Only through a regular maintenance program can the owner expect to receive long life and satisfactory performance at minimum cost. The material presented in this chapter is divided into five general areas. 1-General information every boat owner should know. 2-Maintenance tasks that should be performed periodically to keep the boat operating at minimum cost. 3-Care necessary to maintain the appearance of the boat and to give the owner that "Pride of Ownership" look. 4-Winter storage practices to minimize damage during the off-season when the boat is not in use. In nautical terms, the front of the boat is the bow; the rear is the stern; the right side, when facing forward, is the starboard side; and the left side is the port side. All directional references in this manual use this terminology. Therefore, the direction from which an item is viewed is of no consequence, because starboard and port NEVER change no matter where the individual is located. 3-2 OUTBOARD SERIAL NUMBERS The engine serial numbers are the manufacturer's key to engine changes. These numbers identify the year of manufacture, the qualified horsepower rating, and the parts book identification. If any correspondence or parts are required, the engine serial number MUST be used or proper identification is not possible. The accompanying illustration will be very helpful in locating the engine identification tag for the various models. ONE MORE WORD: The serial number establishes the year in which the engine was produced and not necessarily the year of first installation. Two serial number locations are used on each of the outboard units covered in this manual. The most accessible location is on the serial/instruction plate on the swivel bracket. The other location is on the engine cylinder block. 3-3 LUBRICATION -COMPLETE UNIT As with every type mechanical invention with moving parts, lubrication plays a prominent role in operation, enjoyment, and longevity of the unit. If an outboard unit is operated in salt water the frequency of applying lubricant to fittings is usually cut in half for the same fitting if the unit is used in fresh water. The few minutes involved in moving around the outboard applying lubricant and at the same time making a visual inspection of its general condition will pay in rich rewards with years of continued service. It is not uncommon to see outboard units well over 20-years of age moving a boat through the water as if the unit had recently been purchased from the current line of models. An inquiry with the proud owner will undoubtedly reveal his main credit for its performance to be regular periodic maintenance. The following chart can be used as a guide to periodic maintenance while the outboard is being used during the season. The pictures numbers reference in the chart are keyed to the illustrations in this section. In addition to the normal lubrication listed in the lubrication chart, the prudent owner will inspect and make checks on a regular basis as listed in the accompanying chart. Serial numbers on the identification plate of a late The electrical system should be checked at the model outboard unit covered in this manual. This is a beginning of each season. Check all connections to be standard location for the plate although some units may sure they are clean, secure, and free of corrosion. have it elswhere. Inspect the wiring for any type of damage. LUBRICATION 3-3 LUBRICATION POINT /FREQUENCY CHART DESCRIPTION LUBRICANT FREQUENCY FRESH WATER FREQUENCY SALT WATER Ride-Guide steering cable Throttle linkage and throttle cable Upper shift shaft Lube fitting in power trim cylinder Multipurpose Lubricant Every 60 days Every 30 days Reverse lock lever Shift linkage and shift cable Steering link rod SAE 30W pivot points engine oil Anti -Corrosion Clamp screws Lubricant Once in season Every 60 daysPropeller shaft Perfect Seal Gear Housing Super-Duty After 10 days After 10 days Lubricant then ea. 30 days then ea. 30 days Tilt lock lever Multipurpose Every 60 days Every 30 days Lubricant Cranking motor SAE lOW pinion gear Engine oil 3-lf PRE-SEASON PREPARATION Satisfactory performance and maximum enjoyment can be realized if a little time is spent in preparing the outboard unit for service at the beginning of the season. Assuming the unit has been properly stored, as outlined in Section 3-12, a minimum amount of work is required to prepare the unit for use. The following steps outline an adequate and logical sequence of tasks to be performed before using the outboard the first time in a new season. Once ea. season Once ea. season 1-Lubricate the outboard according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Refer to the lubrication chart on this page. Remove, clean, inspect, adjust, and install the spark plugs with new gaskets (if they require gaskets). Make a thorough check of the ignition system. This check should include: the points, coil, condenser, stator assembly, condition of the wiring, and the battery electrolyte level and charge. 2-If a built-in fuel tank is installed, take time to check the gasoline tank and all of the fuel lines, fittings, couplings, valves, flexible tank fill and vent. Turn on the fuel INSPECTION AND CHECKS EveryItem or Area to be Checked Every Once Twice In In6030 Days Season SeasonDays Lubricant level in lower unit X Lubricant level in Power Trim/Tilt X Clean battery terminals X Spark plugs & leads X Clean fuel filter/s X Fuel filter on oil injection unit X Fuel filter at fuel tank X All fuel lines and connections X Complete outboard --damaged parts X Breaker points X Propeller for damage X ' XClean outboard --touch-up paint SPECIAL WORDS Time for inspection, checks, and maintenance can almost be cut in half, if the unit is operated in salt water. OIL LEVEL A late model clear plastic fuel filter may be removThe oil level (vent) plug should be removed periodi-.. ed ("popped off") with a screwdriver and installed cally and a piece of wire, or similar material, inserted without the use of any tools. With such easy access to to determine the amount of lubricant in the lower unit. the filter, the chances of "contaminated" fuel reaching The oil level should be kept close to the hole and the the carburetor are drastically reduced. lubricant show no sign of water (milky color). supply valve at the tank. If the fuel was not drained at the end of the previous season, make a careful inspection for gum formation. If a six-gallon fuel tank is used, take the same action. When gasoline is allowed to stand for long periods of time, particularly in the presence of copper, gummy deposits form. This gum can clog the filters, lines, and passageways in the carburetor. See Chapter 4, Fuel System Service. 3-Check the oil level in the lower unit by first removing the vent screw on the port side just above the anti-cavitation plate. Insert a short piece of wire into the hole and check the level. Fill the lower unit according to procedures outlined in Section 3-11. UNITS WITH OIL INJECTION 4-First, remove the front cover of the unit by simultaneously pushing in on the cutaway tabs located on both sides of the cover, and at the same time pulling the cover away from the unit. Check to be sure the fuel drain plug is tight. Replace the front cover by aligning the cover openings on both sides of the unit, and then pushing in on the cover until it snaps into place. Next, fill the oil tank with 2-cycle outboard oil with a BIA rating of TC-W. Tighten the fill cap securely. Remove any plugs in the fuel lines, and then connect the hoses to the fuel tank and the power head. Remember, the squeeze bulb MUST be in the hose between the oil injection unit and the fuel pump on the power head. Connect the low oil warning wire harness to the battery. Connect the RED lead to the positive battery terminal and the BLACK lead to the negative battery terminal. Check to be sure the low oil warning system is functioning correctly. First, verify the tank is full of oil, and then the fill cap is tightened securely. Now, turn the oil injection unit upside down. This position will allow the float to activate the horn. If the horn sounds, immediately turn the unit rightside up and position it in the mounting bracket. Secure it in place with the strap and Velcro material. If the horn does not sound, check the 0.5 amp fuse in the fuse holder of the positive battery lead. Check both the battery connections and the charge condition of the battery. F:xterior view of an Autoblend oil injection unit showing routing of the hoses, electrical lead, and location of the warning horn and the fuel filter. Autohlend oil injection unit with the plastic cover removed, ready for a pre-season check or maintenance. GOOD WORDS The manufacturer recommends the fuel filter be replaced at the start of each season or at least once a year. The manufacturer also recommends oil be added to the fuel tank at the ratio of 50:1 for the first 6-gallons of fuel used after the unit is brought out of storage. The oil in the fuel tank plus the 50: 1 oil mixture in the oil injection unit will deliver a mixture of 25: 1 to the powerhead. This ratio will ENSURE adequate lubrication of moving parts which have been drained of oil during the storage period. ALL UNITS 5-Close all water drains. Check and replace any defective water hoses. Check to be sure the connections do not leak. Replace any spring-type hose clamps, if they have lost their tension, or if they have distorted the water hose, with band-type clamps. 6-The engine can be run with the lower unit in water to flush it. If this is not practical, a flush attachment may be used. This unit is attached to the water pick-up in the lower unit. Attach a garden hose, turn on the water, allow the water to flow into the engine for awhile, and then run the engine. Flushing with a flush attachment connected to the lower unit. The powerhead should NEVER be run above idle speed with this type device attached. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Check the exhaust outlet for water dis charge. Check for leaks. Check operation of the thermostat. 7-Check the electrolyte level in the battery and the voltage for a full charge. Clean and inspect the battery terminals and cable connections. TAKE TIME to check the polarity, if a new battery is being installed. Cover the cable connections with grease or special protective compound as a prevention to corrosion formation. Check all electrical wiring and grounding circuits. 8-Check all electrical parts on the engine and lower portions of the hull to be sure they are not of a type that could cause ignition of an explosive atmosphere. Rubber caps help keep spark insulators clean and reduce the possibility of arcing. Starters, generators, distributors, alternators, electric fuel pumps, voltage regulators, and high-tension wiring harnesses should be of a marine type that cannot cause an explosive mixture to ignite. ONE FINAL WORD Before putting the boat in the water, TAKE TIME to VERIFY the drain plugs are installed. Countless number of boating excursions have had a very sad beginning because the boat was eased into the water only to have the boat begin to fill with the "wet stuff" from the river, lake, reservoir, etc. 3-5 FIBERGLASS HULLS Fiberglass-reinforced plastic hulls are tough, durable, and highly resistant to impact. However, like any other rna terial they can be damaged. One of the advantages of this type of construction is the relative ease with which it may be repaired. Because of its break characteristics, and the simple .. techniques used in restoration, these hulls ha'le gained popularity throughout the world. From the :nest congested urban marina, to isolated lakes in wilderness areas, to the severe cold of far off northern seas, and in sunny tropic remote rivers of primative islands or continents, fiberglass boats can be found performing their daily task with a minimum of maintenance. A fiberglass hull has almost no internal stresses. Therefore, when the hull is broken or stove-in, it retains its true form. It will not dent to take an out-of-shape set. When the hull sustains a severe blow, the impact will be either absorbed by deflection of the laminated panel or the blow will result in a definite, localized break. In addition to hull damage, bulkheads, stringers, and other stif fening structures attached to the hull may also be affected and therefore, should be checked. Repairs are usually confined to the general area of the rupture. 3-6 BELOW WATERLINE SERVICE A foul bottom can seriously affect boat performance. This is one reason why racers, large and small, both powerboat and sail, are constantly giving attention to the condition of the hull below the waterllne. In areas where marine growth is prevalent, a coating of vinyl, anti-fouling bottom paint should be applied. If growth has developed on the bottom, it can be removed with a solution of muriatic acid applied with a brush or swab and then rinsed with clear water. ALWAYS use rubber gloves when working with muriatic acid and TAKE EXTRA CARE to keep it away from your face and hands. The FUMES ARE TOXIC. Therefore, work in a well-ventilated area, or if outside, keep your face on the windward side of the work. Barnacles have a nasty habit of making their home on the botto-n of boats which have not been treated with anti-fouling paint. Actually they will not harm the fiberglass hull, but can develop into a major nuisance. If barnacles or other crustaceans have attached themselves to the hull, extra work will be required to bring the bottom back to a satisfactory condition. First, if practical, put the boat into a body of fresh water and allow it to remain for a few days. A large percentage of the growth can be removed in this manner. If this remedy is not possible, wash the bottom thoroughly with a high- pressure fresh water source and use a scraper. Small particles of hard shell may still hold fast. These can be removed with sandpaper. 3-7 SUBMERGED ENGINE SERVICE A submerged engine is always the result of an unforeseen accident. Once the engine is recovered, special care and service procedures MUST be closely followed in order to return the unit to satisfactory performance. NEVER, again we say NEVER allow an engine that has been submerged to stand more than a couple hours before following the procedures outlined in this section and making every effort to get it running. Such delay will result in serious internal damage. If all efforts fail and the engine cannot be started after the following procedures have been performed, the engine should be disassembled, cleaned, assembled, using new gaskets, seals, and 0-rlngs, and then started as soon as possible. Submerged engine treatment is divided into three unique problem areas: Submersion in salt water; submerged engine while running; and a submerged engine in fresh water, including special instructions. The most critical of these three circumstances is the engine submerged in salt water, with sub:nersion while running a close second. Salt Water Submersion NEVER attempt to start the engine after it has been recovered. This action will only result in additional parts being damag- Damaged rod and rod cap unfit for further service. The needle bearing water marks shown were caused from water entering the powerhead. ed and the cost of restoring the engine increased considerably. If the engine was submerged in salt water the complete unit MUST be disassembled, cleaned, and assembled with new gaskets, 0-rings, and seals. The corrosive effect of salt water can only be eliminated by the complete job being properly performed. Submerged While Running Special Instructions If the engine was running when it was submerged, the chances of internal engine damage is greatly increased. After the engine has been recovered, remove the spark plugs to prevent compression in the cylinders. \t\ake an attempt to rotate the crankshaft with the rewind starter or the flywheel. On larger horsepower engines without a rewind starter, use a socket wrench on the flywheel nut to rotate the crankshaft. If the attempt fails, the chances of serious internal damage, such as: bent connecting rod, bent crankshaft, or damaged cylinder, is greatly increased. If the crankshaft cannot be rota ted, the power head must be completely disassembled. CRITICAL WORDS Never attempt to start powerhead that has been submerged. If there is water in the cylinder, the piston will not be able to compress the liquid. The result will most likely be a bent connecting rod. Submerged Engine -Fresh Water SPECIAL WORD: As an aid to performing the restoration work, the following steps are numbered and should be followed in sequence. However, illustrations are not included with the procedural steps because the work involved is general in nature. Damaged rod and piston caused when the powerhead was submerged while running. 1-Recover the engine as quickly as possible. 2-Remove the cowl and the spark plugs. 3-Remove the carburetor float bowl cover, or the bowl. 4-Flush the outside of the engine with fresh water to remove silt, mud, sand, weeds, and other debris. DO NOT attempt to start the engine if sand has entered the powerhead. Such action will only result in serious damage to powerhead components. Sand in the powerhead means the unit must be disassembled. CRITICAL WORDS Never attempt to start powerhead that has been submerged. If there is water in the cylinder, the piston will not be able to compress the liquid. The result will most likely be a bent connecting rod. 5-Remove as much water as possible from the powerhead. Most of the water can be eliminated by first holding the engine in a horizontal position with the spark plug holes DOWN, and then cranking the powerhead with the rewind starter or with a socket wrench on the flywheel nut. Rotate the crankshaft through at least 10 complete revolutions. If you are satisfied there is no water in the cylinders, proceed with Step 6 to remove moisture. 6-Alcohol will absorb moisture. Therefore, pour alcohol into the carburetor throat and again crank the powerhead. 7-Rotate the outboard in the horizontal position until the spark plug openings are facing UPWARD. Pour alcohol into the spark plug openings and again rotate the crankshaft. 8-Rotate the outboard in the horizontal position until the spark plug openings are again facing DOWN. Pour engine oil into the carburetor throat and, at the same time, rotate the crankshaft to distribute oil throughout the crankcase. 9-Rotate the outboard in the horizontal position until the spark plug holes are again facing UPWARD. Pour approximately one teaspoon of engine oil into each spark plug opening. Rotate the crankshaft to distribute the oil in the cylinders. 10-Install and connect the spark plugs. 11-Install the carburetor float bowl cov-er, or the bowl. 12-Obtain FRESH fuel and attempt to start the engine. If the powerhead will start, allow it to run for approximately an hour to eliminate any unwanted moisture remaining in the powerhead. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 13-If the powerhead fails to start, determine the cause, electrical or fuel, correct the problem, and again attempt to get it running. NEVER allow a powerhead to remain unstarted for more than a couple hours without following the procedures in this section and attempting to start it. If attempts to start the powerhead fail, the unit should be disassembled, cleaned, assembled, using new gaskets, seals, and 0-rings, just as SOON as possible. 3-8 PROPELLER SERVICE The propeller should be checked regularly to be sure all the blades are in good condition. If any of the blades become bent or nicked, this condition will set up vibrations in the motor. Remove and inspect the propeller. Use a file to trim nicks and burrs. TAKE CARE not to remove any more material than is absolutely necessary. For a complete checl<, take the propeller to your marine dealer where the proper equip ment and knowledgeable mechanics are available to perform a proper job at modest cost. Inspect the propeller shaft to be sure it is still true and not bent. If the shaft is not perfectly true, it should be replaced. Install the thrust hub. Coat the propeller shaft splines with Perfect Seal No. 4, and the rest of the shaft with a good grade of anti-corrosion lubricant. Install the propeller, and then the splined washer, tab washer, and propeller nut. Position a block of wood between the propeller and the anti-cavita tlon tab to keep the propeller from turning. Tighten the propeller nut to a torque value of 35-45 ft. lbs (47.6-61.2 Nm). Adjust the nut to fit the tab lock space. Bend three of the tab washer tabs into the spline washer using a punch and hammer. The tabs will prevent the nut from backing out. 3-9 POWER TRIM/TILT Check the power trim/ tilt sys tern for proper operation. Check the oil level in the pump reservoir and be sure the vent screw is left OPEN. Check to be sure all connections are secure. Check and adjust the shift and throttle cables. Lubricate all external lubrication points with Multipurpose Lubricant. Check and clean the water intake opening. Excellent view of rope and fish line entangled Applying Perfect Seal compound to the propeller behind the propeller. Entangled fish line can actually shaft. This compound should be used each and every cut through the seals allowing water to enter and oil to time the propeller is removed to prevent the propeller escape from the lower unit. from "freezing" onto the propeller shaft. Overall exterior view of an early model Power Trim/Tilt tmit. Use ONLY the manufacturer's recommended oil. Trim Tabs Check the trim tab and the anodic heads. Replace them, if necessary. The trim tab must make a good ground inside the lower unit. Therefore, the trim tab and the cavity MUST NOT be painted. In addition to trim Clean the exterior surface of the unit thoroughly. Inspect the finish for damage or corrosion. Clean any damaged or corroded areas, and then apply primer and matching paint. Check the entire unit for loose, damaged, or missing parts. 3-10 INSIDE THE BOAT The following points may be lubricated with Quicksilver Multipurpose Lubricant: a-Ride-Guide steering cable end next to the hand nut. DO NOT over-lubricate the cable. b-Steering arm pivot socket. c-Exposed shaft of the cable passing through the cable guide tube. d-Steering link rod to the steering cable. 3-ll LOWER UNIT Draining Lower Unit Remove the FILL plug frorn the lower end of the gear housing on the port side and the VENT plug just above the anti-cavitation plate. NEVER remove the vent or filler plugs when the drive unit is hot. Expanded lubricant would be released through the plug hole. Check the lubricant level after the unit has been allowed to cool. Add only Super-Duty Gear Lubricant. NEVER use regular automotive-type grease in the lower ming the boat, the trim tab acts as a zinc electrode to prevent electrolysis from acting on more expensive parts. It is normal for the tab to show signs of erosion. The tabs are inexpensive and should be replaced f requen tl y. .Jni t because it expands and foams too much. Lower units do not have provisions to accommodate such expansion. A new trim tab (left), and a badly deteriorated tab Replacing the anode on a Model 2.2 lower tmit is a (right). Actually, such extensive erosion of the tab simple task. The anode is "sacrificed" to corrosion and suggests a possible electrolysis problem. thus saves more expensive parts. If the lubricant appears milky brown, or if large amounts of lubricant must be added to bring the lubricant up to the full mark, a thorough check should be made to determine the cause of the loss. Filling Lower Unit Position the drive unit approximately vertical and without a list to either port or starboard. Insert the lubricant tube into the FILL/DRAIN hole at the bottom plug hole, and inject lubricant until the excess begins to come out the VENT hole. Install the VENT and FILL plugs with NEW gaskets. Check to be sure the gaskets are properly positioned to prevent water from entering the housing. See the Appendix for lower unit capacities. 3-12 WINTER STORAGE Taking extra time to store the boat properly at the end of each season, will increase the chances of satisfactory service at the next season. REMEMBER, idleness is the greatest enemy of an outboard motor. The unit should be run on a monthly basis. The boat steering and shifting mechanism should also be worked through complete cycles several times each month. The owner who spends a srnall amount of time involved in such maintenance will be rewarded by satisfactory performance, and greatly reduced maintenance expense for parts and labor. Proper storage involves adequate protec tion of the unit from physical damage, rust, corrosion, and dirt. The following steps provide an adequate maintenance program for storing the unit at the end of a season. 1-Remove the cowl. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating tempera ture. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Disconnect the fuel line from the engine and allow the unit to run at LOW rpm and, at the same time, inject about 4 ounces of Quicksilver Storage Seal through each carburetor throat. Allow the engine to run until it shuts down from lack of fuel, indicating the caburetor/s are dry of fuel. 2-Drain the fuel tank and the fuel lines. Pour approximately one quart (0.96 liters) of benzol (benzine) into the fuel tank, and then rinse the tank and pickup filter wi th the benzol. Drain the tank. Store the fuel tank in a cool dry area with the vent OPEN to allow air to circulate through the tank. DO NOT store the fuel tank on bare concrete. Place the tank to allow air to circulate around it. 3-Clean the carburetor fuel filter/s with benzol, see Chapter 4, Carburetor Repair Section. 4-Drain, and then fill the lower unit with Super-Duty Lower Unit Gear Lubricant, as outlined in Section 3-1 1. 5-Lubricate the throttle and shift linkage. Lubricate the swivel pin and the tilt Filling the lower unit with the manufacturer's apThe fuel tank should be drained and stored in a cool proved gear lubricant. The vent screw should always be dry area with the vent open to allow air to circulate removed prior to filling to allow trapped air to escape. through the tank during the off-season. tube with Multipurpose Lubricant, or equivalent. Clean the outboard unit thoroughly. Coat the powerhead with Corrosion and Rust Preventative spray. Install the cowl, and then apply a thin film of fresh engine oil to all painted surfaces. Remove the propeller. Apply Perfect Seal or a waterproof sealer to the propeller shaft splines, and then install the propeller back in position. STORAGE FOR UNITS WITH OIL INJECTION Proper storage procedures are CRITICAL to ensure efficient operation when the unit is again placed in service. First, disconnect the battery leads from the battery. Next, disconnect and plug the fuel lines at the fuel tank and powerhead. Now, drain all fuel from the oil injection unit. Remove the front cover of the unit by simultaneously pushing in on the cutaway tabs located on both sides of the cover, and at the same time pulling the cover away from the unit. Remove the drain plug and allow at least 5-minutes for all fuel to drain from the pump. Install the drain plug and tighten it securely. CRITICAL WORDS All fuel MUST be drained fro:-n the oil injection fuel "pump". The percentage of alcohol in modern fuels seems to increase each year. This alcohol in the fuel is a definite enemy of the diaphragm in the "pump". Therefore, if any fuel is left in the Manufacturer recommended lubricants and additives will not only keep the unit within the limits of the warranty, but will be a major contributing factor to dependable performance and reduced maintenance cost. "pump" during storage the diaphragm will most likely be damaged. Install the front cover by aligning the cover openings on both sides of the unit, and then pushing in on the cover until it snaps into place. Oil may remain in the oil injection tank during storage without any harmful effects. FINAL WORDS: Be sure all drain holes in the gear housing are open and free of obstruction. Check to be sure the FLUSH plug has been removed to allow all water to drain. Trapped water could freeze, expand, and cause expensive castings to crack. ALWAYS store the outboard unit off the boat with the lower unit below the power head to prevent any water from being trap ped inside. BATTERY STORAGE Remove the batteries from the boat and keep them charged during the storage peri od. Clean the batteries thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion, and then charge them to full specific gravity reading. After they are fully charged, store them in a clean cool dry place where they will not be damaged or knocked over. NEVER store the battery with anything on top of it or cover the battery in such a manner as to prevent air from circulating around the fillercaps. All batteries, both new and old, will discharge during periods of storage, :nore so if they are hot than if they remain cool. Therefore, the electrolyte level and the specific gravity should be checked at regular intervals. A drop in the specific gravity reading is cause to charge them back to a full reading. In cold climates, EXERCISE CARE in selecting the battery storage area. A fullycharged battery will freeze at about 60 degrees below zero. A discharged battery, almost dead, will have ice forming at about 19 degrees above zero. ALWAYS remove the drain plug and position the boat with the bow higher than the stern. This will allow any rain water and melted snow to drain from the boat and prevent "trailer sinking". This term is used to describe a boat that has filled with rain water and ruined the interior, because the plug was not removed or the bow was not high enough to allow the water to drain properly. 4 FUEL 4-1 INTRODUCTION The carburetion and ignition principles of two-cycle engine operation MUST be understood in order to perform a proper tuneup on an outboard motor. If you have any doubts concerning your understanding of two-cycle engine operation, it would be best to study the Introduction section in the first portion of Chapter 8, before tackling any work on the fuel system. The fuel system includes the fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filters, carburetor, connecting lines, with a squeeze bulb, and the associated parts to connect it all together. Regular maintenance of the fuel system to obtain maximum performance, is limited to changing the fuel filter at regular intervals and using fresh fuel. (HOWLFULL) Fuel flow principle of a modern carburetor. If a sudden increase in gas consumption is noticed, or if the engine does not perform properly, a carburetor overhaul, including boll-out, or replacement of the fuel pump may be required. 4-2 GENERAL CARBURETION INFORMATION The carburetor is merely a metering device for mixing fuel and air in the proper proportions for efficient engine operation. At idle speed, an outboard engine requires a mixture of about 8 parts air to 1 part fuel. At high speed or under heavy duty service, the mixture may change to as much as 12 parts air to 1 part fuel. Float Systems A small chamber in the carburetor serves as a fuel reservoir. A float valve admits fuel into the reservoir to replace the fuel consumed by the engine. If the carburetor has more than one reservoir, the fuel IDLE AND THROTTLE SLOW SPEED VALVE OR FIC ES AIR INTAKE TOCRANKCAS FLOAT VENTURI RING HIGH SPEED NEEDLE HIGH SPEED ORFICE Fuel flow through the venturi, showing principle and related parts controlling intake and outflow. SEALING WASHER FUEL LINE " STA .... u:....NEA,._ D-RING FITTING ...,-.,tJ( SPRING STRAINER I COVER STEM FUEL LINE Exploded illustration of a late model fuel filter with a clear sight bowl. Principle parts are identified. level in each reservoir (chamber) is controlled by identical float systems. Fuel level in each chamber is extremely critical and must be maintained accurately. Accuracy is obtained through proper adjustment of the float/s. This adjustment will provide a balanced metering of fuel to each cylinder at all speeds. Following the fuel through its course, from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber of the cylinder, will provide an appreci- Late model clear fuel filter held in place with a snap-on fitting on the rewind hand starter. ation of exactly what is taking place. In order to start the engine, the fuel must be moved from the tank to the carburetor by a squeeze bulb installed in the fuel line. This action is necessary because the fuel pump does not have sufficient pressure to draw fuel from the tank during cranking before the engine starts. After the engine starts, the fuel passes through the pump to the carburetor. All systems have some type of filter installed somewhere in the line between the tank and the carburetor. Many units have a filter as an integral part of the carburetor. At the carburetor, the fuel passes through the inlet passage to the needle and seat, and then into the float chamber (reservoir). A float in the chamber rides up and down on the surface of the fuel. After fuel enters the chamber and the level rises to a predetermined point, a tang on the float closes the inlet needle and the flow entering the chamber is cutoff. When fuel leaves the chamber as the engine operates, the fuel level drops and the float tang allows the inlet needle to move off its seat and fuel once again enters the chamber. In this manner a constant reservoir of fuel is maintained in the chamber to satisfy the demands of the engine at all speeds. A fuel chamber vent hole is located near the top of the carburetor body to perrni t atmospheric pressure to act against the fuel in each chamber. This pressure assures an adequate fuel supply to the various operating systems of the engine. INDUCED LOW ATMOSPHERIC AIR PRESSURE Air flow principle of a modern carburetor. BOWL Choke valve location in the carburetor venturi. The Air/Fuel Mixture A suction effect is created each time the piston moves upward in the cylinder. This suction draws air through the throat of the carburetor. A restriction in the throat, called a venturi, controls air velocity and has the effect of reducing air pressure at this point. The difference in air pressures at the throat and in the fuel chamber, causes the fuel to be pushed out of metering jets extending down into the fuel chamber. When the fuel leaves the jets, it mixes with the air passing through the venturi. This fuel/air mixture should then be in the proper proportion for burning in the cylinder/s for maximum engine performance. In order to obtain the proper air/fuel mixture for all engine speeds, high and low speed jets are provided. These jets have adjustable needle valves which are used to compensate for changing atmospheric conditions. In almost all cases, the high-speed circuit has fixed high-speed jets that are not adjustable. Engine operation at sea level compared with performance at high altitudes is quite noticeable. A jet/altitude chart is provided in the Appendix for operation from sea level to above 7500 ft. A throttle valve controls the flow of air/fuel mixture drawn into the combustion PIN .. .. ..GASKET Exploded view of a double float system carburetor. GASKET BAFFLE I--BOLT ..JET Exploded view of a single float system. chambers. A cold powerhead requires a richer fuel mixture to start and during the brief period it is warming to normal operating temperature. A choke valve is placed ahead of the metering jets and venturi. As this valve begins to close, the volume of air intake is reduced, thus enriching the mixture entering the cylinders. When this choke valve is closed, a VERY rich fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinders. The throat of the carburetor is usually referred to as the "barrel". Carburetors with single, double, or four barrels have individual metering jets, needle valves, throttle and choke plates, for each barrel. Single and two barrel carburetors are fed by a single float and chamber. choke valve on most carburetors covered in this manual is located in front of the venturi. 4-3 FUEL SYSTEM The fuel system includes the fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filters, carburetor, connecting lines with a squeeze bulb, and the associated parts to connect it all together. Regular maintenance of the fuel system to obtain maximum performance, is limited to changing the fuel filter at regular intervals and using fresh fuel. Even with the high price of fuel, removing gasoline that has been standing unused over a long period of time, is still the easiest and least expensive preventive maintenance possible. In most cases this old gas, even with some oil mixed with it, can be used without harmful effects in an automobile using regular gasoline. If a sudden increase in gas consumption is noticed, or if the engine does not perform properly, a carburetor overhaul, including boil-out, or replacement of the fuel pump may be required. LEADED GASOLINE AND GASOHOL In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)has slated a proposed na tiona! phase-out of leaded fuel, "Regular" gasoline, by 1988. Lead in gasoline boosts the octane rating (energy). Therefore, if the lead is removed, it must be replaced with another agent. Unknown to the general public, many refineries are adding alcohol in an effort to hold the octane rating. Major parts found in carburetor repair kits. Alcohol in gasoline can have a deteriorating effect on certain fuel system parts. Seals can swell, pump check valves can swell, diaphragms distort, and other rubber or neoprene composition parts in the fuel system can be affected. Since 1980, the manufacturer has made every effort to use materials that will resist the alcohol being added to fuels. Fuels containing alcohol will slowly absorb moisture from the air. Once the moisture content in the fuel exceeds about 1%, Damaged piston, possibly caused by insufficient oil mixed with the fuel; using too-low an octane fuel; or Quicksilver Gasoline Stabilizer and Conditioner may using fuel that has "soured" (stood too long without a be used to prevent the fuel from "souring" for up to preservative added). twelve full months. it will separate from the fuel taking the alcohol with it. This water/alcohol mixture will settle to the bottom of the fuel tank. The engine will fail to operate. Therefore, storage of this type of gasoline for use in marine engines is not recommended for more than just a few days. One temporary, but aggravating, solution to increase the octane of "Unleaded" fuel is to purchase some aviation fuel from the local airport. Add about 10 to 15 percent of the tank's capacity to the unleaded fuel. REMOVING FUEL FROM THE SYSTEM For many years there has been the widespread belief that simply shutting off the fuel at the tank and then running the engine until it stops is the proper procedure before storing the engine for any length of time. Right? WRONG. It is NOT possible to remove all of the fuel in the carburetor by operating the engine until it stops. Some fuel is trapped in the float chamber and other passages and in the line leading to the carburetor. The ONLY guaranteed method of removing ALL of the fuel is to take the time to remove the carburetor, and drain the fuel. If the engine is operated with the fuel supply shut off until it stops the fuel and oil mixture inside the engine is removed, leaving bearings, pistons, rings, and other parts with little protective lubricant, during long periods of storage. Proper procedure involves: Shutting off the fuel supply at the tank; disconnecting the fuel line at the tank; operating the engine until it begins to run ROUGH; then stopping the engine, which will leave some fuel/oil mixture inside; and finally removing and draining the carburetor. By disconnecting the fuel supply, all SMALL passages are cleared of fuel even though some fuel is left in the carburetor. A light oil should be put in the combustion chamber as instructed in the Owner's Manual. On some model carburetors the high-speed jet plug can be removed to drain the fuel from the carburetor. For short periods of storage, simply running the carburetor dry may help prevent severe gum and varnish from forming in the carburetor. This is especially true during hot weather. 4-4 TROUBLESHOOTING The following paragraphs provide an orderly sequence of tests to pinpoint problems in the system. It is very rare for the carburetor by itself to cause failure of the engine to start. Comparison of a new (top) and worn (bottom) male fuel connector. The pins on the bottom connector are worn --smaller and tapered, therefore, the connector Female portion of the quick disconnect fitting ready will fail to maintain adequate fuel flow. to be mated with the male 'lrtion on the powerhead. FUEL PROBLEMS Many times fuel system troubles are caused by a plugged fuel filter, a defective fuel pump, or by a leak in the line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump. A defective choke may also cause problems. WOULD YOU BELIEVE, a majority of starting troubles which are traced to the fuel system are the result of an empty fuel tank or aged "sour" fuel. "SOURII FUEL Under average conditions (temperate climates), fuel will begin to breakdown in about four months. A gummy substance forms in the bottom of the fuel tank and in other areas. The filter screen between the tank and the carburetor and small passages in the carburetor will become clogged. The gasoline will begin to give off an odor similar to rotten eggs. Such a condition can cause the owner much frustration, time in cleaning components, and the expense of replacement or overhaul parts for the carburetor. Even with the high price of fuel, removing gasoline that has been standing unused over a long period of time is still the easiest and least expensive preventative maintenance possible. In most cases, this old gas can be used without harmful effects in an automobile using regular gasoline. The gasoline preservative additive Quicksilver Gasoline Stabilizer and Conditioner, shown below, will keep the fuel "fresh" for up to twelve months. If this particular product is not available in your area, other similar additives are produced under various trade names. The choke plate on the Model 2.2 swings down to restrict the flow of air causing a "rich" mixture until the powerhead reaches operating temperature. At that time, the choke lever must be manually pushed downward in an arc. Choke Problems When the engine is hot, the fuel system can cause starting problems. After a hot engine is shut down, the temperature inside the fuel bowl may rise to 200 F and cause the fuel to actually boil. All carburetors are vented to allow this pressure to escape to the atmosphere. However, some of the fuel may percolate over the high-speed nozzle. If the choke should stick in the open position, the engine will be hard to start. If the choke should stick in the closed position, the engine will flood making it very difficult to start. In order for this raw fuel to vaporize enough to burn, considerable air must be added to lean out the ,nixture. Therefore, the only remedy is to remove the spark plug/s; ground the leads; turn the engine Fouled spark plug, possibly caused by the operator's habit of overchoking or a malfunction holding the choke Choke valve location in the carburetor venturi. The closed. Either of these conditions delivered a too-rich choke valve on most carburetors covered in this manual fuel mixture to the cylinder. is located in front of the venturi. TROUBLESHOOTING 4-7 A choke solenoid may be tested with an ohmmeter. If the meter indicates continuity, the solenoid is satisfactory for further service. If continuity is not indicated, the unit cannot be repaired, it must be replaced. over about l 0 times; clean the plugs; install the plugs again; and start the engine. If the needle valve and seat assembly is leaking, an excessive amount of fuel may enter the intake manifold in the following manner: After the engine is shut down, the pressure left in the fuel line will force fuel past the leaking needle valve. This extra fuel will raise the level in the fuel bowl and cause fuel to overflow into the intake manifold. A continuous overflow of fuel into the intake manifold may be due to a sticking inlet needle or to a defective float which would cause an extra high level of fuel in the bowl and overflow into the intake manifold. FUEL PUMP TEST First, These Words On many units, the fuel pump is an integral part of the carburetor. On other units the fuel pump is a separate piece of equipment. The fuel pump on Models 3.5, 3.6, and 4.0, CANNOT be serviced. Therefore, if troubleshooting indicates the fuel pump to be at fault on these models, the fuel pump MUST be replaced with a new unit. CAUTION Gasoline will be flowing in the engine area during this test. Therefore, guard against fire by grounding the hightension wire to prevent it from sparking. The high tension wire between the coil and the distributor can be grounded by either pulling it out of the coil and grounding it, or by connecting a jumper wire from the primary (distributor) side of the ignition coil motor fuel Major parts of a complete outboard Grounding the spark plug leads to the powerhead in preparation to making fuel flow tests. The grounding is NECESSARY to prevent a spark from igniting fuel being system from the tank to the carburetor. handled in the open. Testing the fuel pickup in the fuel tank AND operation of the squeeze bulb by observing fuel flow from the line disconnected at the fuel pump and discharged into a suitable container. Working the squeeze bulb and observing the fuel flow from the line diconnected at the carburetor and discharged into a suitable container. This verifies fuel flow through the fuel pump. (The two photographs in this column were taken with a smaller powerhead than those covered in this manual. However, the procedure is the same.) Common squeeze bulb used with outboard engine fuel systems. to a good ground. An alternate safety method, and perhaps a better one, is to ground each spark plug lead. Disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor. Place a suitable container over the end of the fuel line to catch the fuel discharged. Now, squeeze the primer bulb and observe if there is satisfactory flow of fuel from the line. If there is no fuel discharged from the line, the check valve in the squeeze bulb may be defective, or there may be a break or obstruction in the fuel line. If there is a good fuel flow, then crank the engine. If the fuel pump is operating properly, a healthy stream of fuel should pulse out of the line. Continue cranking the engine and catching the fuel for about 15 pulses to determine if the amount of fuel decreases with each If tests indicate a satisfactory fuel flow to the carburetor, but adequate fuel quantity is not reaching the cylinders, then the carburetor MUST be removed and serviced. pulse or maintains a constant amount. A decrease in the discharge indicates a restriction in the line. If the fuel line is plugged, the fuel stream may stop. If there is fuel in the fuel tank but no fuel flows out of the fuel line while the engine is being cranked, the problem may be in one of four areas: 1-The line from the fuel pump to the carburetor may be plugged as already mentioned. 2-The fuel pump may be defective. 3-The line from the fuel tank to the fuel pump may be plugged; the line may be leaking air; or the squeeze bulb may be defective. 4-If the engine does not start even though there is adequate fuel flow from the fuel line, the fuel filter in the carburetor inlet may be plugged or the fuel inlet needle valve and the seat may be gummed together and prevent adequate fuel flow. FUEL LINE TEST On most installations, the fuel line is provided with quick-disconnect fittings at Using the proper tools to install a clamp around the squeeze bulb check valve. the tank and at the engine. If there is reason to believe the problem is at the quick-disconnects, the hose ends should be replaced as an assembly. For a small addi- Many times, restrictions such as foreign material may be cleared from the fuel line using compressed air. Use CARE to be sure the open end of the hose is pointing clear to avoid personal injury to the eyes. A replacement squeeze bulb kit includes parts necessary to return t:his section of the fuel line to service. tiona! expense, the entire fuel line can be replaced and eliminate this entire area as a problem source for many future seasons. The primer squeeze bulb can be replaced in a short time. First, cut the hose line as close to the old bulb as possible. Slide a small clamp over the end of the fuel line from the tank. Next, install the SMALL end of the check valve assembly into this side of the fuel line. The check valve always goes towards the fuel tank. Place a large clamp over the end of the check valve assembly. Use Primer Bulb Adhesive when the connections are made. Tighten the clamps. Repeat the procedure with the other side of the bulb assembly and the line leading to the engine. ROUGH ENGINE IDLE If an engine does not idle smoothly, the most reasonable approach to the problem is to perform a tune-up to eliminate such Exploded drawing of a typical fuel line and primer bulb with major parts identified. areas as: defective points; faulty spark plugs; and timing out of adjustment. Other problems that can prevent an en gine from running smoothly include: An air leak in the intake manifold; uneven com pression between the cylinders; and sticky or broken reeds. Of course any problem in the carburetor affecting the air/fuel mixture will also pre vent the engine from operating smoothly at idle speed. These problems usually include: Too high a fuel level in the bowl; a heavy float; leaking needle valve and seat; defec tive automatic choke; and improper adjust ments for idle mixture or idle speed. EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION Excessive fuel consumption can be the result of any one of three conditions, or a combination of all three. 1-Inefficient engine operation. 2-Faulty condition of the hull, including excessive marine growth. 3-Poor boating habits of the operator. If the fuel consumption suddenly increas es over what could be considered normal, then the cause can probably be attributed to the engine or boat and not the operator. Marine growth on the hull can have a very marked effect on boat performance. This is why sail boats always try to have a haul-out as close to race time as possible. While you are checking the bottom take note of the propeller condition. A bent blade or other damage will definitely cause poor boat performance. If the hull and propeller are in good shape, then check the fuel system for possible leaks. Check the line between the fuel pump and the carburetor while the engine is running and the line between the fuel tank and the pump when the engine is not running. A leak between the tank and the pump many times will not appear when the engine is operating, because the suction created by the pump drawing fuel will not allow the fuel to leak. Once the engine is turned off and the suction no longer exists, fuel may begin to leak. If a minor tune-up has been performed and the spark plugs, points, and timing are properly adjusted, then the problem most likely is in the carburetor and an overhaul is in order. Check the needle valve and seat for leaking. Use extra care when making any adjustments affecting the fuel consumption, such as the float level or automatic choke. ENGINE SURGE If the engine operates as if the load on the boat is being constantly increased and decreased, even though an attempt is being made to hold a constant engine speed, the problem can most likely be attributed to the fuel pump, or a restriction in the fuel line between the tank and the carburetor. Opera tiona! description and service procedures for the fuel pump are given in Section 4-14. 4-5 CARBURETOR MODELS Eight, yes eight different carburetors are used on the outboard powerheads covered in this manual. Procedures for each carburetor is presented in a separate section of this chapter. To determine which carburetor is installed on the outboard being serviced, check the Tune-up Specifications in the Appendix, under engine model and manufactured year. The carburetor model is designated by a letter in the third to last column. The carburetor identification used in the Appendix and throughout this book is as follows: A Side bowl and back drag carburetors. B Round bowl --single float carburetor wj th integral fuel pump. C Center round bow 1 single float - side-draft carburetor. D Mikuni rectangular bowl --double float carburetor. E Mikuni round bowl --single float carburetor. F Tillotson rectangular bowl --double float carburetor with fuel pump. G Walbro round bowl --single float carburetor with fuel pump. H Round bow1 --Stamped "F" -single float carburetor with "Keikhin" integral fuel pump. Complete detailed service procedures for each carburetor are presented in separate sections. 4-6 SIDE BOWL AND BACK DRAG CARBURETORS REFERENCED "A" IN THE APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, installation, and operating adjustments for the side bowl and back drag carburetor, referenced "A" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column), in the Appendix. This "N' carburetor was used on a wide range of 1-and 2-cylinder powerheads over the years. Make an attempt to keep the work area organized and to cover parts after they have been cleaned to prevent foreign matter from entering passageways or adhering to critical parts. Example of a damaged propeller, probably caused by striking an underwater object. Such a unit will restrict The fuel pump being removed from the intake performance of the boat and the outboard unit. trans{ er port of a 35hp powerhead. SCREEN To service the separate fuel pump, see Section 4-14, this chapter. For synchronizing adjustments with the ignition system, see Chapter 6. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING FIRST, THESE WORDS Good shop practice dictates a carburetor repair kit be purchased and new parts be installed any time the carburetor is disassembled. 1-Remove the battery leads from the battery terminals. Using the quick-disconnect fitting, detach the fuel line from the engine or from the fuel tank. 2-Remove the hood assembly from the engine. Remove the choke and throttle linkage to the carburetor. 3-Remove the fuel line from the car buretor. This may be accomplished by either one of two methods. One is to remove the line from the strainer cover. The other is to remove the strainer cover bolt, and then lift the cover from the carburetor as shown in the accompanying illustration. 4-Remove the nuts securing the carburetor to the crankcase. Lift the carburetor from the engine. 5-Remove the 3/8" cap screw securing the strainer cover to the carburetor, if it was not removed during carburetor removal. OBSERVE the gasket under the screw as it is removed. Keep them together to ensure the gasket is installed during assembling. Remove the strainer cover, and then the gasket inside the strainer cover. Remove the gas fuel line fitting and the base gasket. 6-Remove the idle screw and spring from the carburetor. 7-Carefully remove the idle tube from the top of the carburetor. This tube extends down inside the main discharge nozzle. A new tube gasket should ALWAYS be used. Therefore, DISCARD the old gasket. 8-Remove the discharge screw plug from the bottom side of the carburetor. Use the PROPER size screwdriver and remove the main discharge nozzle. 9-Remove the 7I16" brass hex head plug and gasket from the front of the carburetor and the other plug from the bottom. Do not High-speed jet and gasket for the Type "A" carburetor. remove the tube unless absolutely necessary. Only check to make sure it is tight. Use the PROPER size screwdriver and remove the main fuel jet and gasket. 10-Remove the float assembly by removing the two screws from the top of the carburetor. Lift the float assembly from the carburetor body, and then remove the gasket. 11-Turn the float cover upside down and notice the assembly has two levers. Remove the top lever pin and hinge back the other lever. Now, remove the inlet needle from the needle seat. Use the proper size socket and remove the needle seat. This seat has a standard right-hand thread. Reach into the body with a small punch and gently remove the gasket. 12-To remove the Welch plug on the side of the carburetor, use a sharp punch to puncture the center of the plug, and then pry out the plug A new Welch plug is ONLY available in a carburetor overhaul kit. Filters used with the side-bowl Type "A" carburetor. The two on the left are obsolete and should be replaced with the new type on the far right. A GOOD WORD: Further disassembly of the carburetor is not necessary. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with compressed air. Place all metal parts in a screen-type tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, then blow them dry with compressed air. Blow out all passages in the castings with compressed air. Check all parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. SCREW STRAINER COVER GASKET FI LTER STRAINER COVER GASKET -LARGE COVER SCREW COVER SCREW GASKET THROTTLE STOP LEVER INLET SEAT IDLE TUBE INLET NEEDlE, SEAT & FLOAT LEVER -UPPER -- 0 I' GASKET FlOAT LEVER -LOWER SHAFT c;' ___-J FlOAT .. ! CARBURETOR ASSEMBLY ///) III r'I I (" / I IIIII PLUG SPRING IDLE MIXTURE SCREW-.. Q SCREW \\@! PLUG GASKET ---r MAIN NOZZLE GASKET MAIN FUEl JET PLUG SCREW Exploded view of a side bowl carburetor showing arrangement of major parts. This carburetor is identified as an "A" carburetor in the text and Appendix. See next page for the "back drag" carburetor, also identified in the text and appendix as an "A" carburetor because it is so similar in appearance, operation, and for service procedures. 31 30 12 4 PLUG HAIN FUEL JET PLUG 14-IDLE TUBE 26 27 FLOAT COVER BOLT 5 GASKET 15-FLOAT GASKET 16-LOWER FLOAT LEVER PIN 28-FI LTER SCREEN 29-GASKET 8 WELCH PLUG GASKET 17-LOWER FLOAT LEVER 18-UPPER FLOAT LEVER 30 31 FUEL INLET COVER GASKETTHROTTLE SHUTTER THROTTLE SHUTTER SCREW PLUG 19-UPPER FLOAT LEVER PIN 21-20-INLET NEEDLE & SEAT 32 GASKET 33 INLET COVER SCREW THROTTLE SHAFT HAIN FUEL NOZZLE 91011 HAIN FUEL JET 22 SPRING 23 IDLE MIXTURE SCREW 24 3435 SPRING GASKET BACK DRAG TUBE BACK DRAG AIR JET 1213 GASKET 25 LOCKWASHER 3637 THROTTLE STOP LEVER THROTTLE STOP LEVER FLOAT BOWL COVER Exploded view of the side bowl "back drag" carburetor and like the carburetor on the previous page, identified as an "A" carburetor in the text and appendix. This carburetor has an additional circuit which lowers the atmospheric pressure in the float bowl to increase fuel economy at certain mid-range rpm. Major parts are identified. GOOD WORN WORN GOOD Needle and seat arrangement on the carburetor covered in this section, showing a worn and new needle for comparison. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be too loose, replace the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are NOT available. Inspect the main body, airhorn, and venturi cluster gasket surfaces for cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check the float for deterioration. Check to be sure the float spring has not been stretched. If any part of the float is damaged, the unit must be replaced. Check the float arm , ;I Carburetor idle mixture adjustment needles. The top needle is worn and unfit for service. The bottom needle is new. needle contacting surface and replace the float if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect the tapered section of the idle adjusting needles and replace any that have developed a groove. Most of the parts that should be replaced during a carburetor overhaul are included in overhaul kits available from your local marine dealer. One of these kits will contain a matched fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should be replaced each time the carburetor is disassembled as a precaution against leakage. All rubber and plastic parts MUST be removed before carburetor parts are placed in a basket to be submerged in carburetor cleaner. LEVER SEAT GASKET PIN INLET NEEDLE ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "A" 1-If the Welch plug was removed, insert a new plug in position, and then tap it into place. Seal the outside edge of the plug with Gasketcinch, or equivalent. 2-Check the spring on the top of the float. If it does not extend out 3/32" (2.1..0 mm)the float MUST be replaced. Install the float onto the float pin, and then slide the float into the carburetor body. 3-Insert a new needle seat gasket into place. Thread the inlet seat into the body and tighten the seat with the proper size socket to a torque value of 60 in.-lbs (6.78Nm). Discharge a drop of oil into the center of the seat, and then insert the inlet needle into the seat. Hinge over the lever measurement should be 13/32" .:t 1/64" (l0.32mm .:t 0.40mm). CAREFULLY bend the primary lever as required to obtain the correct measurement. Float Drop Adjustment 5-Turn the float bowl cover upright. Check to be sure the needle moves freely on the actuating primary lever and that it is not sticking in the seat. Hold the bowl cover upright and measure the distance between the primary and secondary levers. This distance should be l/ 4" (6.35rnrn). CAREFULLY bend the secondary lever stop tang to obtain the proper measurement. 6-Place a NEW gasket onto the float bowl. Then place the float into the float chamber. The vent hole in the cover MUST be installed toward the carburetor mounting flange. Invert the carburetor and check the float for free movement. that was not removed on top of the inlet needle. Install the other lever on top of the lever in place, and then install the hinge pin. Float Lever Adjustment 4Turn the float bowl cover upside down. \1easure the distance from the face of the shoulder to the secondary lever. This 7-Place the float bowl cover over the float. Install the two screws and lockwashers, and tighten them alternately. 8-Position the large gasket over the tower of the float bowl cover. Install the filter screen. Insert a NEW gasket inside the strainer cover. Place the strainer cover over the float bowl cover. ONE WORD: If the strainer cover was left attached to the fuel line during disassembly, and is therefore, still on the engine, then bypass the next instruction. The cover will be installed in Step 14. BE SURE the strainer cover is setting squarely on the float bowl cover, because if it is not positioned properly, the be broken when the strainer bolt is tighten tower assembly on the float bowl cover will 9-Slide a NEW gasket onto the strainer bolt, and then install the bolt into the float bowl cover. 10-Thread the main nozzle into the bottom of the carburetor, and then tighten it securely using the PROPER size screwdriver. Install the nozzle plug. Use a wood toothpick or Mercury special tool (highspeed jet). GOOD WORD Main fuel (high-speed) jet size recommendations are intended as a guide. If any change in size is to be made, check the Jet Size/Elevation Chart in the Appendix. into the carburetor body, until you can feel installed in Step 8, then place the cover over the tower assembly of the carburetor. The idle restriction tube MUSl' contact the front of the venturi tube. 11-Slide a NEW gasket onto the fixed high-speed jet. (On some models, this gasket is not used.) Use the PROPER size screwdriver and install the jet into the carburetor body. Position a NEW gasket onto the 7/16" brass plug, and then install the plug into the carburetor body. 12-Slide a NEW gasket onto the idle restriction tube. (On some models, this gasket is not used.) Thread the tube into the top of the carburetor and tighten it securely. When properly installed, idle restriction tube MUST touch front of venturi tube. 13-Position the spring over the idle adjusting screw, and then SLOWLY thread it it seat. Now, as a preliminary adjustment, back the screw out 1 to Hfull turns. Check the throttle shutters to be sure they do not bend in the carburetor venturi. INSTALLATION CARBURETOR "A" 14-Install a NEW gasket onto the intake manifold. Position the carburetor onto the intake manifold and at the same time, check to be sure the cam on the carburetor is in front of the cam on the magneto plate. Connect the fuel line to the carburetor strainer cover. If the strainer cover was not CHECK TO BE SURE the strainer cover is setting squarely on the float bowl cover, because if it is not positioned properly, the tower assembly on the float bowl cover will be broken when the strainer bolt is tighten ed. Connect the manual choke to the choke rod. 15-Install the throttle pickup bracket and the throttle pickup lever with the mounting screw. Check to be sure the cam on the carburetor is in front of the cam on the magneto plate. Connect the throttle and choke linkage. Synchronizing To synchronize the fuel and ignition systems, see Chapter 6. ADJUSTMENTS FIRST A WORD: Before fine carburetor adjustments can be properly made, the following conditions must exist: a. The regular engine-propeller combination must be used. b. The power unit must be in forward gear. c. The lower unit must be in the water. d. The engine must be warmed to normal operating temperature. (< .. . . ' IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT SCREW Typical location of the idle speed adjustment screw on a late model powerhead with a Type "A" carburetor. Idle-Speed Adjustment 16-After the engine has been warmed to operating temperature, turn the idle speed adjusting screw on the stop bracket until the engine idles at approximately 650 rpm in forward gear. Idle Mixture Adjustment 17-Turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise for the 3.5, 3.6, 3.9, 60, and 110 hp engine models, and clockwise for all others, until the engine fires evenly and rpm begins to increase. Continue turning the adjusting screw until the mixture is so lean that the rpm begin to drop and the engine begins to misfire. Set the adjusting screw halfway between the rich and lean points. ADVICE It is better to have the mixture set slightly on the rich side, rather than too lean. High-Speed Adjustment The main metering high-speed jet is not adjustable. If the engine is to be operated at elevations above 4000 ft., replace the main metering jet as indicated in the Jet Size/Elevation Chart in the Appendix. Access to the main jet of carburetor "A" is from outside the carburetor. This permits quick and easy changes for varying altitudes. The main (high-speed) jet is not adjustable, but it is available in varying sizes. The jet may be replaced if the engine is to be operated at different elevations. 4-7 INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP CARBURETOR -REFERENCED "B" IN THE APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, installation, and operating adjustments for the integral fuel pump carburetor, referenced "B" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column), in the Appendix. The fuel pump is an intergral part of the carburetor. To synchronize the fuel and ignition systems, see Chapter 6. This new carburetor has an integral fuel pump, which should be overhauled every time the carburetor is disassembled. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the battery leads from the battery terminals. Remove the hood assembly. Disconnect the fuel line at the fuel tank. Disconnect the choke cable from the choke lever. Remove the cap screw and spacer securing the choke cable to the carburetor. Remove the fuel line from the inlet cover. An alternative is to remove the screw securing the inlet cover to the carburetor and leave the fuel line attached. IDLE MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT SCREW WORN GOOD 2-Remove the two nuts attaching the carburetor to the manifold, and then remove the carburetor. 3-Remove the four screws holding the fuel pump strainer body to the carburetor. Remove the gaskets and diaphragm. Remove the fuel pump body and gaskets. 4-Remove the bolt securing the float bowl to the carburetor casting. OBSERVE and REMEMBER there is a gasket under the bolt and one between the float bowl and the Carburetor idle mixture adjustment needles. The top needle is worn and unfit for service. The bottom needle is new. DO NOT attempt to remove the needle valve seat. This seat is pressed into the carburetor body. 5-Remove the main fuel (high-speed) jet. A gasket is not used under this jet. DO NOT attempt to remove the main nozzle even though it has a screwdriver slot. The boost venturi is very difficult to install if the main nozzle has been removed. 6-Remove the idle mixture adjusting screw and spring. 7-Remove the plug screw, and then unscrew the idle tube. Slide the gasket free of the idle tube. casting. Withdraw the float retaining pin, and then lift off the float assembly. Lift out the inlet needle valve and spring. GOOD WORN WORN GOOD Needle and seat arrangement on the carburetor covered in this section, showing a worn and new needle for comparison. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with com pressed air. Screw ..... ..... ' ..._ ' -... ....._ Washer Strainer Gasket Fuel Pump Relief Valve CARBURETOR "B" 4-25 Place all of the metal parts in a screentype tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, then blow them dry with com pressed air. Blow out all of the passages in the castings with compressed air. Check all of the parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. Throttle Shaft Linkage ....... ' ' , Retaining Screw -- ....... Throttle Shaft "'Screw Idle Tube e ----Gasket Shaft Throttle Shutter Body 0.. ----Spring Idle Screw Main Nozzle Pin Main Fuel Jet Inlet Needle and Spring Exploded view of an integral fuel pump carburetor. This carburetor is identified as a "B" carburetor in the text and appendix. Major parts are identified. Fuel pump parts are to the left and above the dotted line. HAINFUEL JET Inspect the main body, airhorn, and venturi cluster gasket surfaces for cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check the float for deterioration. If a hollow float is used, check to be sure it does not contain any fluid. Check to be sure the float spring has not been stretched. If any part of the float is damaged, the unit must be replaced. Check the float arm needle contacting surface and replace the float if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect the tapered section of the idle adjusting needles and replace any that have developed a groove. Most of the parts that should be replaced during a carburetor overhaul are included in an overhaul kit available from your local marine dealer. ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "B" 1-Install the main fuel (high-speed) jet. As mentioned during removal, a gasket is not used under this jet. 2-Install a NEW inlet valve needle and spring to reduce the chances of a leak. Install a NEW float bowl gasket. 3-Install the float, and then insert the float retaining pin to secure the float in place. Float Level Adjustment 4-Hold the carburetor as shown, and measure the distance to the bottom edge of the float. This measurement should be 1/ 4" :!:. 1/ 64" (6.35 :!:. 0.40mm). CAREFULLY bend the float needle actuating lever to obtain the correct measurement. Check the jet sizes with a drill of the proper size. ALWAYS hold the drill in a pin vise to avoid enlarging the jet orifice. Refer to the Carburetor Jet Size/Elevation Chart in the Appendix for the proper size for your engine, carburetor, and anticipated elevation of operation. Float Drop Adjustment 5-Hold the carburetor upside down, as shown, to allow the float to drop to its lowest point. Measure the distance from the bottom of the float to the top of the main fuel (high-speed) jet. This distance should be from 1/64" to 1/32" (0.40 to 0.80mm). CAREFULLY bend the float tang to obtain the correct measurement. 6-Check to be sure the float bowl gasket is in place properly. Position the float bowl gasket on the carburetor casting. Install the float bowl. 7-Slide a NEW gasket onto the retaining bolt, and then install the bolt onto the float bowl cover. 8-Position a NEW fuel pump gasket onto the carburetor casting taking care to index it over the alignment dowel. Install a NEW valve diaphragm. OBSERVE the three valve flaps, two for inlet control and one for outlet. 9-Install the valve body with the alignment dowel entering the hole in the casting properly. 10-Position a NEW gasket on the valve body. Install a NEW pump diaphragm. 11-Install the fuel pump strainer body and secure it in place with the four retaining screws. Tighten the screws EVENLY and BODY c PUHP DIAPHRAM a little-at-a-time. Install the filter screen and a NEW gasket. 12-Slide a NEW gasket onto the idle tube and then thread it into place. Install the plug screw over the idle tube. 13-Slowly thread the idle mixture adjusting screw into the carburetor body until you can feel it seat. DO NOT tighten the screw or you will damage the tip. Now, as a preliminary adjustment, back it out 1-1/4 turns. 14-Place a NEW flange gasket in position on the intake manifold. Check to be sure the two crankcase vacuum port holes are aligned with the holes in the casting. If this gasket is not installed PROPERLY, the fuel pump will NOT function. INSTALLATION CARBURETOR "B" 15-Place the carburetor in position on the intake manifold. Install and tighten the two carburetor retaining nuts alternately to the torque value given in the Appendix. Install the fuel pump inlet cover. Slide a NEW lockwasher onto the retaining screw, and then install and tighten the screw. If the fuel line was removed from the inlet cover, install the hose and tighten the hose clamps. 16-Install the cap screw and spacer securing the choke cable to the carburetor. Connect the choke cable to the lever. Connect the fuel line to the tank. Activate the fuel line squeeze bulb several times. Check delivery of fuel to the carburetor and the lines and their fittings for possible leaks. Connect the battery leads. Synchronizing To synchronize the fuel and ignition systems, see Chapter 6. ADJUSTMENTS FIRST A WORD: Before fine carburetor adjustments can be properly made, the following conditions must exist: a. The correct engine-propeller combination must be used. b. The power unit must be in forward gear. c. The lower unit must be in the water. d. The engine must be warmed to normal operating temperature. Idle Mixture Adjustment 17-After the above conditions have been met, including the engine run until it has reached operating temperature, set the idle mixture screw 1-l/2 turns open from a lightly seated position. Now, with the engine running, SLOWLY turn the idle mixture screw counterclockwise until the affected cylinders start to load up or begin to fire unevenly, due to an over-rich mixture. SLOWLY turn the idle mixture screw clockwise until the cylinders fire evenly and the engine rprn increase. Continue turning the screw clockwise until the engine rpm drop off and the engine begins to misfire. Now, turn the idle mixture screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE halfway between lean and rich position. Favor the rich side. SOME ADVICE: Do not adjust to a leaner position than necessary. It is better to have the mixture set slightly on the rich side, rather than too lean. Too lean a mixture is often the cause of hard starting. MORE ADVICE: If the engine hesitates during acceleration after adjusting the idle mixture, the mixture is set too lean and should be changed to the richer side until engine acceleration is smooth. Idle Speed Adjustment 18-After the conditions listed at the beginning of this ADJUSTMENT section have been met, and the idle mixture adjustment has been properly made, as described in the previous step, then adjust the idle speed stop screw on the stop bracket until the engine idles at the recommended rpm given in the Tune-up Specifications in the Appendix. Continue running the engine in forward gear at the recommended wide open throttle range (WOT) to clear the engine, and then recheck the idle speed. 4-8 CENTER ROUND BOWL CARBURETOR REFERENCED "C" IN APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, installation, and operating adjustments for the square bowl carburetor, referenced "C" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column), in the Appendix. To service the separte fuel pump, see Section 4-14, this chapter. For adjustments with the ignition system , see Chapter 6. REMOVAL 1-Remove the air box cover and the air box from the carburetor. 2-Close the gas shutoff valve to the carburetor to prevent gas from draining out of the gas tank when the lines are disconnected at the carburetor. 3-Disconnect the choke cable from the mounting bracket. Disconnect the cable end from the carbure tor. Close the fuel line shutoff valve. Cut the tie strap on the fuel line and remove the fuel line from the carburetor. 4-Pry the remote idle lever from the idle mixture screw. The lever will pop off the screw. 5-Remove the attaching nuts, and lift the carburet:>r from the intake manifold. 6-Turn the carburetor upside down and remove the center bolt securing the bowl to the body. This bolt also serves as a fixed jet to meter fuel. 7-Push the hinge pin out of the float lever, and then lift off the float and inlet needle. Determine if the float has been leaking, by shaking it and listening for the movement of fuel inside. A leaky float MUST be replaced. 8-Remove the inlet needle seat. 9-Now remove the carburetor nozzle. 10-Remove the idle mixture screw from the side of the carburetor. 11-Remove the fuel inlet hose fitting. 12-Check the filter screen inside the hole. Remove the screen. The factory does not recommend using a filter in the carbure tor. A carburetor removed from a submerged powerhead. Note the corrosion in the float bowl and deterioration of the fixed jet. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with compressed air. Place all of the metal parts in a screentype tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, then blow them dry with compressed air. Blow out all of the passages in the castings with compressed air. Check all of the parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Move the throttle shaft back-and-forth to check for wear. If the shaft appears to be too loose, replace the complete throttle body because individual replacement parts are NOT available. Inspect the main body, air horn, and venturi cluster gasket surfaces for cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check the float for deterioration. Check to be sure the float spring has not been stretched. If any part of the float is damaged, the unit must be replaced. Check the float arm needle contacting surface and replace the float if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect the tapered section of the idle adjusting needles and replace any that have developed a groove. Most of the parts that should be replaced during a carburetor overhaul are included in an overhaul kit available from your local marine dealer. This kit will also contain a matched fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should be replaced each time the carburetor is disassembled as a precaution against leakage. Check the jet sizes with a drill of the proper size. ALWAYS hold the drill in a pin vise to avoid enlarging the jet orifice. Refer to the Carburetor Jet Size/Elevation Chart in the Appendix for the proper size jet for your engine, carburetor, and anticipated elevation of operation. Examine the throttle shaft for wear and the throttle shutter plates for damage. ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "C" 1-The factory does not recommend replacing the fuel filter. Install the fuel hose fitting. FITTING GOOD WORN GOOD 21 .. 3 1 WORN 1 -Main Fuel Jet Plug 2-Bolts 3-Bowl 4-Nuts 5-Float Pin 6-Gasket 7-Fuel Baffle 8-Gasket 9-Float 10 -Main Fuel Jet 11 -Inlet Needle 12 -Spring13-Idle Mixture Screw 14 -Throttle Shaft 15 -Screw 16 -Lockwasher 17 -Washer 18 -Throttle Plate 19 -Screws 20 -Gasket 21 -Welch Plug 22 -Main Discharge Nozzle Exploded view of a center round bowl carburetor. This carburetor is identified as a "C" carburetor in the text and appendix. Major parts are identified. The upper illustrations compare new carburetor needles with ones unfit for further service. 2-Install the nozzle. Install needle seat into the body. 3-Attach the inlet needle, with its spring, to the float. Lower the float into position and at the same time guide the inlet needle in to its seat. Insert the hinge pin through the float tab. 4-Turn the bowl upside down and allow the float to drop. Measure the distance from the base of the bowl to the bottom of the float. This measurement should be 5/ 64" to 7I64" (1.98 to 2.78mm). CAREFULLY bend the float tab to obtain the proper measurement. 5-Hold the carburetor upside down and place a NEW bowl gasket into the recess of the body. OBSERVE the flat area of the bowl. This area MUST be positioned over the hinge pin area. Mate the bowl to the carburetor body and secure it in place with the jet bolt retaining screw. 6-Slide the spring onto the idle mixture screw. SLOWLY thread the screw in to the the carburetor body until you can just feel it bottom in the seat. NEVER use force when installing a jet in any carburetor. Now, as a preliminary adjustment, back the mixture screw out 1-1/2 turns from the seated position. INSTALLATION CARBURETOR "C" 7-Place a NEW gasket in position on the intake manifold. Install and secure the carburetor in place with the two attaching nuts. 8-Connect the fuel hose to the carburetor fuel line fitting. Attach the tie strap to the fuel Jlne. Open the fuel line shutoff valve and alJow fuel to reach the carburetor. Check the fuel connections for possible leaks. DO NOT install the remote idle lever onto the idle mixture screw until the idle mixture has been properly adjusted with the engine operating, as described in the paragraphs under Adjustments. 9-Connect the choke linkage to the carburetor. 10-Install the airbox using Loctite, or equivalent, on the attaching screw threads. Use a NEW gasket and install the airbox cover. Synchronizing To synchronize the fuel and ignition systems, see Chapter 6. ADJUSTMENTS FIRST A WORD: Before fine carburetor adjustments can be properly made, the fo11owing conditions must exist: a. The regular engine-prope11er combination must be used. b. The power unit must be in forward gear. c. The lower unit must be in the water. d. The engine must be warmed to normal operating temperature. High-Speed Adjustment The high-speed jet is set at the factory and is NOT adjustable. However, to compensate for engine operation at various altitudes, refer to the Carburetor Jet SizeElevation Chart in the Appendix. Adjust idle speed rpm according to the recommendations given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Idle Mixture Adjustment 11-The engine will respond very slowly to changes in idle mixture adjustment when operating at a slow rpm. Therefore, set the idle mixture adjustment with the engine running at approximately 1000 rpm. At this speed, the response to adjustment will be more rapid. After the a, b, c, and d, conditions listed above have been rnet, including the engine run until it has reached operating temperature, then proceed with the idle mixture adjustment. SLOWLY turn the idle mixture screw counterclockwise until the engine begins to load up or fires unevenly due to the overrich mixture. SLOWLY turn the idle mixture screw clockwise until the highest engine rpm and smoothest operation is obtained. With the engine still in forward gear, rotate the twist grip on the tiller handle and return the engine to the slowest idle, then determine if the engine runs smooth at slowest idle. If necessary, again adjust the idle mixture screw at slowest speed for smoothest performance. Allow at least 15 seconds for the engine to respond to adjustment. SOME ADVICE Do not adjust to a leaner position than necessary. It is better to have the mixture set slightly on the rich side, rather than too lean. Too lean a mixture is often the cause of hard starting. MORE ADVICE If the engine hesitates during acce leration, after adjusting the idle mixture, the mixture is set too lean and should be changed to the richer side (screw turned counterclockwise) until engine acceleration is smooth. Idle Adjustment 12-After the conditions listed at the beginning of this ADJUSTMENT section have been met, and the idle mixture adjustment has been completed, and without disturbing the idle mixture setting, push the remote idle lever onto the idle mixture screw with the lever positioned at 10 o'clock. Push the lever onto the screw securely. :w VENT SCREW Exterior view of" a Mercury Gnat engine. The vent screw MUST be opened to allow air to enter the tank and prevent a vacumn condition in the system. 4-9 MIKUNI RECTANGULAR BOWL SIDE-DRAFT CARBURETOR REFERENCED "D" IN APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, and installation for the rectangular bow 1 carburetor referenced "D" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column) in the Appendix. If a fuel pump is installed on the powerhead, it is a disposable type and cannot be serviced. For adjustments with the ignition system, see Chapter 6. REMOVAL 1-Close the fuel valve between the fuel tank and the carburetor. Disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor. Remove the ja,nnut and earn follower at the carburetor. DO NOT allow the shaft to rotate. Remove the two carburetor flange mounting nuts. Lift the carburetor free of the powerhead. DISASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "D" 2-Remove the idle mixture adjustrnen t screw and spring. 3-Remove the idle speed adjustment screw and spring. 4-Remove the mixing chamber cover and throttle valve spring. 5-Remove the throttle valve assembly. 6-Disassemble the throttle valve assembly consisting of the throttle valve, jet needle with an E-rlng on the fourth groove, retainer, and throttle valve shaft. THROTTlE VAlVE SHAFT , . .. .... . Lean --1st Groove .-2nd --3rd Rich Jet needle E-ring grooves are provided to permit changes in air/fuel mixture. For leaner mixture, raise the ring; to enrich the mixture, lower the ring. GOOD WORDS The E-ring must be installed in the correct groove from which it is removed. If the ring is lowered, the carburetor will cause the engine to operate rich at midrange. Raising the E-ring will cause the engine to operate too lean. 7-Rotate the choke assembly retainer COUNTER CLOCK WISE, and then remove the choke assembly 8-Remove the U-shaped clip, and then slide the choke lever, rubber cap, retainer, and retainer spring free of the choke plunger. 9-Remove the four screws securing the float bowl to the carburetor body. Lift the bowl free. 10-Hold the float with one hand and remove the float pin with the other hand. 11-Use the proper size socket and remove the inlet needle seat nut. Shake the 2-1-CARBURETOR BODYTHROTTLE VALVE -9 8 g 6-4-5-RETAINERPOST JET NEEDLEE-RING 7 11-10-12- 9-8- MIXING CHAMBER COVERGASKET GASKET FLOAT PIN SPRING INLET NEEDLE & SEAT 13-FLOAT 14-PILOT JET (not removable -some models) 28 27 26 24 23 I J : tfj -2 NEEDLE JET MAIN JET 25 I 20 22---- .. ((({(e I j' 21 20 --10 21-20-22- 18-19-GASKETFLOAT BOWL SPRINGLOW SPEED MIXTURE SCREW SCREW & LOCKWASHER IDLE SPEED ADJUSTING SCREW 23-PLUNGER 24-SPRING 27-26-28- 25- CLIPCAP CAP LEVER 1 9 Exploded view of a Mikuni rectangular bowl side-draft carburetor. This carburetor is identified as a "D" carburetor in the text and appendix. Major parts are identified. carburetor and the inlet needle will fall fr':'!e. Remove the ;nain jet. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with corn pressed air. Place all the metal parts in a screentype tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean --free of gum and varnish which accumulates from stale fuel. Blow the parts dry with compressed air. Blow out all passageways in the castings with compressed air. Check all of the parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Carefully inspect the casting for cracks, stripped threads, or plugs for any sign of leakage. Inspect the float hinge in the hinge pin area for wear and the float for any sign of leakage. Exaimine the inlet needle for wear and if there is any evidence of wear, the inlet needle MUST be replaced. ALWAYS replace any and all worn parts. A carburetor service kit is available at modest cost from the local marine dealer. The kit will contain all necessary parts to perform the usual carburetor overhaul work. The exterior appearance of the rectangular float Carburetor parts in a basket ready to be submerged bowl carburetor may differ between two designs. Operin carburetor cleaner. ation and procedures for service are identical. SOCKET touches the top of the spring loaded inlet needle pin. secure the bowl with the four attaching screws. ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "D" 1-Use the proper size socket and install the main jet. Thread the inlet needle seat in to the carburetor body. 2-Slide the inlet needle into place in the seat. 3-Align the float in place and then slide the float pin through to secure the float. Float Adjustment 4-Hold the carburetor on its side, as shown. Move the float until it just barely SPECIAL WORDS The weight of the float can compress the inlet needle spring pin by its own weight. Therefore, make the adjustment when the fioat and inlet needle BARELY make contact. Measure the distance between the carburetor body surface and the bo ttom of the float, as shown. CAREFULLY adjust the tab until this measurement is 7/8" (22.23mm). 5-Place a NEW bowl gasket in position on the carburetor. Mate the bowl to the surface of the carburetor body, and then 6-Slide the spring, retainer, rubber cap, and choke lever onto the choke plunger. Secure the parts together with the U-shaped clip. 7-Slide the choke assembly shaft into the carburetor body. Compress the spring with pressure on the choke bracket, and then thread the retainer into the carburetor body. LEAN .-1st Groove RICH Jet needle E-ring grooves are provided to permit changes in air/fuel mixture. For leaner mixture, raise the ring; to enrich the mixture, lower the ring. 8-Assemble the throttle valve parts in the order shown. BE SURE the E-rina is . b mstalled mto the same groove on the jet needle from which it was removed. GOOD WORDS The E-ring must be installed in the cor rect groove from which it was removed. If the ring is lowered, the carburetor will cause the engine to operate rich at mid range. Raising the E-ring will cause the engine to operate too lean. Install the assembled throttle valve in to the carburetor mixing chamber. 9-Slide the assembled throttle valve unit into the carburetor body. 10-Slide the spring onto the shaft, and then thread the nixing chamber cover into place with the shaft extended through the hole in the cap. ASSEMBLEDTHROTTLE VALVE rough adjustment. 12Slide the spring onto the idle speed adjusting screw shaft, and then thread the screw into the carburetor body. Tighten the screw until it BARELY seats, and then tighten two (2) more complete turns as a preliminary rough adjustment. Timing and Synchronizing See appropriate section in Chapter 6. secure it in place with the two ;nounting nuts. Install the cam follower to the throttle lever. Connect the fuel line to the carburetor. See appropriate se.ction in Chapter 6 for timing and synchronizing. 11-Slide the spring onto the idle mixture adjusting screw shaft, and then thread the screw into the carburetor body. Tighten the screw until it BARELY seats, and then back it out two (2) turns as a preliminary INSTALLATION CARBURETOR "D" 13-Place a NEW gasket in position on the powerhead. Install the carburetor and 4-10 MIKUNI ROUND BOWL SIDE DRAFT CARBURETOR REFERENCED "E" IN APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, and installation for the Mikuni round bowl side draft carburetor, referenced "E" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column) in the Appendix. If a fuel pump is installed on the powerhead, it is a disposable type and cannot be serviced. For adjustments with the ignition system, see Chapter 6. 1-Remove the screws securing the knobs at the end of the choke and throttle levers. Remove the two screws securing the rectangular intake cover to the carburetor body. Lift the cover free. SPECIAL WORDS It is not necessary to disconnect the wires attached to the cover. Simply rnove the cover to one side out of the way. 2-Close the fuel valve between the fuel tank and the carburetor. Squeeze the wiretype hose cla,np on the fuel line enough for the hose to sli? free of the inlet fuel fitting. 3-Loosen the clamp screw and remove the carburetor frorn the powerhead. 4-Work the carbure tor-to-powerhead seal out of the recess in the carburetor throat. Discard the seal. 5-Back out the two Phillips head screws securing the float bowl to the carburetor. 6-Remove the float from the carburetor. 7-Slide the hinge pin free, and then remove the float hinge and the inlet needle. 8-Lift off and discard the float bowl gasket. 9-Unscrew the main jet from the center of the rnaln nozzle. 10-Use the proper size wrench and remove the main nozzle. 11-Rotate the idle speed screw clockwise and COUNT the number of turns MAIN NOZZLE INLET NEEDLE CLEANING AND INSPECTING necessary to seat it LIGHTLY. After the number of turns has been noted and recorded somewhere, back out the idle speed screw. Slide the spring free of the screw. 12-Loosen the retainer nut with the proper size wrench. Rotate the nut several turns COUNTER CLOCK WISE but DO NOT remove the nut. 13-Unscrew the mixing chamber cover with a pair of pliers. Once the cover is free, lift off the throttle valve assembly. Disconnect the throttle lever from the bracket. 14-Compress the spring in the throttle valve assembly to allow the throttle cable end to clear the recess in the base of the throttle valve and to slide down the slot. 15-Disassemble the throttle valve consisting of the throttle valve, spring, jet needle (with an E-clip on the second groove), jet retainer, and throttle cable end. NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, . dtaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner, because they tend to absorb liquid and expand. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with com pressed air immediate 1y. Place all of the metal parts in a screentype tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean --free of gum and varnish which accumulates from stale fuel. Blow the parts dry with compressed air. Blow out all of the passageways in the carburetor with compressed air. Check all of the parts and passageways to be sure they are clear and not clogged with any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Carefully inpsect the casting for cracks, stripped threads, or plugs for any sign of l..akage. Inspect the float hinge in the hinge GOOD WORDS It is not necessary to remove the E-clip from the jet needle, unless replacement is required or if the powerhead is to be operated at a significantly different elevation. THROTTLELEVER MIXING CHAMBER COVER pm area for wear and the float for any sign of leakage. Examine the inlet needle for wear and if there is any evidence of wear, the needle MUST be replaced. Always replace any worn or damaged parts. A carburetor service kit is available at modest cost from the local marine dealer. This kit contains all necessary parts to perform the usual carburetor overhaul work. THROTTLEVALVE ,' JETNEEDLE Qlr._, SCREW 37 12 THROTTLE CABLE RETAINER NUT 30 BRACKET 3129 HIXING CHAMBER COVER SPRING 8 6 10 RETAINER E-CLI P JET NEEDLE THROTTLE VALVE HAIN NOZZLE GASKET 11121314 FLOAT 41 FLOAT BOWL HINGE PIN 16-FLOAT HINGE 17-MAIN JET 18-SCREW 19 \ GASKET 20-INLET NEEDLE 21 SEAT 222-3-IOLE SPEED SPRING 24-CHOKE LEVER 25-SCREW 26-CHOKE PLATE 27-WASHER282930 1 32 NUT 34 CLAHP SCREW GASKET 35 SCREW THROTTLE LEVER 19 SCREW 18-----8 4041 LOCKWASHER GASKET LEVER SUPPORT COLLAR KNOB CARBURETOR "E" 4-47 SCREW COVER ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "E" SPECIAL WORDS The E-clip MUST be installed into the same groove from which it was removed. If the clip is lowered, the carburetor will allow the powerhead to operate "rich". Raising the E-clip will cause the powerhead to operate "lean". l-Assemble the throttle valve components in the following order: Insert the Eclip end of the jet needle into the throttle valve (the end with the recess for the throttle cable end). Place the needle retainer into the throttle valve over the E-clip and align the retainer slot with the slot in the 2Thread the spring over the end of the throt tie cable and insert the cable in to the retainer end of the throttle valve. Com throttle valve. E-CLIP JETRETAINER JET NEEDLE HI XING CHAMBERCOVER NEEDLE THROTTLE VALVE press the spring and at the same time guide the cable end through the slot until the end locks in to place in the recess. Position the assembled throttle valve in such a manner to perrn it the slot to slide over the alignment pin while the throttle valve is towered into the carbure tor. Attach the throttle lever to the bracket on top of the throttle valve assembly. 3Carefully tighten the mixing chamber cover with a pair of pliers. HAIN NOZZLE screwdriver. 4-Position the bracket to allow the throttle to just clear the front of the carburetor, and then tighten the retainer nut. 5-Slide the spring onto the idle speed screw, and then start to thread the screw into the carburetor body. SLOWLY rotate the screw until it seats LIGHTLY. From this position, back out the screw the same number of complete turns as noted during removal (Step 11). If the count was lost, back the screw out two turns as a preliminary adjustment. A fine idle adjustment will be made later in Step 17. 6-Thread the main nozzle into the carburetor body and tighten it just "snug" with the proper size wrench. DO NOT overtighten the nozzle. 7-Install the main jet into the main nozzle and tighten it just "snug" with a 8-Position a new float bowl gasket in place, and then instdll the inlet needle. 9-Hold the carburetor body in a perfect upright position on a firm surface. Set the hinge in position, and then slide the hinge pin into place through the hinge. 10-Check the float hinge adjustment. The vertical distance between the top of the hinge and the top of the gasket should be .090" (2.0mm). CAREFULLY bend the hinge, as necessary, to achieve the required measurement. 11-Install the float. 12-Place the float bowl in position on the carburetor body, and then secure it with the two Phillips head screws. INSTALLATION CARBURETOR "E" 13-Position a new carburetor-to-powerhead seal in the recess of the carburetor throat. 14-Slide the carburetor onto the crankcase cover and secure it in place with the clamp screw. 15-Connect the fuel line to the fuel inlet fitting. Open the fuel valve between the fuel tank and the carburetor. 16-Install the front cover and the knobs onto the choke and thro t tie levers. Idle Speed Adjustment 17-Connect a tachometer to the powerhead. Stdrt the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. Adjust the throttle lever to the lowest speed, and then adjust the idle speed screw until the engine idles at 900-1000 rpm. 4-11 TILLOTSON "BC" CARBURETOR RECTANGULAR BOWL -DOUBLE FLOAT WITH INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP REFERENCED "F" IN APPENDIX This section provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling including bench adjustments, and installation for the Tillotson "BC", rectangular bowl, double float carburetor with integral fuel pump. This carburetor is referenced "F" in the Tune-up Specifications (third to last column) in the Appendix. For adjustments with the ignition system, see Chapter 6. Positive identification of the carburetor can be made by the embossed letters on the mounting flange, as shown in the accompanying illustration. If troubleshooting indicates the fuel pump to be the cause of problems, the pump may be serviced without removing the carburetor from the powerhead. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Snip the Sta-strap on the fuel line to the carburetor. Disconnect the fuel line. Loosen, but DO NOT remove the choke securing nut holding the choke rod to the choke arm on top of the carburetor. Move the rod to one side. Remove the two nuts securing the carburetor to the adaptor. Lift the carburetor free of the powerhead. 2-Re:nove the center screw securing the cover to the carbure tor. Remove the cover, then lif t out the strainer and gasket. Discard the gasket. (A new one will be provided in a carburetor repair kit.) 3-Slowly tighten the low speed mixture Exterior view of the Type "F" carburetor. screw and COUNT the number of turns necessary to seat the screw LIGHTLY. This count will be most helpful during assembling. Back out the low speed mixture screw. TAKE CARE to not lose the tiny spring on the shaft of the screw. If this spring remains in the carburetor body, remove and save the spring. 4-Unscrew the main jet from the fuel bowl. Discard the gasket under the screw head. 5-Remove the four bolts securing the fuel bowl to the carburetor body. Separate the bowl from the body. Discard the gasket. 6-Pry out the float pin from the built-in clamps in the fuel bowl. 7-Lift the fuel float, the hinge, and the hinge pin clear of the float bowl. Release the tiny wire spring from the tab on the float hinge. 8-Remove the spring and inlet needle from the recess in the fuel bowl. DISASSEMBLING FUEL PUMP The manufacturer recommends the pump be serviced anytime the carburetor is overhauled. Actually, if troubleshooting the fuel system indicates the fuel pump to be at fault, the pump may be serviced without removing the carburetor from the powerhead. 9-Remove the four screws securing the fuel strainer cover to the carburetor body. Remove the cover and then the following parts in order, as shown in the accompanying illustration: pump diaphragm, gasket, fuel pump body, check valve diaphragm, and another gasket. Notice how the outlet and inlet check valves are a part of the check valve diaphragm. 10-Back out the center screw, and then lift off the mixing chamber cover. Remove and discard the gasket from the recess in the carburetor body. 11-Remove the enrichment valve. Exercise CARE to not lose any of the small assocla ted parts. After the valve body is removed, the valve body seat, which resembles a washer or gasket, and valve stem may be lifted out. Remove the spring and notice how the small end is facing UP. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, diaphragms, or pump plungers in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry with compressed air. Place all the metal parts in a screentype tray and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean --free I I J Carburetor idle adjust ment screws. The top screw is worn and unfit for service. The bottom screw is new. 1 -Main (High Speed) Jet 2-"0" Ring (Seal) 3-Gasket 4-Screw (4 Required) 5-Lockwasher (4 Required) 6-Fuel Bowl 7-Fuel Inlet Needle 8-Clip 9-Float 10-Float Pin 11 -Gasket (Float Bowl) 12 -Plate 13 -Spring -Choke Detent 14 -Bolt (2 Req'd) 15-Clip 16-Rod, choke 17 -Knob, choke 18-Low Speed Mixture Screw 19-Spring 20 -Seat (Enrichment Valve) 21 -Spring 22 -Enrichment Valve 23 -Rubber Seal 24 -Screw 25 -Shoulder Washer 37 -Gasket 26 -Mixing Chamger Cover 38 -Pump Diaphragm 27 -Gasket 39 -Fuel Strainer Body 28 -Screw with Lockwasher 40 -Fuel Strainer 29 -Throttle Shutter Plate 41 -Gasket 30-Flange Gasket (Carb. Mounting) 42 -Fuel Strainer Cover 31 -Retaining Clip 43 -Screw 32 -Spring 44 -Screw ( 4 Req'd) 33 -Throttle Shaft 45 -Lockwasher (4 Req'd) 34 -Gasket 46 -Carburetor Body 35 -Check Valve Diaphragm 36 -Fuel Pump Body --double float carburetor with integral fuel pump. This carburetor is identified as an "F" carburetor in the text and appendix. Major parts are identified. Exploded view of a Tillotson "BC" rectangular bowl of gum and varnish which accumulates from stale fuel. Blow the parts dry with compressed air. Blow out all passageways in the castings with co:npressed air. Check all of the parts and passages to be sure they are not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any type of pointed instrument to clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Make a thorough inspection of the fuel pump diaphragm for the tinest pin hole. If one is discovered, the hole will only get bigger. Therefore, the diaphragm must be replaced in order to obtain full performance from the powerhead. Carefully inspect the casting for cracks, stripped threads, or plugs for any sign of leakage. Inspect the float hinge in the hinge pin area for wear and the float for any sign of leakage. Examine the inlet needle for wear and if there is any evidence of wear, the inlet needle MUST be replaced. GOOD WORN WORN Line drawing to compare a worn and new needle and seat arrangement. The worn needle would have to be replaced for fuZZ carburetor efficiency. ALWAYS replace any and all worn parts. A carburetor service kit is available at modest cost from the local marine dealer. The kit will contain all necessary parts to perform the usual carburetor overhaul work. ASSEMBLING CARBURETOR "F" 1-Slide the enrichment valve spring into Set the valve seat in place and then thread the enrichment body into place. 2-Tighten the valve body just "SNUG". The body is made of brass and can be easily damaged by overtightening. 3-Place a NEW gasket in position on the mixing chaf11ber. The gasket will fit properly in only way way. Install the mixing chamber cover and secure it in place with the center screw. 4-Slide the inlet needle into its recess in the fuel bowl. Place the small spring on top of the needle. the carburetor body with the LARGE end going in first. Insert the valve stem with the "plunger" end going in first. The spring will allow the stem to move up and down. VALVE BODY .. SEAT ..O I VALVE STEH I....SPRING.. . 5-Hook the spring over the tab on the float hinge. Lower the fuel float into the bowl and snap the pin into place onto the built-in clamps of the bowl. Place a NEW gasket over the main jet, and then thread the jet into the carburetor body. Tighten the jet just "SNUG". 6-Invert the fuel bowl allowing the fuel float to hang free. Measure the distance between the base of the fuel bowl and the "bottom" surface of the float --"bottom" as the float hangs, as shown. This measurement should be as close to 1/32" (.8mm) as possible. To make an adjustment, remove the float and bend the float tab ever so SLIGHTLY to increase or decrease the measurement. Just a "whisker" of bend on the tab will move the float and change the measurement. 7-Position a NEW gasket on to the float bowl mating surface, and then bring the bowl and carburetor body together. Secure the bowl in place with the four attaching screws. 8-Slide the tiny spring onto the low speed mixture screw and then thread the screw into the carburetor body. Seat the screw LIGHTLY, and then back it out the same number of turns counted in Step 3 of disassembling. If the count was lost, back the screw out from the lightly seated position 1-1/4 turns as a preliminary bench adjustment. ASSEMBLING FUEL PUMP 9-Assemble the various part of the fuel pump to the carburetor body in the order shown in the accompanying illustration. Refer to the illustration to ensure the proper gasket is installed in the correct location or the pump will not function properly, perhaps not at all. First, the gasket, then the check valve diaphrc.gm, the fuel pump body, another gasket, the pump diaphragm, and finally the fuel strainer cover. Secure the cover in place with the four screws and lockwashers. CHECK VALVE DIAPHRAGM 0 10-After the cover is secured, place the fuel strainer into its recess, place a NEW gasket in place, and then install the fuel strainer cover. Secure the cover with the center screw. 11-Position a NEW gasket in place over the two adaptor studs. Mount the carburetor to the adaptor and secure it in place with the two nuts. Tighten the nuts securely. Connect the choke rod to the choke arm. Slide the choke rod under the retainer. Tighten the choke securing nut. Connect the fuel line to the carburetor using a NEW Sta-strap. 12-Position the outlet on the fuel strainer cover to ensure a minimum of 1/4" (7mm) clearance between the throttle cam, when the cam is at the throttle wide open position, and the fuel line. If the throttle cam contacts the fuel line, the throttle could re,nain open when an attempt is made to reduce power. This could result in a very HAZARDOUS condition. ADJUSTMENTS FIRST A WORD: Before fine carburetor adjustments can be properly made, the following conditions must ....xist: a. The regular engine-propeller cornbina tion must be used. b. The power unit must be in forward gear. c. The lower unit must be in the water. d. The engine must be warmed to normal operating tern perature. < ' '.> ' The high speed jet on the "F" carburetor is easily accessible. This location permits quick changes for operation at different altitudes. ADVICE It is better to have the ;nixture set slightly on the rich side, rather than to') Idle Speed Adjustment 13-After the engine has been warmed to operating temperature, turn the idle speed adjusting screw on the stop bracket until the engine idles at approximately 700800 rpm in forward gear in a test tank or600-700 on a boat. Idle Mixture Adjustment 14-Turn the adjusting screw counter clockwise until the engine fires unevenly rom the mixture being too rich. Now, begin to turn the screw clockwise and rpm will begin to increase. Continue turning the adjusting screw until the mixture is so lean that the rpm begins to drop and the engine lean. begins to misfire. Set the adjusting screw halfway between the rich and lean points. High-Speed Adjustment The main metering high speed jet is not adjustable. lf the engine is to be oper;tted at elevations above 4000 ft. (!219m), n..placethe main metering jet:L> indic..tted in the Jet Size/Elevati)f1Chartin tlw ,\ppendix. 4-12 WALBRO WM CARBURETOR ROUND BOWL -DOUBLE FLOAT WITH INTEGRAL FUEL PUMP REFERENCED "G" IN THE APPENDIX INTRODUCTION This section ing and bench adjustments, -double float This carburetor in the /\ppendix. Positive mounting flange, panying illustration. If pump to be may be serviced For adjustments tein, see Chap ter 6. provides complete detailed procedures for removal, disassembly, ck'aninspecting, assernbling includ ing and installation for the Wal bro W M series carburetor --round how I -with an in tegral f.Jd pu"lp. is referencPd "G" in the Tune-up Specifkation'> (third to le1st column) iden tifica tion of tr1e carbure tor c:an he rnade by the e nb():;sc..d lf:'tt crs <:)tl the .=ts ''i..Jown in the arr:s, t..w pU!np withou t :: ;1 .. .. SPECIAL WORDS On the Model 45, 1976 -1979, and Model 4.5 1979--1985, the points should just close ATDC per the Specifications. 4-Remove the dial indicator. Install the spark plugs. Install the engine cowling. Test the engine by operating it in a test tank. Tiller Handle Adjustment 5-Mount the engine in a test tank or move the boat to a body of water. NEVER use a flush device for this test. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. With the engine running and the shift lever in the NEUTRAL position, advance the throttle until the engine is operating at 2400 to 2700 rpm. When the engine is operating at this speed, the START position on the twist grip should align with the indicator arrow on the tiller handle. If the twist grip is not properly aligned as stated in the previous step, loosen the Allen screw at the bottom of the twist grip and align the twist grip. Tighten the Allen screw, and then check the adjustment by backing off the throttle to normal idle, and then advancing the throttle to the START position. The engine should be operating at 2400 to 2700 rpm. This procedure will eliminate any error caused by "play" in the throttle. An accurate adjustment at this time will ensure easy start of a cold engine. Remove the engine from the test tank. 6-9 MODEL 400 1970 -1971 Primary Pickup Synchronizing Timing 1-Mount the engine in a test tank or move the boat into a body of water. NEVER use a flush device when making the primary pickup, maximum advance timing, or the secondary pickup adjustments. Remove the engine cowling. Connect the fuel line to a fuel source. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug. 2-Check the position of the trigger plate. The plate should be approximately in the center of the elongated slots. With a feeler gauge, measure the clearance between the trigger pickup head and the trigger housing. This clearance should be 0.050 -0.060" (1.3-1.5mm). If adjustment is necessary, use shims between the trigger plate and the starter housing. Check the position of the throttle lockout cam. Adjust the cam, if necessary by shimming the trigger plate to the starter housing. 3-Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Aim the timing light at the window in the flywheel guard. Advance the idle until the white timing dots on the flywheel show ..... ... 0 SECONDARY PICKUP THROTTLE STOP SCREW SCREW through the window. See the Specifications in the Appendix for correct timing. With the engine running at this speed, loosen the two screws on the carburetor pickup plate and slide the plate until the cam just makes contact with the primary pickup arm on the carburetor cluster. Tighten the screws to hold the adjustment. Maximum Advance Timing 4-Advance the twist grip throttle until the engine is operating at 5000 -5200 rpm. Adjust the spark stop screw to align the flywheel timing white line through the window in the flywheel guard. See the Specifications in the Appendix for correct setting. Back off the throttle to normal idle speed. Shut down the engine. Disconnect the timing light, the tachometer, and the fuel line. Secondary Pickup Adjustment With the spark arm stop making contact with the stop, but not actuating the throttle arm, adjust the throttle arm until it just makes contact with the secondary pickup on the carburetor cluster. To make the adjustment, CAREFULLY bend the arm as required. Rotate the throttle arm to the wide open position. Now, adjust the throttle stop screw until the carburetor shutter is fully open. Check for 0.010 -0.015" (.3-.4-mm) "play" in the carburetor shaft. This amount of "play" will prevent a strain on the linkage. After the proper clearance is obtained, tighten the locknut to hold the adjustment. Install the engine cow ling. Remove the engine from the test tank. idle speed. 6-10 MODEL 402 1972 -1979 MODEL 40 1979 -1983 MODEL 3.5 1984 -1989 Primary Pickup Synchronizing Timing 1-Mount the engine in a test tank, or move the boat into a body of water. NEVER use a flush device when making the primary pickup, maximum advance timing, or the secondary pickup adjustments. Remove the engine cowling. Connect the fuel line to a fuel source. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top) spark plug. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Aim the timing light at the window in the flywheel guard. Advance the throttle until the timing dots on the flywheel are aligned with the notch in the timing window. See the Specifications in the Appendix for the correct setting. 2-Adjust the turnbuckle, on early models, or the adjustment screw to the left of the throttle lever on late models, until the throttle cam just makes contact with the primary pickup arm on the carburetor cluster. Tighten the turnbuckle locknuts to hold the adjustment. Back off the throttle to Maximum Advance Timing 3-With the engine running in FORWARD gear, advance the throttle to wide open. Engine rpm should be 5000 -5500 rpm. Aim the timing light at the timing window. Adjust the maximum spark advance screw until the straight line on the flywheel is allgned with the notch in the timing window. See the Specifications in the Appendix for the proper setting. Backoff the throttle to idle speed. Shut down the engine. Disconnect the timing light and the fuel line. Remove the tachometer from the engine. Secondary Pickup adjustment 4-With the engine shut down, pos1 twn the spark advance lever until it just makes contact with the maximum spark stop. DO NOT actuate the throttle lever. Loosen the SECONDARY PICKUP ARH locknut and adjust the secondary throttle pickup screw until the end of the screw just makes .contact with the secondary pickup arm on the carburetor cluster. Tighten the locknut to hold the adjustment. Full Throttle Stop Screw Adjustment 5-With the engine shut down, move the 6-11 MODEL 40 1976 -1981 Idle Retard Adjustment 1-Remove the engine cowling. Move the throttle lever to the full retard position and the carburetor shutter plate to the fully closed position. Loosen the throttle cam adjustment screw. Adjust the throttle cam until 0.005-0.015" (.1-.3mm) clearance is obtained between the throttle cam and the cluster pin. Tighten the adjustment screw securely to hold this adjustment. Loosen the retard cable jam nuts, and then adjust the cable until approximately 34 threads (about 1/8") (3.2mm) are exposed. Tighten the jam nuts securely to hold this adjustment. Hold the twist grip against the idle stop and at the same time adjust the advance cable until there is no slack in the cable. Tighten the jam nuts securely to hold this adjustment. 2-Remove the idle lever from the idle screw on the carburetor. Preset the carburetor idle screw at 1-1/4 turns out from a lightly seated position. In other words, slowly and carefully turn the screw in until it barely seats, then back it out 1-1/4 turns. throttle lever to the wide open throttle (WOT) position. Now, adjust the throttle stop screw until the carburetor shutter is fully open at the WOT. Check to be sure the carburetor shutter does not act as a throttle stop. Use a feeler gauge and check the clearance between the secondary pickup screw and the secondary pickup arm on the carburetor cluster. This clearance should be 0.010 -0.0 15" (.25 -.38mm). Remove the engine from the test tank. EXPOSED 4-Adjust the trigger link rod to set the Primary Pickup Synchronizing Timing FIRST, this procedure MUST be performed with the engine in a test tank. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 3-Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top) spark plug. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. Shift the engine into FOR WARD gear, and operate at 1/2 throttle for approximate idle timing at 2 below the advance reading which is obtained as the idle speed approaches 600 rpm. An example: If the timing fully retards to 18 ATDC as the throttle is closed, and advances to 15 ATDC at 600 rpm, then set the idle timing at 17 ATDC. Turn the twist throttle grip against the idle stop. Now, advance the throttle grip until the throttle cam contacts the cluster pin, then check the timing. The timing should be 14 + 2 ATDC. If the throttle pickup is incorrect, adjust the throttle carnd as required, to obtain throttle pickup at 14 + 2 ATDC. Turn the idle adjustment knob to the ly five minutes to warm the engine to operating temperature. With the engine in gear; thorough! y warm; and operating at 1000 to 1500 rpm; observe the ignition tlmlng while quickly closing the throttle against the idle stop. The timin.. should Jully retard to approximately 18 to 20 ATDC, then advance slightly to 15 to 18 ATDC as the idle speed approaches 600 rpm. RUN position. Install the idle lever onto the carburetor idle screw in the 9 o'clock position. Maximum Advance Timing 5Advance the throttle grip until 22 BTDC is reached. At this point adjust the maximum spark advance screw until it just makes contact with the stop. Tighten the jam nut on the spark advance screw securely to hold the adjustment. Disconnect the timing light and the tachometer. Install the engine cowling. Remove the engine from the test tank. 6-12 MODEL 75 AND 110 1975 -1979 MODEL 7.5 AND 9.8 1979 -1985 Maximum Advance Timing 1-Mount the engine in a test tank. Remove the engine cowling. Connect the fuel line to a fuel source. Install a tachometer to the engine. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top) spark plug. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 2-Move the shift lever into FORWARD gear. Advance the throttle until the maximum timing mark on the flywheel is aligned with the timing mark on the starter housing. Refer to the Specifications in the Appendix for recommended rpm. Adjust the maximum spark advance screw until the end of the screw just makes contact with the throttle lever. Back off the throttle to normal idle, and then shut the engine down. Disconnect the timing light. Maximum Neutral RPM Limiter Adjustment The purpose of the maximum neutral rpm speed limiter is to stop the rotation of the tiller handle-twist grip at a specified rpm when the shift lever is in the NEUTRAL position. This adjustment must be accurate to ensure easy starting when the engine is cold and also to prevent the engine from starting at maximum operating rpm. 3-With the engine operating at idle speed, loosen the neutral speed stop bolt just enough to enable the maximum neutral speed stop to slide back and forth. Now, turn the twist grip to advance engine rpm to 2400 -2700 rpm . WITHOUT turning the twist grip, position and secure the maximum neutral speed stop against the neutral speed limiter follower. This adjustment will now stop the throttle at the recommended maximum neutral speed and assist starting a cold engine. Check the adjustment to be sure the maximum neutral speed stop does not allow the engine rpm to exceed 2400-2700 rpm. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear and check to be sure the neutral speed stop does not interfere with throttle operation in forward gear. If the stop does interfere with throttle operation, move the back edge of the stop TOWARD the cylinder block. Tiller Handle and Throttle Decal Alignment FIRST, these words: The adjustment outlined in the previous step must be completed BEFORE the tiller handle and throttle decal alignment can be properly made. 4-With the engine operating at idle speed and the shift lever in the NEUTRAL position, turn the twist grip until the throttle is against the maximum neutral stop. At this point, the arrow on the tiller handle should be aligned with the word START on the throttle decal. If the arrow is not properly aligned, proceed as follows: a-Remove and retain the two screws securing the tiller handle to the engine. b-Re-align the gears, as necessary to align the word START with the arrow. c-Install the tiller handle to the engine and secure it with the two screws. Disconnect the tachometer and fuel line. Install the engine cowling and remove the engine from the test tank. 6-13 MODEL 200 WITH CD IGNITION SYSTEM 1975 --1981 Maximum Advance Timing 1-Mount the engine in a test tank. NEVER use a flush device for this test. Remove the engine cowling. Connect the fuel line to a fuel source. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug. . IJJ CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 2-Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Advance the throttle to the wide open position. Aim the timing light at the tirnin3 mark on the rewind housing. Adjust the two elastic stop nuts, or adjust the link rod, until the timing mark on the flywheel is aligned with the mark on the rewind housing. Refer to the Specifications in the Appendix for the exact BTDC setting. Tighten the elastic stop nuts, or the jam nuts. Back off the throttle to the normal idle position. Primary Pickup Synchronizing Timing 3-Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Advance the throttle until the timing mark on the flywheel is aligned with the specified throttle pick-up, as given in the Appendix. Now, adjust the throttle pick-up screw until the end of the screw just makes contact with the carburetor cluster pin. Tighten the nut on the adjustment screw. Back off the throttle to the normal idle position. Shut the engine down and disconnect the timing light. Maximum Neutral RPM Limiter Adjustment The purpose of the maximum neutral rpm speed limiter is to stop the rotation of the tiller handle twist grip at a specified rpm when the shift lever is in the NEUTRAL position. This adjustment must be accurate to ensure easy starting when the engine is cold and also to prevent the engine from starting at maximum operating rpm. 4-With the engine operating at idle speed, loosen the neutral speed stop bolt just enough to enable the maximum neutral speed stop to slide back-and-forth. Now, turn the twist grip to advance engine rpm to 2400 2700 rpm. WITHOUT turning the - twist grip, position and secure the maximum neutral speed stop against the neutral speed limiter follower. This adjustment will now stop the throttle at the recommended maximum neutral speed and assist starting a cold engine. Check the adjustment to be sure the maximum neutral speed stop does not allow the engine rpm to exceed 2400-2700 rpm. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear and check to be sure the neutral speed stop does not interfere with throttle operation in forward gear. If the stop does interfere with throttle operation, move the back edge of the stop TOWARD the cylinder block. ALLEN SCREW UNDER GRIP Tiller Handle and Throttle Decal Alignment FIRST, this word: The adjustment outlined in the previous step must be completed BEFORE the tiller handle and throttle decal allgnment can be properly made. 5-With the engine operating at idle speed, and the shift lever in the NEUTRAL position, turn the twist grip until the throttle is against the maximum neutral stop. At this point, the arrow on the tiller handle should be allgned with the word START on the throttle decal. If the arrow is not properly allgned, proceed as follows: a-Remove and retain the two screws securing the tiller handle to the engine. b-Align the gears, as necessary to align the word START with the arrow. c-Install the tiller handle to the engine and secure it with the two screws. Disconnect the tachometer and fuel line. Install the engine cowllng and remove the engine from the test tank. 6-14 MODEL 3.5 and 3.6 HP 1980 --1985 SPECIAL WORDS The timing on the 3.5 and 3.6 hp engines is not adjustable. The following steps give detailed procedures to adjust the idle speed and the idle mixture. CAM FOLLOWER CD ward VERY slowly until the engine rpm lt to warm to operating temperature. Primary Pickup Synchronizing 1-Remove the carburetor silencer, if one is installed. Move the throttle lever to the starboard side (to the left as you face the the front of the engine). Loosen the jam nut and cam follower on top of the throttle valve. DO NOT allow the shaft to rotate. Observe through the carburetor throat and at the same time, rotate the idle speed adjusting screw COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the throttle valve stops its downward movement. Now, rotate the idle speed adjustment screw inward (CLOCKWISE), until the screw BARELY touches the throttle valve. From this position, rotate the screw inward two (2) complete turns, as a rough initial adjustment. Idle Mixture Adjustment 2-The idle mixture adjustment screw controls the air mixing with the fuel. Rotate the idle mixture screw CLOCKWISE (inward) until it BARELY seats, and then rotate it COUNTERCLOCKWISE (outward) two (2) complete turns as an intial rough adjustment. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Start the engine. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Make the fine adjustment with the idle mixture screw by rotating the screw out LEVER POST JAK NUT ....__ MIXI NG CHAMBER COVER begins to slow down, then turn the screw inward until the engine rpm begins to increase. At this point STOP. The idle mixture is properly adjusted. If the screw is turned in too far, the engine rpm will begin to slow down again. Idle Speed Adjustment 3-Rotate the idle speed adjusting screw inward or outward until the engine is operating at 750 to 850 rpm. Stop the engine. With the engine throttle lever at the lowest idle position, adjust the earn follower until it BARELY makes contact with the throttle lever. At this position, tighten the jam nut on the throttle valve shaft. 6-15 MODEL 18 AND 25 1980 --1983 MODEL 18XD and 25XD 1984 --1985 MODEL 20 1979 -1980 AND 1986 AND ON MODEL 25 1986 AND ON Primary Pickup Synchronizing Timing 1-Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire. Start the engine and allow CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the en gine is run to prevent damage to the water .. pump in the lower umt. Just f1ve seconds without water will damage the water pump. Advance the throttle to the wide open position. With the timing light aimed at the flywheel, the timing mark on the fly:Vh..el . (three (3) dots), should align w1ththe t1rnmg . mark on the manual starter housmg. If the marks do NOT align while the engine is running at wide open throttle, stop the engine. SAFETY WORDS Personal injury could result if the spark advance link rod should accidently make contact with the flywheel while the power-head is running. Therefore, keep the rod clear of the flywheel. Adjust the spark advance link rod on the starboard side of the engine. To move the timing mark to the left, retard, (when the engine is running), shorten the rod. To move the timing mark to the right, advance, (when the engine is running), lengthen the rod. Start the engine and check the adjustment. 2-Stop the engine. Loosen the hex screw on the throttle cam. Adjust the cam until the center of the roller on the throttle shaft aligns with the straight line at the end of the throttle cam. (The throttle earn is elongated behind the hex attaching screw). Tighten the hex attaching screw. Throttle Pickup Timing Adjustment 3-Start the engine and advance the throttle until the throttle pickup marks on the flywheel (two (2) dots) are aligned with the timing mark on the starter housing. The straight line at the end of the throttle cam should be at the roller or within 1/ 16" (1.6mm). If an adjustment is necessary, stop the engine and the adjust the throttle lever on the starboard side of the engine. The dashpot, installed on late model eng..nes, should be fully retracted when the adJUStment is completed. Again, start the engine and check the adjustments with the timing light. If the adjustme..ts are satisfa:tory, . stop the engine and disconnect the t1m1..g light. Adjust the idle speed screw to obtam 700 to 800 rpm. At this rpm, the stem of the dashpot should be fully depressed. If the stem is not depressed, make the necessary adjustment. Neutral RPM Adjustment 4-Start the engine and retard the throttle to the SLOW position. Shift the unit into NEUTRAL, and move the Primer/Fast/Idle knob into the center detent. Manually adjust the ratchet until the rpm ranges between 1400 -1700 rpm. 6-16 MODEL 2.2 1984-1989 MODEL 3.0 1990 AND ON SPECIAL WORDS The timing on the Model 2.2 and the Model 3.0 is not adjustable. The following procedures provide detailed instructions to adjust the throttle jet needle setting and the idle speed ad just men t. Throttle Jet Needle Setting 1-Remove the knobs from the throttle and choke levers, then lift away the front cover. Remove the throttle lever assembly from the top of throttle valve bracket. With a pair of pliers, unscrew the mixing chamber cover and lift out the throttle valve assembly. Compress the spring in the throttle valve assembly to allow the throttle cable end to clear the recess in the base of the throttle valve and to slide down the slot. Disassemble the throttle valve, consisting of the throttle valve, spring, jet needle, (with E-clip normally on the second groove), jet retainer and throttle cable end. The tapered jet needle varies the fuel flow as the throttle is opened. Relocating the Eclip closer to the end of the jet needle will lean the air/fuel mixture; lowering the Eclip will enrich the mixture. -1st Groove LEANER MIXTURE RICHER MIXTURE CD It is preferable to operate the powerhead with a too rich a mixture rather than too lean. A too lean an air/fuel mixture will cause the powerhead to overheat. A powerhead operating too hot will cause pre-ignition. If the condition is not corrected the powerhead could be severely damaged. If the air/fuel mixture is too rich, the rpm will decrease as the throttle is opened beyond the 2/3 to full throttle range. If the correct mixture is not obtainable by changing the position of the E-clip on the throttle needle, the main jet located inside the fuel bowl in the center of the float MUST be changed from the standard jet size No. 94. See table in the Appendix. Idle Speed Adjustment 2-Connect a tachometer to the powerhead. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Start the the engine and allow it warm to operating temperature. Adjust the throttle lever to the lowest speed, and then adjust the idle speed screw until the powerhead idles at 900-1000 rpm. 6-17 MODEL 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 1.5 AND 210cc 1986 AND ON Maximum Advance Timing 1-Mount the engine in a test tank. Remove the engine cowling. Connect the fuel line to a fuel source. Install a tachometer to the engine. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top) spark plug. Start the engine and allow it to warm to operating temperature. and then turn the knob COUNTERCLOCKWISE as far as possible. Shift the unit into NEUTRAL and adjust the upper screw on the ratchet to remove any clearance between the idle wire and the trigger. The wire should BARELY make contact with the trigger. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 2-Move the shift lever into FORWARD gear. Advance the throttle until the maximum timing mark on the flywheel is aligned with the timing mark on the starter housing. Refer to the Specifications in the Appendix for recommended rpm. Adjust the maximum spark advance screw until the end of the screw just makes contact with the stop. Back off the throttle to normal idle, and then shut the engine down. Disconnect the timing light. Idle Timing Adjustment 3-Push the Primer/Enricher knob inward and at the same time rotate the knob COUNTERCLOCKWISE as far as possible. 4-Reduce the powerhead rpm to idle speed, 550-650 rpm. Shift the unit into FORWARD gear and adjust the idle timing screw until the mark on the hand starter housing aligns with the 6 BTDC mark on the decal (2 dots). Idle Wire Adjustment 5-Push the Primer/Enricher knob in, 6-18 MODEL 4.0 MID 1987 AND ON MODEL .5.0 1988 AND ON The timing on the models listed is preset at the factory. This setting may be checked by performing the following procedures. However, adjustment is not possible. If checking indicates the timing to be incorrect, the fault may be either mechanical or electrical. Mechanical A mechanical fault can only be directly related to the flywheel --either the flywheel has been installed without the Woodruff key or the Woodruff key has been sheared. Electrical An electrical problem may be caused by a fault in the ignition system. The ignition system uses an electronic spark advancement. Detailed testing procedures for the capacitor charging coil, the trigger, and the ignition coil are listed in Chapter 5. Check the Table of Contents. Checking Timing 1-Begin by removing the cowling. Next, remove the spark plug and install a dial indicator in the spark plug opening. Now, slowly rotate the flywheel CLOCKWISE and determine TDC for the cylinder using the dial indica tor. After TDC has been determined, observe the two vertical lines embossed on the port side of the flywheel. The aft line should align with the split line of the cylinder block and the crankcase cover. If the aft line is centered as just explained, the flywheel has been installed correctly and the Woodruff key is in place. If the aft line is not centered as explained, the hand rewind starter and the flywheel must be removed and the Woodruff key checked for damage and correct installation. Remove the dial indicator, install the spark plug and connect a timing light to the power head. Mount the engine in a test tank or move the boat to a body of water. NEVER use a flush attachment while conducting the following tests. CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the powerhead anytime the powerhead is operating to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump impeller. Idle Timing 2-Start the engine and allow it to warm to normal operating temperature. Allow the engine to run at idle speed 900-1000 rpm in FORWARD gear. Aim the timing light at the port side of the powerhead. The split line between the cylinder block and the crankcase cover should be misaligned about 1/4" (6.4mm) toward the forward side of the aft line embossed on the flywheel. This position corresponds to 50 BTDC advance at the flywheel. If the timing is not as indicated, and the powerhead operates roughly or misfires, the problem is most likely electrical. Detailed procedures to test the capacitor charging coil, the trigger, and the ignition coil. WOT Timing 3-Twist the throttle grip to the FAST position, with the engine still in FORWARD gear. Aim the timing light at the port side of the powerhead. The forward line embossed on the flywheel should align with the split line between the cylinder block and the crankcase cover. This position corresponds to 30 BTDC advance at the flywheel. If the timing is not as indicated, and the power head operates roughly or misfires, the problem is most likely electrical. Detailed procedures to test the capacitor charging coil, the trigger, and the ignition coil, are given in Chapter 5, beginning on Page 5-39. 7 ELECTRICAL 7-1 INTRODUCTION The battery, charging system, and the cranking system are considered subsystems of the electrical system. Each of these units wlll be covered in detail in this chapter beginning with the battery. 7-2 BATTERIES The battery is one of the most important parts of the electrical system. In addition to providing electrical power to start the engine, it also provides power for operation of the running lights, radio, electrical accessories, and possibly the pump for a bait tank. Because of its job and the consequences, (failure to perform in an emergency) the best advice is to purchase a well-known brand, with an extended warranty period, from a reputable dealer. The usual warranty covers a prorated replacement policy, which means you would be en ti tied to a consideration for the time left on the warranty period if the battery should prove defective before its tirne. Do not consider a battery of less than 70-ampere hour or 100-minute reserve capacity. If in doubt as to how large your boat requires, make a liberal estimate and then purchase the one with the next higher ampere rating. MARINE BATTERIES Because marine batteries are required to perform under much more rigorous conditions than automotive batteries, they are constructed much differently than those used in automobiles or trucks. Therefore, a marine battery should always be the No. 1 unit for the boat and other types of batteries used only in an emergency. Marine batteries have a much heavier exterior case to withstand the violent pounding and shocks imposed on it as the boat moves through rough water and in extremely tight turns. The plates in marine batteries are thicker than in automotive batteries and each plate is securely anchored within the battery case to ensure extended life. The caps of marine batteries are "spill proof" to prevent acid from spilling into the bilges when the boat heels to one side in a tight turn, or is moving through rough water. A fully charged battery, filled to the proper level with electrolyte, is the heart of the ignition and electrical systems. Engine cranking and efficient performance of electrical items depend on a full-rated battery. Because of these features, the marine battery will recover from a low charge condition and give satisfactory service over a much longer period of time than any type in tended for automotive use. NEVER use a "Maintenance Free" type battery with an outboard unit. The charging system is not regulated as with automotive installations and the battery may be quickly damaged. BATTERY CONSTRUCTION A battery consists of a number of positive and negative plates immersed in a solution of diluted sulfuric acid. The plates contain dissimilar active materials and are kept apart by separators. The plates are grouped into what are termed elements. Plate straps on top of each element connect all of the positive pia tes and all of the negative pia tes in to groups. The battery is divided into cells which hold a number of the elements apart from the others. The entire arrangement is contained within a hard-rubber case. The top is a one-piece cover and contains the filler caps for each cell. The terminal posts protrude through the top where the battery connections for the boat are made. Each of OVERFILLING CRACKED CELL COVER A visual inspection of the battery should be made each time the boat is used. Such a quick check may reveal a potential problem in its early stages. A dead battery in a busy waterway or far from assistance could have serious consequences. the cells is connected to its neighbor in a positive-to-negative manner with a heavy strap called the cell connector. BATTERY RATINGS Four different methods are used to measure and indicate battery electrical capacity: 1-Ampere-hour rating 2-Cold cranking performance 3-Reserve capacity 4-Watt hour rating The ampere-hour rating of a battery refers to the battery's ability to provide a set amount of amperes for a given amount of time under test conditions at a constant temperature of 80 (27 C). Amperes x hours equals ampere-hour rating. There fore, if the battery is capable of suppling 4 amperes of current for 20 consecutive hours, the battery is rated as an 80 ampere hour battery. The ampere-hour rating is useful for some service operations, such as slow charg ing or battery testing. Cold cranking performance is measured by cooling a fully charged battery to 0 F ( 0 17C) and then testing it for 30 seconds to determine the maximum current flow. In this manner the cold cranking amperes rat ing is the number of amperes available to be drawn from the battery before the voltage drops below 7.2 volts. Reserve capacity of a battery is consid ered the length of time --in minutes --at 80 F (27 C) a 25 ampere current can be maintained before the voltage drops below 10.5 volts. This test is intended to provide an approximation of how long the engine, including electrical accessories such as bilge pump, radio, running light, could continue to operate satisfactorily if the alternator or magneto did not produce sufficient current. A typical rating is 100 minutes. Watt-hour is a very useful rating of battery power. It is determined by multiplying the number of ampere hours times the voltage. Therefore, a 12-volt battery rated at 80 ampere-hours would be rated at 960 watt-hours (80 x 12 = 960). If possible, the new battery should have a power rating equal to or higher than the unit it is replacing. BATTERY LOCATION Every battery installed in a boat must be secured in a well-protected ventilated area. If the battery area lacks adequate ventilation, hydrogen gas which is given off during charging could become very explosive. This is especially true if the gas is concentrated and confined. BATTERY SERVICE The battery requires periodic serv1cmg and a definite maintenance program will ensure extended life. If the battery should test satisfactorily, but still fails to perform properly, one of five problems could be the cause. 1-An accessory might have accidently been left on overnight or for a long period during the day. Such an oversight would result in a discharged battery. 2-Slow speed engine operation for long periods of time resulting in an undercharged condition. 3-Using more electrical power than the alternator can replace would result in an undercharged condition. 4-A defect in the charging system. A faulty alternator, defective rectifier, or high resistance somewhere in the system could cause the battery to become undercharged. 5-Failure to maintain the battery in good order. This might include a low level of electrolyte in the cells; loose or dirty cable connections at the battery terminals; or possibly an excessively dirty battery top. Electrolyte Level The most common practice of checking the electrolyte level in a battery is to remove the cell cap and visually observe the level in the vent well. The bottom of each vent well has a split vent which will cause the surface of the electrolyte to appear distorted when it makes contact. When the distortion first appears at the bottom of the split vent, the electrolyte level is correct. Some late-model batteries have an electrolyte- level indicator installed which operates in the following manner: A transparent rod extends through the center of one of the cell caps. The lower tip of the rod is immersed in the electrolyte when the level is correct. If the level should drop below normal, the lower tip of the rod is exposed and the upper end glows as a warning to add water. Such a device is only necessary on one cell cap because if the electrolyte is low in one cell it is also low in the other cells. BE SURE to replace the cap with the indicator onto the second cell from the positive terminal. During hot weather and periods of heavy use, the electrolyte level should be checked more often than during normal operation. Add potable (drinking) water to bring the level of electrolyte in each cell to the proper level. TAKE CARE not to overfill, because adding an excessive amount of water will cause loss of electrolyte and any loss will result in poor performance, short battery life, and will contribute quickly to corrosion. NEVER add electrolyte from another battery. Use only clean pure water. Battery Testing A hydrometer is a device to measure the percentage of sulfuric acid in the battery electrolyte in terms of specific gravity. When the condition of the battery drops from fully charged to discharged, the acid leaves the solution and enters the plates, causing the specific gravity of the electrolyte to drop. It may not be common knowledge, but hydrometer floats are calibrated for use at 80 F (27 C). If the hydrometer is used at any other temperature, hotter or colder, a correction factor must be applied. (Remember, a liquid will expand if it is heated and will contract if cooled. Such expansion and contraction will cause a definite change An explosive hydrogen gas is normally released from the cells under a wide range of circumstances. This battery exploded when the gas ignited from someone smoking in the area when the caps were removed. Such an explosion could also be caused by a spark from the battery terminals igniting the gas. in the specific gravity of the liquid, in this case the electrolyte.) A quality hydrometer will have a thermometer/ temperature correction table in the lower portion, as shown in the accompanying illustration. By knowing the air temperature around the battery and from the table, a correction factor may be applied to the specific gravity reading of the hydrometer float. In this manner, an accurate determination may be made as to the condition of the battery. The following six points should be observed when using a hydrometer. 1-NEVER attempt to take a reading immediately after adding water to the battery. Allow at least 1/4 hour of charging at a high rate to thoroughly mix the electrolyte with the new water. This time will also allow for the necessary gasses to be created. 2-ALWAYS be sure the hydrometer is clean inside and out as a precaution against contaminating the electrolyte. 3-If a thermometer is an integral part of the hydrometer, draw liquid into it several times to ensure the correct temperature before taking a reading. 4-BE SURE to hold the hydrometer vertically and suck up liquid only until the float is free and floating. 5-ALWAYS hold the hydrometer at eye level and take the reading at the surface of the liquid with the float free and floating. Disregard the light curvature appearing where the liquid rises against the float stern. This phenomenon is due to surface tension. 6-DO NOT drop any of the battery fluid on the boat or on your clothing, be CORRECTION OF.. 160 +32+30150 +28+26140 +241.150 +22130 +20 1.175 +18120 +16+141.200 110 +12+10 1.225 100 + 8 + 6 90 + 4 1.250 + 2 80 0 1.275 -270 --61.300 60 -8-10 so -12-140 -1 6 -18 30 -20-2220 -24-26-28 cause and it is extremely caustic. Use water baking soda to neutralize any battery liquid that does accidently drop. After withdrawing electrolyte from the battery cell until the float is barely free, note the level of the liquid inside the hydro meter. If the level is within the green band range for all cells, the condition of the battery is satisfactory. If the level is within the white band for all cells, the battery is in fair condition. If the level is within the green or white band for all cells except one, which registers in the red, the cell is shorted internally. No amount of charging will bring the battery back to satisfactory condition. If the level in all cells is about the same, even if it falls in the red band, the battery may be recharged and returned to service. If the level fails to rise above the red band after charging, the only solution is to replace the battery. Cleaning Dirt and corrosion should be cleaned A check of the electrolyte in the battery should be on the maintenance schedule for any boat. A hydrome from the battery just as soon as it is dis ter reading of 1.300, or in the green band, indicates the covered. Any accumulation of acid film or battery is in satisfactory condition. If the reading is dirt will permit current to flow between the 1.150 or in the red band, the battery must be charged. terminals. Such a current flow will drain Observe the six safety points listed in the text when using a hydrometer. the battery over a period of time. Clean the exterior of the battery with a solution of diluted ammonia or a soda solution to neutralize any acid which may be present. Flush the cleaning solution off with clean water. TAKE CARE to prevent any of the neutralizing solution from entering the cells, by keeping the caps tight. A poor contact at the terminals will add resistance to the charging circuit. This resistance will cause the voltage regulator to register a fully charged battery, and thus cut down on the alternator output adding to the low battery charge problem. Scrape the battery posts clean with a suitable tool or with a stiff wire brush. Clean the inside of the cable clamps to be sure they do not cause any resistance in the circuit. JUMPER CABLES If booster batteries are used for starting an engine the jumper cables must be connected correctly and in the proper sequence to prevent damage to either battery, or to the altern a tor diodes. The second part of the brush shown in the previous illustration may be used to clean the cable connectors. ALWAYS connect a cable from the positive terminal of the dead battery to the positive terminal of the good battery FIRST. NEXT, connect one end of the other cable to the negative terminal of the good battery and the other end to a good ground on the powerhead. DO NOT connect the negative jumper from the good battery to the negative terminal of the low battery. Such action will almost always cause a spark One of the most effective means of cleaning the A common set of heavy-duty jumper cables. Obbattery terminals is to use a two-part inexpensive serve the safety precautions given in the text when brush designed for this specific purpose. using jumper cables. which could ignite gases escaping through the vent holes in the battery filler caps. Igniting the gases may result in an explosion destroying the battery and causing severe personal INJURY. By making the negative (ground)connection on the powerhead, if an arc is created, it will not be near the battery. DISCONNECT the battery ground cable before replacing an alternator or before connecting any type of meter to the alter nator. If it is necessary to use a fast-charger on a dead battery, ALWAYS disconnect one of the boat cables from the battery FIRST, to prevent burning out the diodes in the recti fier. NEVER use a fast-charger as a booster to start the engine because the diodes in the alternator will be DAMAGED. STORAGE If the boat is to be laid up for the winter or for more than a few weeks, special attention must be given to the battery to prevent complete discharge or possible damage to the terminals and wiring. Before putting the boat in storage, disconnect and remove the batteries. Clean them thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion, and then charge them to full specific gravity reading. After they are fully charged, store them in a clean cool dry place where they will not be damaged or knocked over, preferably on a couple blocks of wood. Storing the battery up off the deck, will permit air to circulate freely around and under the battery and will help to prevent condensation. NEVER store the battery with anything on top of it or cover the battery in such a manner as t0 prevent air from circulating around the fillercaps. All batteries, both new and old, will discharge during periods of storage, more so if they are hot than if they remain cool. Therefore, the electrolyte level and the specific gravity should be checked at regular intervals. A drop in the specific gravity reading is cause to charge them back to a full reading. In cold climates, care should be exercised in selecting the battery storage area. A fully-charged battery will freeze at about 60 degrees below zero. A discharged battery, almost dead, will have ice forming at about 19 degrees above zero. A thermomelt stick is a quick, simple, inexpensive, and fairly accurate method to determine powerhead operating temperature, as shown here on a 4-cylinder unit. 7-3 THERMOMELT STICKS Thermomelt sticks are an easy method of determining if the powerhead is running at the proper temperature. Thermomelt sticks are not expensive and are available at your local marine dealer. Start the engine with the propeller in the water and run it for about 5 minutes at roughly 3000 rpm. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without" water will damage the water pump. The 14-0 degree stick should melt when you touch it to the lower thermostat housing or on the top cylinder. If it does not melt, the thermostat is stuck in the open position and the engine temperature is too low. Touch the 170 degree stick to the same spot on the lower thermostat housing or on the top cylinder. The stick should not melt. If it does, the thermostat is stuck in the closed position or the water pump is not operating properly because the engine is running too hot. If the powerhead is not equipped with a thermostat, the problem may be solved by reverse flushing to clean out the cooling system and/or servicing the water pump. For service procedures for the thermostat, see Chapter 8. For service procedures for the water pump, see Chapter 9. 7-4 TACHOMETER An accurate tachometer can be installed on any engine. Such an instrument provides an indication of engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). This is accomplished by measuring the number of electrical pulses per minute generated in the primary circuit of the ignition system. The meter readings range from 0 to 6,000 rpm, in increments of 100. Tachometers have solid-state electronic circuits which eliminates the need for relays or batteries and contributes to their accuracy. The electronic parts of the tachometer susceptible to moisture are coated to prolong their life. Some of the outboard units covered in this manual have a female plug at the forward end of the shift box as a convenience for installation of a tachometer. Therefore, when purchasing a tachometer, check to be sure the adaptor plug will mate with the fitting on the shift box. 7-5 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION In the early days, all outboard engines were started by simply pulling on a rope wound around the flywheel. As time passed and owners were relunctant to use muscle power, it was necessary to replace the rope starter with some form of power cranking system. Today, many small engines are still started by pulling on a rope, but others have a cranking motor installed. The system utilized to replace the rope method was an electric cranking motor coupled with a mechanical gear mesh be- TACHOMETER tween the cranking motor and the power head flywheel, similar to the method used to crank an automobile engine. The electrical system consists of three circuits: a-Charging circuit b-Cranking motor circuit c-Ignition circuit Charging Circuit The charging circuit consists of permanent magnets and a stator located within the flywheel; a rectifier located elsewhere on the powerhead; an external battery; and the necessary wiring to connect the units. The negative side of the rectifier is grounded. The positive side of the rectifier passes through the internal harness plug to the battery. The negative side of the battery is connected, through the connector, to a good ground on the engine. The alternating current generated in the stator windings passes to the rectifier. The rectifier changes the alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) to charge the 12-volt battery. Cranking Motor Circuit The cranking motor circuit consists of a cranking motor and a starter-engaging mechanism. A solenoid is used as a heavyduty switch to carry the heavy current from the battery to the cranking motor. On most Many models of shift boxes now have a plug connecFunctional diagram of a typical charging circuit tor on the forward face for installation of a tachometer showing relationship of the stator, solid state rectifier, cable. and the battery. models, the solenoid is actuated by turning the ignition key to the START position. Ignition Circuit The ignition circuit is covered extensively in Chapter 5. 7-6 CHARGING CIRCUIT SERVICE The stator is located under, and protected by, the flywheel. Therefore, the stator seldom causes problems in the charging circuit. Most problems in the charging circuit can be traced to the rectifier or to the battery. If either the stator or the rectifier fails the troubleshooting tests, the defective unit cannot be repaired, it MUST be replaced. STATOR SERVICE This section provides detailed procedures for testing, removing, and installing the stator. Stator Testing The stator may be tested without removing the flywheel, by merely disconnecting the two yellow leads from the rectifier and using an ohmmeter. Check the resistance of the stator windings against those given in the Specifications in the Appendix. If the stator resistance does not meet the Specifications, it MUST be replaced. REMOVAL BAD NEWS: The flywheel must be re moved to gain access to the stator. Disconnect the battery leads from the battery terminals. Remove the front cowl cover and the wrap-around cowl, if one is used. Remove the top cowl. Remove the nut on the crankshaft in the center of the flywheel. A flywheel holder may be required to prevent the flywheel from turning in order to loosen the nut. Obtain the proper flywheel puller to pull the flywheel. NEVER use a puller which pulls on the outside edge of the flywheel, or the flywheel may be damaged. After the puller is installed, tighten the center screw onto the end of the crankshaft. Continue tightening the screw until the flywheel is released from the crankshaft. Remove the flywheel puller. Lift the flywheel from the crankshaft. Remove the yellow wires leading from the stator to the black terminal on the rectifier. Remove the retaining screw from the stator and lift the stator from the engine. INSTALLATION Place the stator in position on the powerhead. Coat the threads of the stator attaching screws with blue Loctite, or equivalent. Secure the stator with the at- Once the flywheel is removed, major ignition comThe trigger must be removed to gain access to the ponents are exposed for service. stator. to prevent accidental engine start when the engine is in gear. The cranking motor is a series wound electric motor which draws a heavy current from the battery. It is designed to be used only for short periods of time to crank the engine for starting. To prevent overheating the motor, cranking should not be continued for more than 30-seconds without allowing the motor to cool for at least three minutes. ")" T erminol FOR MARINE USE ONLY FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE ONLY Schematic diagram of a marine solenoid (top) and an automotive solenoid (bottom). The marine solenoid has an internal groWld and is therefore suitable for outboard installations. taching screws through the stator into the powerhead block. Insert the flywheel key into the crankshaft keyway. Check to be sure the inside taper of the flywheel and the taper on the crankshaft are clean of dirt or oil, to prevent the flywheel from "walking" on the crankshaft during operation. Slide the flywheel down over the crankshaft with the keyway in the flywheel aligned with the key on the crankshaft. Rotate the flywheel clockwise and check to be sure the flywheel does not contact any powerhead part or the wmng. Thread the flywheel nut onto the crankshaft, and then tighten it to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. For detailed timing procedures, see Chapter 6. 7-7 CRANKING MOTOR CIRCUIT SERVICE DESCRIPTION As the name implies, the sole purpose of the cranking motor circuit is to control operation of the cranking motor to crank the power head un til the engine is operating. The circuit includes a solenoid or magnetic switch to connect or disconnect the motor from the battery. The operator controls the switch with a push button or key switch. A neutral start switch is installed into the circuit to permit operation of the cranking motor ONLY if the shift control lever is in NEUTRAL. This switch is a safety device Simple fW1ctional diagram of a cranking circuit. Actually, this time can be spent in making preliminary checks to determine why the engine fails to start. Theory of Operation Power is transmitted from the cranking motor to the powerhead flywheel through a Bendix drive. This drive has a pinion gear mounted on screw threads. When the motor is operated, the pinion gear moves upward and meshes with the teeth on the flywheel ring gear. When the engine starts, the pinion gear is driven faster than the shaft, and as a result, it screws out of mesh with the flywheel. A rubber cushion is built into the Bendix drive to absorb the shock when the pinion meshes with the flywheel ring gear. The parts of the drive MUST be properly assembled for efficient operation. If the drive is removed for cleaning, TAKE CARE to assemble the parts as shown in the accompanying illustration. If the screw shaft assembly is reversed, it will strike the splines and the rubber cushion will not absorb the shock. The sound of the motor during cranking is a good indication of whether the cranking motor is operating properly or not. Natural ly, temperature conditions will affect the speed at which the cranking motor is able to crank the engine. The speed of cranking a cold engine will be much slower than when cranking a warm engine. An experienced operator will learn to recognize the favorable sounds of the powerhead cranking under various conditions. Faulty Symptoms If the cranking motor spins, but fails to crank the engine, the cause is usually a corroded or gummy Bendix drive. The drive should be removed, cleaned, and given an inspection. If the cranking motor cranks the engine to slowly, the following are possible causes and the corrective actions that may be taken: a-Battery charge is low. Charge the battery to full capacity. b-High resistance connections at the battery, solenoid, or motor. Clean and tighten all connections. c-Undersize battery cables. Replace cables with sufficient size. d-Battery cables too long. Relocate the battery to shorten the run to the solenoid. Maintenance The cranking motor does not require periodic maintenance or lubrication. If the motor fails to perform proper 1y, the checks outlined in the previous paragraph should be performed. The frequency of starts governs how often the motor should be removed and reconditioned. The manufacturer recommends removal and reconditioning every 1000 hours. Naturally, the motor will have to be removed if the corrective actions outlined under Faulty Symptoms above, does not restore the motor to satisfactory operation. CRANKING MOTOR TROUBLESHOOTING Before wasting too much time troubleshooting the cranking motor circuit, the following checks should be made. Many tirnes, the problem will be corrected. a-Battery fully charged. b-Shift control lever in NEUTRAL. c-All electrical connections clean and tight. d-Wiring in good condition, insulation not worn or frayed. Two more areas may cause the powerhead to crank slowly even though the cranking motor circuit is in excellent condition: a tight or "frozen" powerhead and water in the lower unit. The following troubleshooting procedures are presented in a logical sequence, with the most common and easily corrected areas listed first in each problem area. The connection number refers to the numbered positions in the accompanying illustrations. Perform the following quick checks and corrective actions for following problems: 1-Cranking Motor Rotates Slowly a-Battery charge is low. Charge the battery to full capacity. b-Electrical connections corroded or loose. Clean and tighten. c-Defective cranking motor. Perform an amp draw test. Lay an amp drawgauge on the cable leading to the cranking motor. Turn the key on and attempt to crank the engine. If the gauge indicates an excessive amperage draw, the cranking motor MUST be replaced or rebuilt. 2-Cranking Motor Fails to Crank Powerhead Test Motor a-Disconnect the cranking motor lead from the solenoid to prevent the powerhead from starting during the testing process. NOTE: This lead is to remain disconnected from the solenoid during tests No. 2 thru No. 7. b-Disconnect the black ground wire from the No. 2. c-Connect a voltmeter between the No. 2 and a common engine ground. d-Turn the key switch to the START position. e-Observe the voltmeter reading. If there is the slightest amount of reading, check the black ground wire connection or check for an open circuit. Connect the ground wire back to the No. 2 and move to Step 7. If there is no voltmeter reading, proceed with Step 3. 3-Test Cranking Motor Solenoid a-Connect a voltmeter between the en-.. gine common ground and the No. 3. b-Turn the ignition key switch to the START position. c-Observe the voltmeter reading. If there is the slightest indication of a reading, the solenoid is defective and must be replaced. If there is no reading, proceed with Step 4. 4-Test Neutral Start Swtich a-Connect a voltmeter between the common engine ground and the No. 4. Turn the ignition key switch to the START position. b-Observe the voltmeter. If there is any indication of a reading, the neutral start switch is open in the shift box or the yellow wire lead is open between the No. 3 and No. 4. If there is no voltmeter reading, proceed to Step 5. 5-Test Ignition Switch a-Connect a voltmeter between a common engine ground and No. 5. b-Observe the voltmeter. If there is the slightest indication of a reading, the ignition switch is defective and must be replaced. If there is no reading, proceed with Step 6. 6-Test for Open Wire a-Connect a voltmeter between the common engine ground and No. 6. b-The voltmeter should indicate 12volts. If the meter needle flickers (fails to hold steady), check the circuit between No. 6 and common engine ground. If meter fails to indicate voltage, replace the positive battery cable. BATTERY RED SWITCH YELLOW YELLOW STARTER NEUTRAL START SWITCH {LOCATED IN CONTROL HOUS lNG) 7-Further Tests for Solenoid a-Connect the voltmeter between the common engine ground and No. 1. b-Turn the ignition key switch to the START position. c-Observe the voltmeter. If there is no reading, the cranking motor solenoid is defective and must be replaced. If a reading is indicated and a click sound is heard, proceed to Step 8. 8-Test Yellow Cable a-Connect the yellow cable to the cranking motor solenoid. b-Connect the voltmeter between the engine common ground and No. 7. c-Turn the ignition key switch to the START position. d-Observe the voltmeter. If there is no reading, check the yellow cable for a poor connection or an open circuit. If there is any indication of a reading, and the starter does not turn, the cranking motor must be replaced. CRANKING MOTOR SOLENOID TROUBLESHOOTING Description The cranking motor solenoid is a switch between the battery and the motor. Several types of solenoids are used and many look very much alike. For marine applications, a solenoid with an internal ground is used. Grounding this type solenoid is accomplished by a wire internally connected to one of the small terminals. Connecting an external wire for a ground will serve no purpose. NEVER attempt to use an automotive-type solenoid, because such a unit will cause more trouble and damage than can be imagined. When purchasing a replacement solenoid, look for a statement on the package indicating the unit is for marine use. Illustrations of several different type solenoids are included in this section as an assist to understanding the operating functions of each type. Solenoid Testing The following test must be conducted with the solenoid removed from the engine. a-Connect one test lead of an ohm meter to each of the large solenoid ter minals. b-Connect the positive (+) lead from a fully charged 12-volt battery to the small solenoid terminal marked S. c-Momentarily make contact with the ground lead from the battery to the small solenoid terminal marked I. If a loud "click" This solenoid acts as a relay in the cranking motor circuit. If the unit is found to be defective it MUST be A cutaway drawing of a marine cranking motor replaced. solenoid, with major parts identified. sound is heard, and the ohmmeter indicates continuity, the solenoid is in serviceable condition. If, however, a "click" sound is not heard, and/or the ohmmeter does not indicate continuity, the solenoid is defective and must be replaced ONLY with a MARINE- type solenoid. 7-8 CRANKING MOTOR SERVICE Description Two different cranking motors are used on the powerheads covered in this manual. The motors are almost identical in construction except for size and the manner of removing the pinion gear. The larger motor is used on the 35hp and 40hp early model units. The smaller motor is used on all other units when a cranking motor is installed. Marine cranking motors are very similar in construction and operation to the units used in the automotive industry. All marine cranking motors use the inertia- type drive assembly. This type assembly is mounted on an armature shaft with external spiral splines which mate with the internal splines of the drive assembly. NEVER operate a cranking motor for more than 30-seconds without allowing it to cool for at least three minutes. Continuous operation without the cooling period can cause serious damage to the cranking motor. Both cranking motors operate in much the same manner and the service work in- Test leads connected to a solenoid in preparation to testing, as explained in the text. Comparison of a large cranking motor (top) with a small motor (bottom), as referenced in this chapter. volved in restoring a defective unit to service is almost identical. Therefore, the information in this chapter is presented for the major components under separate headings. Differences, where they occur, between the large and small motor are clearly indicated. CRANKING MOTOR REMOVAL Before beginning any work on the cranking motor, disconnect the positive (+) lead from the battery terminal. Remove the cowling from the powerhead. Disconnect the yellow cable at the cranking motor terminal or at the solenoid. Remove the mounting bolts from the cranking motor housing and remove the starter from the powerhead. 1/2-INCH SOCKET CRANKING MOTOR DISASSEMBLING LARGE CRANKING MOTOR USED ONLY ON 35HP AND 40HP UNITS PINION GEAR SERVICE This type cranking motor has the pinion gear secured to the shaft with a snap ring. 1-Remove the pinion gear from the armature. This is accomplished by sliding a deep half-inch socket onto the shaft until the end of the socket butts against the edge of the pinion stop collar. Next, tap the end of the socket to drive the stop collar away from the snap ring. 2-Pry the snap ring from the groove in the shaft, with a narrow blade screwdriver. 3-If a nut is used instead of the snap ring, slide the pinion gear upward, and then VICE GRIP Pll ERS NUT {USE WRENCH) place a wrench on the retaining nut. Hold the pinion gear with a pair of vise grip pliers. Hold firm and at the same time back off the nut with the wrench. Remove and DISCARD the nut. NEVER attempt to use the same nut a second time. 4-To remove the pinion gear and spring, move the gear upward on the shaft, and then snap the spring out of the hole on the bottom side of the gear. 5-Use a screwdriver and lift the other end of the spring from the armature shaft. If other work is to be performed on the motor, move directly to the starter repair section in this chapter. DISASSEMBLING THE FRAME LARGE CRANKING MOTOR GOOD NEWS If the only motor repair necessary is replacement of the brushes, the pinion gear does not have to be removed. All cranking motors have thru-bolts securing the upper and lower cap to the field frame assembly. In all cases both caps have some type of mark or boss. These marks are used to properly align the caps with the field frame assembly. SPRING 1-Observe the caps and find the identifying mark or boss on each. If the marks are not visible, make an identifying mark prior to removing the thru-bolts as an essential aid during assembling. Remove the thru-bolts. On some models, the thru-bolts thread into the opposite cap, and on other models, a nut is used. 2-Remove the lower cap. Remove the BRUSH brushes from their holders, and then remove the brush springs. 3-Pull on the armature shaft from the drive gear end and remove it from the field frame assembly. Cleaning and Inspecting is presented in Section 7-9. Testing of the various electrical parts is presented in Section 7-10. Assembling is covered in Section 7-11. DISASSEMBLING PINION GEAR AND FRAME ASSEMBLY SMALL CRANKING MOTOR FIRST, THESE WORDS Disassembly of the small cranking motor is very different from the large motor presented in the previous section. The pinion gear assembly is not disassembled separately from the frarne. Instead, disassembly of the small motor is done almost at once with removal of the thru-bol ts. The following procedures pickup the work from the beginning, and include removal of the unit from the powerhead. 1-Disconnect the electrical leads from the battery terminal posts. Disconnect the lead from the solenoid or from the cranking motor. Remove the two mounting bolts securing the motor to the powerhead. CRITICAL WORDS Alignment marks MUST be scribed on the end cap and frame assembly to ensure the armature and end cap are properly installed back into their original position. The marks will not guarantee the thru-bolts will slide through the frame assembly on the first attempt, but without them aligned it is not possible. FRAMEASSEMBLY 2-Scribe a mark on the motor frame and a rna tching mark on the end cap. These marks will ENSURE the end cap is installed back to the frame assembly in the exact position from which it was removed. Remove the thru-bolts. Lift the end cap free of the frame assembly. It may be necessary to tap the end cap with a soft head mallet to jar the cap loose. 3-Carefully lift out the spacer from inside the bronze bushing in the end cap. Set the spacer in a safe place. It is a very small item, easily forgotten or lost. The brushes of the starter shown are riveted to the brush plate. The plate in turn is riveted to the end cap. Therefore, if the brushes require replacement, the rivets securing both the end plate and the brush leads must be drilled out. The plate must be removed to ensure all fillings are cleaned from the end cap. If only the brush lead rivets are drilled out, it would be impossible to remove all the fillings from the drilling out of the end cap. GOOD WORDS On some small cranking motors, the brush plate and the brush leads are secured with screws. Brush replacement on these units is a sim pie rna tter. II-Pull the armature fro6I I I I I I / I :: I I: II_) / I 3-0/ 1-0 0-2 / I I ' ' ' '-...>Q I I 1I 4 3 - r--<- -":..- ....... , ... , I : I II! \ I I I I -J\ I ..,..)0___ TRANSFER PORT COVER 50 in lb (6Nm) 8 CRANKCASE COVER 200in lb (22ttn) _ _ ..r - ---,/..-.....___.. ...,.. .j._ -\ - '----,', ( -___ -...:: -- ------.. -t --, --9 / ;'0\ '-f--r 1 \ --,1 8 " 5 b// - II I 1II 1 ..6 o..I III I I I ; II ' I _, Or) OI I ', - I lI -- I 1 I , - 4-r. I I 4-0 ( '1-5 ( I ---' \ '( _, - 3 O O IJ I 1 I I I I ' I I I I I I \ I , ' 0'. I \ )-2 I I \ I 0!I -1 I I I I I L -$ 3 ' ,_,1I I ' I I\ I -JQ) t- I I I 1I 1 I _ 7 ... -.. I 01 (\. t I OiI -9 8 6 I -!0 tO/ \'1 . ' \ ( I I-----) 0 I I - I, _ - 10 - ---/ CYLINDER BLOCK COVER EXHAUST COVER 100in Jb (11.3Nm) 200in Jb (22Nm) illustration on Page 8-19, to prevent distorting the cover. Tighten the cover bolts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix A torque wrench is essential to correctly assemble the powerhead. NEVER attempt to assemble a powerhead without a torque wrench. Attaching bolts MUST be tightened to the required torque value in three progressive stages, following the specified tightening sequence. Tighten all bolts to 1/3 the torque value, then repeat the sequence tightening to 2/3 the torque value. Finally, on the third and last sequence, tighten to the full torque value. Install and tighten the end cap bolts in three stages to the torque value given in the Appendix. SPECIAL WORDS Notice in the Appendix the Model 40 (40 hp) and Model 35 (Serial No. 5823918 and up), the upper and lower end caps have different torque values given. After the bolts have been tightened, rotate the crankshaft several times to veri fy it does not bind or have any "rough" spots. 21-Use a NEW gasket and install the intake transfer port cover. Tighten the attaching hardware in three stages to the torque value given in the Appendix, in the sequence shown in the accompanying illustration on Page 8-19. SPECIAL WORDS On newer model units, attach the fuel pump to the intake transfer port cover. Replace the coil mounting housing and thermostat (if so equipped). 22-Install the cylinder block cover with a NEW gasket and tighten the attaching hardware in three stages to the torque value given in the Appendix , in the sequence shown in the accompanying illustration on Page 8-19. 23-Install the exhaust cover and plate. Tighten the bolts in the sequence pattern given in the accompanying illustration on Page 8-19 in three stages and to the torque value given in the Appendix. On the Mercury Model 402 (1972-78), 40 (40 hp 1979-" 83), and 35 hp (1984 & on) ONLY: Install the valve, gaskets and plate onto the thermostat. (A) BOTTOM SEAL CD POWERHEAD "A" INSTALLATION 1-Install the bottom and top seal onto the driveshaft. Apply a small amount of Multilubricant onto the driveshaft splines. Wipe the top of the driveshaft clean so excessive lubricant will not be trapped in the clearance space between the crankshaft and the driveshaft. Any trapped lubricant will cause an excessive pre-load between the shafts when the gear housing nuts are tightened. An excessive pre-load will cause damage to either the gear housing or the powerhead, or both when the powerhead is operated. 2-Position a NEW gasket onto the bottom of the powerhead. Place the powerhead onto the exhaust housing. listed in the Appendix in three successive stages. 4-Install the exhaust housing cover, if one is used. 5-If a vertical throttle shaft is used, install it onto the block. 6-Position a NEW gasket in place on the intake manifold with the vacuum pressure hole aligned with the hole in the manifold. Install the carburetor. Tighten the carburetor attaching nuts alternately to the torque value given in the Appendix. 7-Replace and connect the electrical 3Thread the nuts onto the powerhead studs and tighten them to the torque value components on top of the engine. Use the diagram or photographs made prior to disassembly and see Chapter 5 and 7. 8-Insert the flywheel key in the crankshaft keyway. Check the inside rim of the flywheel to be sure metal particles are not stuck to the flywheel magnets. Check to be sure the inside taper of the flywheel and the taper on the crankshaft are clean of dirt or oil, to prevent the flywheel from "walking" on the crankshaft during operation. Slide the flywheel down over the crankshaft with the keyway in the flywheel aligned with the key on the crankshaft. Rotate the flywheel clockwise and check to be sure the flywheel does not contact any part of the magneto or the wiring. Thread the flywheel nut onto the crankshaft. Use the proper holding tool to prevent the flywheel from rotating and tighten the flywheel nut to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Install the front and rear support frame nuts and bolts, if they are used. Install the water tattle-tale hose to the block. 9-Install and secure the rewind starter onto the powerhead with the attaching hardware. If the rewind starter requires service, see Chapter 12. 10-If the tiller handle was removed, install it onto the engine housing. Connect the choke linkage to the choke shutter. 11-Connect the fuel lines. Install the electric choke, stop button, and the starter, if one is used. Check the gap on each spark plug according to the Specifications in the Appendix. (For many models, the gap is set.) Install the spark plugs and tighten them to a torque value of 20-1/2 ft-lbs (30.51 Nm). Connect the high-tension leads to the spark plugs. For synchronizing procedures, see Chapter 6. 12-Mount the engine in a test tank. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Attempt to start and run the engine without the cowl installed. Perhaps the flywheel will accept an emergency-type pull cord, or you can figure some way to rotate the flywheel until it starts. This will give you the opportuni ty to check for fuel and oil leaks, without the cowl in place. Follow the break-in procedures. After you are satisfied the engine is operating properly, install the top engine cowl, and at the same time, feed the rewind cord through the housing. Attach the pull handle onto the rewind cord. TILLERHANDLE ------'..,... Break-in Procedures As soon as the engine starts, CHECK to be sure the water pump is operating. If the water pump is operating, a water mist will be discharged from the exhaust relief holes at the rear of the drive shaft housing. DO NOT operate the engine at full throttle except for VERY short periods, until after 10 hours of operation as follows: a-Operate at 1/2 throttle, approximately 2500 to 3500 rpm, for 2 hours. b-Operate at any speed after 2 hours BUT NOT at sustained full throttle until another 8 hours of operation. c-Mix gasoline and oil during the breakin period, total of 10 hours, at a ratio of 25:1. If the unit being serviced is equipped with the Auto Blend oil injection system, the manufacturer recommends oil be added to the fuel in a ratio of 50: 1 in ADDITION to the oil injection system. The oil in the fuel will give a ratio of 25: 1 during the break-in period. d-While the engine is operating during the initial period, check the fuel, exhaust, and water systems for leaks. e-See Chapter 6 for synchronizing procedures. After the test period, disconnect the fuel line. Remove the engine from the test tank. Install the engine cowl. 8-3 POWERHEAD "B" SPLIT BLOCK WITHOUT HEAD EXTERNAL REED BLOCK (See Tune-up Specifications --Last Column) REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING ADVICE Before commencing any work on the powerhead, an understanding of two-cycle engine operation will be most helpful. Therefore, it would be well worth the time to study the principles of two-cycle engines, as outlined briefly in Section 8-1. A Polaroid, or equivalent instant-type camera is an extremely useful item, providing the means of accurately recording the arrangement of parts and wire connections BEFORE the disassembly work begins. Such a record is invaluable during the assembly work. POWERHEAD "B" REMOVAL I-Remove the gas cap, and then the top cowl. Disconnect the high tension leads from the spark plugs. ALWAYS use a pulling and twisting motion as a precaution against damaging the connection. Close the fuel shutoff valve, and then siphon the fuel from the engine mounted fuel tank. Remove the four screws securing the sound box cover to the sound box, and then remove the cover and gasket. Remove the two screws securing the sound box to the carburetor, and then remove the sound box. 2-Remove the hand starter retaining screws, and then remove the starter. Re REMOVAL "8" ..25 4-----CAP not be able to identify the engine being serviced. Therefore, TAKE TIME to make notes and tag the wiring and hoses. You may elect to follow the practice of many professional mechanics by taking a series of photographs of the engine, one from the top, and several from the sides showing the wiring and arrangement of parts. 4-Loosen the locknuts on the advance and retard throttle cables. Remove the two cables from the mounting bracket and the Sound bo:x: prior to removal. move the idle adjusting lever from the carburetor idle adjustment screw. 3-STOP, and carefully observe the wiring and hose connections before proceeding. Because there are so many different engines and the arrangement is slightly different on each, it is not possible to illustrate all of them. Even if they were shown, you would Fuel shutoff valve located at the front of the engine. Other models have this valve installed on the starboard side. FUEL TANK THROTTLE CABLE 1 cable ends from the ball sockets. Disconnect the choke cable from the mounting bracket. Disconnect the cable end from the carburetor screw. Remove the black steering handle wire and the black switch box, wire from the ground on the side of the exhaust cover. Disconnect the orange, steering handle, wire from the side of the switch box. Cut the sta-strap and disconnect the fuel line from the carburetor. 5-Open the fuel tank mounting strap and lift the fuel tank from the support bracket. Allow the tank to hang over the side of the bottom cowl. Disconnect the four primary wires from the coils. Remove the sta-strap securing the primary wire harness to the fuel tank support bracket. 6-Remove the nut and flat washer securing the flywheel to the crankshaft. It may be necessary to use some type of flywheel strap to prevent the flywheel from turning as the nut is loosened. Install the proper flywheel puller. NEVER attempt to use a puller which pulls from the outside edge of the flywheel or the flywheel may be damaged. After the puller is installed, tighten the center screw onto the end of the crankshaft. Continue tightening the screw until the flywheel is released from the crankshaft. Remove the flywheel. 7-Remove the flywheel key from the keyway in the crankshaft. Remove the two Removal of the switch box. bolts securing the switch box to the powerhead. Remove the two screws attaching the stator assembly to the powerhead. Lift off the stator assembly with the attached trigger, the throttle linkage, and the switch box and allow it to hang over the side of the bottom cowl. 8-Remove the carburetor attaching locknuts and flat washers, and then remove the carburetor. Disconnect the bleed hose from the fitting on the carburetor adaptor. Remove the carburetor adaptor, reed block, and gaskets from the powerhead. GOOD WORDS The reed block can be adequately inspected without disassembling. If inspection indicates a part requires replacement, see Section 8-8, Cleaning and Inspecting, at the end of this chapter. Remove the filler block from the crankcase, if one is installed. 9-Remove the six nuts securing the powerhead and the bottom cowl to the driveshaft housing. Hold the bottom cowl down, and at the same time pry up on the powerhead to break the gasket between the powerhead and the bottom cowl. 10-Lift the powerhead straight up from the bottom cowl to prevent tearing the gasket. If the crankshaft and drive shaf t splines bind together and do not separate smoothly when the powerhead is being lifted, it is possible the driveshaft pulled up/out of the gear housing and disengaged the wa ter pump impeller key. 11-Measure the height of the driveshaft to determine if the driveshaft has pulled up/out of the gear housing as follows: Place a straight edge on the powerhead mounting surface of the bottom cowl, and then measure the distance between the straight edge and the top of the driveshaft, as shown. Next, push down on the driveshaft until the driveshaft bottoms-out in the gear housing. If the driveshaft moves downward more than 1/ 4-" (6.35mrn), it will be necessary to remove the gear housing and reinstall the water pump impeller key. To install the water pump impeller key, see Chapter 9. POWERHEAD "B" DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the bolts securing the exhaust cover and exhaust manifold to the cylinder block. Remove the exhaust cover, manifold and gasket from the cylinder block. NEVER attempt to pry the cover off the block. Tap sideways with a soft mallet to loosen the cover. Disconnect the tattletale hose (if equipped) from the fitting at the bottom of the cowl. 2-Remove the six screws securing the cylinder block cover to the cylinder block. Remove the cylinder block cover and gasket from the cylinder block. NEVER attempt to pry the cover off the block. Tap sideways with a soft mallet to loosen the cover. Later model powerheads will have an intake cover on the starboard side secured with two bolts. If the block is to be serviced, this cover and the gasket should be removed. 3-Remove the six bolts securing the crankcase cover to the cylinder block. NEVER pry between the two block halves with any kind of tool. Tap lightly on the bottom side of the crankshaft to jar the block halves apart. After they have separated, lift the crankcase cover from the cylinder. Catch and save the needle bearings which may fall out of the center main bearing . 4-Remove the center main bearing liner from the crankcase cover. 5-Lift the crankshaft assembly from the cylinder block. Save the needle bearings from the center main bearing. By count, there MUST be 25 needle bearings. If the count is short one or more may still be inside the block. Remove the bearing liner from the cylinder block. ADVICE New needle bearings should be installed in the connecting rods, even though they may appear to be in serviceable condition. New bearings will ensure lasting service after the overhaul work is completed. If it is necessary to install the used bearings, keep them separate and identified to ensure they will be installed onto the same crankpin throw and with the same connecting rod from which they were removed. 6-Slide the upper oil seal and the crankshaft roller bearing off the crankshaft. DISCARD the oil seal. 7-Cup both hands around the piston with your fingers at the back of the ring. Now, spread the ring open with your thumbnails inserted at the ring ends and remove the ring up over the top of the piston. OBSERVE the pins in the ring groove. These pins are essential to prevent the rings from rotating in the groove. If the ring was allowed to rotate, the end of the ring would become lodged in the cylinder port and break the ring. 8-Before removing the rod cap, observe the identifying matching marks on the boss of the rod and cap. These MUST be matched again during assembly. 9-Bend the tabs away from the connecting rod screws, and then remove the screws. Place the crankshaft assembly on a clean work surface. Separate the connecting rod cap from the connecting rod. Remove the connecting rod, cap, and needle count, there should be 25 needle bearings. Keep the bearings with the same rod, or stow them in an identified container to ensure they will be installed with the same rod during assembly. Attach the cap back on to the rod to ensure it will be ins tailed with the same rod during installation. used TAKE CARE not to damage the piston. DISCARD the lockrings, because they should not be used a second time. 11Remove the piston from the rod by first inserting a punch into the hollow end of the piston pin. Next, support the bottom of the piston with one hand and drive the pin through the piston with a mallet and the punch. Rod with the wrist pin bearing still in place. This bearing should not be removed unless it is unfit for further service. bearings from the crankpin throw. By BAD NEWS 10-WEAR eye protective glasses while removing the piston pin lockrings, because the lockring is made of spring steel and may slip out of the pliers or pop out of the groove with considerable force. Remove the two lockrings. A lockring tool, Mercury part No. 91-5252Al, may be used to remove the lockring. An alternate method is to use a punch to pop the ring out. If a punch is On some models it may be necessary to heat the top of the piston to approximately 190 with hot water or a heat lamp before the piston pin can be driven out. On some models, needle bearings are used with the piston pin. These bearings will fall out after the pin has been removed. ALWAYS handle the piston with care, because the piston can be distorted with careless treatment. 12-DO NOT remove the roller bearing from the piston pin end of the connecting rod unless it is necessary to replace the bearing. If inspection determines the bearing must be replaced, support the connecting rod on a suitable mandrel and press the bearing out with Bearing Tool C-91-77584. 13-Remove the coupler from the end of the crankshaft by installing a Universal Puller Plate C-91-37241 between the coupler and the oil seal. Support the puller plate in a press and press the crankshaft out of the coupler. TAKE CARE to support the crankshaft while it is being pressed out of the coupler to prevent it from falling to the floor and being damaged. 14-Secure the coupler in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Remove the retainer seal from the end of the coupler by tapping on the retainer seal with a flat end punch and hammer. Discard the seal. 15-Remove and DISCARD the 0-ring from the crankshaft. Remove and DISCARD the oil seal from the crankshaft. Remove the retaining ring from the crankshaft. 16-DO NOT remove the crankshaft ball bearing, unless it is necessary to replace the bearing. If inspection determines the bearing must be replaced, first, remove the retaining ring securing the bearing onto the crankshaft. The retainer can be removed with a pair of expanding type snap ring pliers. Install Universal Puller Plate, C-913724 below the crankshaft bearing. Position the crankshaft assembly in an arbor press and support the crankshaft with the puller plate. TAKE CARE to support the crankshaft while it is being pressed out of the bearing to prevent it from falling to the floor and being damaged. Remove the plastic sealing ring from the crankshaft. SPARK PLUG TRANSFER PORT REED BLOCKI CARBURETOR ADAPTOR , , PLATE REED .., ..1 ' , .. I ,(\' , v Exploded drawing of early model Type nB" powerhead with major parts identified. CYLI NDER BLOCK COVER C-D INTAKE /... Q) _f]n ... CRANKSHAFT 0 0 @) 8 Exploded drawing of late model Type "B" powerhead with major parts identified. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Detailed instructions for cleaning and inspecting all parts of the powerhead will be found in the last section of this Chapter, Section 8-5. ASSEMBLING POWERHEAD "B" FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure all parts to be re-used have been carefully cleaned and thoroughly inspected, as outlined in Section 8-8. Parts that have not been properly cleaned, or parts not suitable for service can damage a good powerhead within a few minutes after starting the engine. NEW gaskets MUST always be used during an overhaul. A torque wrench is essential for correct assembly of the powerhead. NEVER attempt to assemble a powerhead without a torque wrench. Attaching bolts for covers MUST be tightened to the required torque value in three progressive steps, following the specified tightening sequence. On the first round, tighten to 1/3 the torque value. On the second round, tighten to 2/3 the total torque value. Finally, on the third and last round, tighten to the full torque value. 1-Place each piston in a container of hot water, approximately 190 F, or carefully heat it with a bottle torch. Leave the piston in the hot water, ready for installation of the piston pins later in Step 8. Install a new crankshaft ball bearing assembly onto the bottom end of the crankshaft, if it was removed. Support the crankshaft in a press between the No. 2 throw and directly under the lower crankshaft end. Now, using a piece of tubing as a mandrel, press the lower ball bearing assembly onto the crankshaft until the bearing is seated firmly against the shoulder. Press ONLY on the inner race of the bearing. Remove the crankshaft from the press. Using a suitable pair of expanding-type Snap Ring Pliers, install the retaining ring to secure the bearing on to the crankshaft, if one is used. 2-Place the large retaining ring in position on the crankshaft. Lubricate the lip of the lower crankshaft oil seal that contacts the crankshaft, with light-weight oil. Now, slide the lubricated oil seal onto the drive end of the crankshaft with the lip TOWARD the driveshaf t end. Lubricate the 0-ring with light-weight oil, and then slide it onto the splined end of the crankshaft until it makes contact with the shoulder on the crankshaft. 3-The coupler MUST be installed onto the splined end of the crankshaft in a precise manner as follows: When installed, the positioned 180 from the centerline of the No. 2 throw on the crankshaft, as shown. The No. 2 throw is the bottom throw on the crankshaft. centerline of the counterweight must be 4-Support the crankshaft in a press being rod and push the piston pin through with the hollow end of the pin toward the BOTTOM of the crankshaft. In this position, the hollow will not collect fuel entering the chamber. tween the No. 2 throw and directly under the lower crankshaft end. Press the coupler onto the splined end of the crankshaft. CHECK to be sure: The coupler is over the 0-rlng. The coupler is seated against the crankshaft shoulder. The centerline of the counterweight is 180 from the centerline of the No. 2 throw. 5Install the retainer seal onto the end of the coupler, as shown. Support the coupler in a press with a universal puller plate, and then press the retainer seal onto the coupler with a 1/2" (13mm)socket. 6-Install the plastic sealing ring into the groove of the crankshaft, as shown. 7Ins tall the roller bearing in to the connecting rod, if it was removed. Use Tool C91-74582 to press the bearing into the connecting rod until the bearing is centered in the rod. 8Remove the piston from the hot water it was placed into at the beginning of Step 1. Position the pis ton on the connect- SUPPORT 9-WEAR eye protection glasses while installing the piston pin lockrings, because the lockring is made of spring steel and may slip out of the pliers or pop out of the groove during installation with considerable force. Install NEW lockrings in to the groove in each end of the piston pin bore. Check to be sure the lockrlngs are fully seated in the grooves. 10-Expand the ring slightly with the fingernail of each of your thumbs and at the same time support the back of the ring with your fingers. Now, slide the ring down over the piston and into the proper grooves on the piston. After the rings are in place, each ring should rotate freely. Lubricate the piston, the rings, and the cylinder bore with a good grade of outboard motor oil. Rotate the rings in their grooves until the ends of each ring is over the locating pin in the groove of the piston. SPECIAL WORDS Since 1986, the pistons for the 6 hp, 8 hp, 9.9 hp, 15 hp, and the 210 cc do not have a locating pin in the ring groove. Repeat Steps 8 thru 10 for the other piston. Two bearing retainer liners with the matching Vs clearly visible. These Vs must be matched during installation. WORDS FROM EXPERIENCE There is no easy way to install the assembled pistons and crankshaft into the block. Without a ring compressor tool, the job is even more difficult. A Mercury ring compressor tool is usually available at modest cost from the local Mercury dealer. 11-Position the connecting rod liner WITHOUT the hole in it, on the rod. Position the liner, WITH the hole in it, on the cap, with the hole aligned with the hole in the cap. Check to be sure the dovetail ends of the liners will match when the rod and cap are matched together with the boss marks aligned. NEVER intermix new needle bearings with used bearings in the same connecting rod. If a bearing is not fit for service, then the entire set MUST be replaced. 12-With the crankshaft in a horizontal position, carefully place the needle bearings around the crankshaft throw. A total of 25 needle bearings are required for each rod. Lower the connecting rod and cap over the needle bearings on the throw, with the boss wire. If the needle bearings do not spread the width of a needle bearing, the correct marks aligned, AND without disturbing the bearings. 13-Secure the connecting rod and cap together with the two rod screws using NEW locking tab washers. Tighten the screws alternately to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. DO NOT reposition the connecting rod screws, if the locking tab on the washer does not fit against the flat on the screw. 14-The locking tab MUST be positioned to conform to the screw, not the screw to the tab. CHECK the work thus far, by attempting to spread the needle bearings apart with a small pointed rod or a piece of number of bearings has been used. Lock the connecting rod screws in place by bending the tab washers up against the screws. Repeat Steps 6 thru 10 for the other rod. ADVICE Always handle pistons with great care. Do not force the piston into the cylinder bore until the cylinder has been honed to the correct size. A piston can be distorted through rough treatmen t. 15-Slide the roller bearing onto the upper end of the crankshaft with the bearing end containing the letters facing TOWARD the TOP of the crankshaft. Place the ring Bending the locking tab to secure the rod cap screw in place. Ring compressors used to install the pistons into the cylinders. compressor tool over the crankshaft and down the skirt of the piston onto the rings. Begin to tighten the tool onto the rings, and at the same time, check to be sure the ring ends are over the piston pin. Continue to tighten the tool until the rings are almost flush with the surface of the piston. Repeat the procedure for the other piston. Leave the ring compressor tool on each piston. GOOD WORDS Do not install the upper oil seal at this time. The oil seal is installed AFTER the crankshaft cover is installed onto the cylinder block. The center main bearing liner is installed into the cyllnder block AFTER the crankshaft assembly is installed. 16-With the top of the crankshaft positioned toward the top of the cylinder block, install the crankshaft assembly into the cylinder block in this manner: Lower the piston and crankshaft assembly into the block with one piston down and the other up. Work the "down" piston into the cylinder bore and at the same time, lower the crankshaft and the other piston downward. When The top oil seal which should NOT be installed at this time. This seal is installed after the crankcase is assembled. the second piston reaches the cylinder bore in the block, work both pistons and the crankshaft assembly downward. After the pistons are in the cylinder bores, remove the ring compressor tool. 17-Check to be sure each piston ring has spring tension. This is accomplished by CAREFULLY pressing on each ring with a screwdriver extended through the intake ports. If spring tension cannot be felt (the spring fails to return to its original position) the ring was probably broken during the piston and crankshaft installation process. TAKE CARE not to burr the piston rings while checking for spring tension. 18-InstaJJ the center main bearing liner, with the hole, into the cylinder block between the cylinders. Install the liner with the "V" end of the liner TOWARD the exhaust cover side of the cylinder block. 19-Lubricate the 25 center main needle bearings with Multipurpose Lubricant, or equivalent. Now, install the needle bearings by pushing them one at a time around the bottom of the center main bearing surface, and then placing thern arO.und the top of the bearing surface. BAD NEWS The retaining ring MUST be installed as just described in Step 18 with the open end of the ring toward the bleed groove, or the bleed system will be blocked. The lower oil seal must be installed tight against the retaining ring. 20-Apply a thin coating of Loctite Type "A" to the outer diameter of the lower oil seal, which contacts the cylinder block. Position the crankshaft in the cylinder block. Rotate the retaining ring until the open part of the ring is TOWARD the bleed groove. This position will prevent the retaining ring from blocking the bleed groove. Push the lower oil seal tight against the retaining ring. 21-Install the center main bearing liner onto the crankcase cover. When the liner is in position, the dovetail ends should match when the crankcase cover and the cylinder Main needle bearings installed onto the crankshaft throw. block are mated. Before mating the crank case cover and the cylinder block, check to be sure: a-The mating surfaces are clean. NEVER use any kind of tool or abrasive material to clean the surfaces. Use only solvent and elbow grease. b-The crankshaft is properly seated. c-The rod caps have been correctly installed. 22-Coat the mating surface of the crankcase cover with a thin layer of Loctite No. 514, or equivalent. TAKE CARE not to get any Loctite in the bleed hole. Wipe off any excess Loctite. Check again, to be sure the lower oil seal on the crankcase is pushed tight against the retaining ring. 23-Position the crankcase cover in place on the cylinder block. Install and tighten the six cover bolts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Follow the tightening sequence indica ted in the diagram on Page 8-41. Attaching bolts MUST be tightened to the required torque value in three progressive stages, following the specified tightening sequence. Tighten all bolts to 1/3 the torque value, then repeat the sequence tightening to 2/3 the torque value. Finally, on the third and last sequence, tighten to the full torque value. Clean off any excess Locti te from the crankcase cover and cylinder block. Insert the flywheel key into the crankshaft keyway, and then slide the flywheel into place. LOCTITE KASTER GASKET SEALANT BEAD ON CRANKCASE COVER TIGHTENING SEQUENCE TYPE 11B11 POWERHEAD CRANKCASE COVER 16.6 ft 1b {22.6 Nm) CYLINDER BLOCK COVER 60 in lb {6.8 Nm) EXHAUST COVER 60 in 1b{6.8 Nm) Now, rotate the crankshaft several turns and check to be sure it turns freely with no binding or "rough" spots. Blow compressed air through the bleed system to prevent any Locti te that may have entered the bleed system, from blocking the system. Remove the flywheel and key. 24-Lay down a thin bead of Loctite 514, or equivalent, to the outer diameter of the upper oil seal. This is the surface that contacts the powerhead. Place the seal into the cylinder block. Position a 9/ 16" socket on to the metal end of the seal and lightly tap the seal into the cylinder block. Clean away any excess Loctite. 25-Position a NEW gasket in place on the cylinder block. Ins tall the cylinder block cover and secure it with the six attorque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Follow the tightening sequence indica ted in the diagram on Page 8 41. Connect the tattle-tale hose (if so equipped) to the fitting at the bottom of the cowl. 26-Use a NEW gasket and install the exhaust cover and exhaust manifold to the cylinder block. Tighten the bolts evenly to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Follow the tightening sequence indicated in the diagram on Page 8-41. Install the filler block, if one was removed during disassembly, into the crankcase cover. If the in take cover was remO\ced in Step 13, Disassembling, install the cover using a NEW gasket. taching bolts. Tighten the bolts evenly, alternately, and in three stages to the INSTALLATION POWERHEAD "B" 1Observe if the bottom cowl is separated from the driveshaft housing. If it is separated, install a NEW gasket between the cowl and the housing. Position a NEW gasket over the powerhead studs and into place on the powerhead base. Apply a thin coating of Multipurpose Lubricant, or equivalent, to the driveshaft splines. Install the powerhead to the bottom cowl and driveshaft housing. If necessary, rotate the flywheel slightly to allow the coupler splines to index with the driveshaft splines and allow the powerhead to become fully seated. 2-Secure the powerhead to the bottom cowl and driveshaft housing with the six hex nuts. Tighten the nuts evenly, alternately, and in three stages to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Tighten all bolts to 1/3 the torque value, then repeat the sequence tightening to 2/3 the torque value. Finally, on the third and last sequence, tighten to the full torque value. 3-Use a NEW gasket and install the reed block assembly onto the carburetor mounting studs. Use a NEW gasket and install the carburetor adaptor onto the carburetor mounting studs. Connect the bleed hose between the crankcase and the carburetor adaptor. Use a NEW gasket and install the carburetor onto the mounting studs. Secure the carburetor with the two flat washers and locknuts. Tighten the nuts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. 4-Install the stator and trigger assembly to the top of the powerhead. Secure the assembly in place with the two attaching screws. Route both trigger leads and the yellow stator wire down behind the switch box to prevent them from rubbing against the flywheel. Install the switch box to the side of the power and secure it in place with the two flat washers and bolts. Check to be sure the wires are not pinched behind the switch box. Insert the flywheel key in the crankshaft keyway. 5-Check the inside rim of the flywheel to be sure metal particles are not stuck to the flywheel magnets. Check to be sure the inside taper of the flywheel and the taper on the crankshaft are clean of dirt or oil, to prevent the flywheel from "walking" on the crankshaft during operation. Slide the flywheel down the crankshaft with the keyway in the flywheel aligned with the key on the crankshaft. Rotate the flywheel clockwise and check to be sure the flywheel does not contact any part of the magneto or the wiring. 6-Slide a flat washer onto the crankshaft, and then thread the flywheel nut onto the crankshaft. 7-Tighten the flywheel nut to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appe'ldix. 8-Connect the four primary lead wires from the switch box to the coils, using the lockw ashers and hex nuts. If necessary, refer to the notes or photograph taken prior to disassembly, or to the Wiring Diagram in the Appendix. No. 1 cylinder is the top cylinder. Cover all connections with a coating of Liquid Neoprene. Install the rubber boots over the terminals. CABLES 9-Install the fuel tank to the mounting bracket and secure it in place with the mounting strap. 10-Install the rewind starter assembly to the powerhead. (If the rewind starter requires service, see Chapter 12.) Secure it in place with the three attaching screws. 11-Connect the fuel line to the carburetor and secure it in place with the stastrap. Connect the orange steering handle wire, the yellow stator wire, and the orange switch box wire together onto the switch box terminal. Remove the lower bolt from be sure the carburetor plate is fully closed. Push the choke knob in and check to be sure the plate is fully open. Adjust the choke cable, if necessary to obtain the desired results. Route the advance throttle cable under the fuel line, and then install the advance cable and the retard cable into the mounting bracket and the cable ends into the ball sockets. The retard cable is the shorter of the two cables. Adjust the advance and retard throttle cables. See Chapter 4 to make carburetor adjustments and the exhaust cover and connect the black steering handle ground wire and the black switch box ground wire to the bolt. Install the bolt and tighten it to the specified torque value. 12Install the choke cable end into the choke lever on the carburetor. Use the hole closest to the choke lever pivot. Secure the choke cable to the cable mounting bracket. Now, pull out the choke knob and check to GASCAP Chapter 6 for timing and synchronizing. Apply Loctite Type "A" to the threads of the two sound box attaching bolts. 13-Install the sound box to the carburetor and secure it in place with the two bolts. Install the sound box cover and gasket. Secure the cover with the four screws. Testing engine operation in a test tank following service work. The break-in instructions given in this section should al ways be followed after any completed work. Only Mercury Quicksilver engine oil should be added to the fuel for Mercury Outboards. 14-Install the spark plugs and tighten them to 20-1/2 ft-lbs (27 .8 Nm). Connect the high-tension leads to the proper spark plugs. Mount the engine in a test tank. Turn the fuel shut-off valve to the ON position. Start the engine and follow the break-in procedures given after the Caution. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Break-in Procedures As soon as the engine starts, CHECK to be sure the water pump is operating. If the water pump is operating, a water mist will be discharged from the exhaust relief holes at the rear of the drive shaft housing. During the first 10 hours of operation, 00 NOT operate the engine at full throttle (except for VERY short periods). Perform the break-in as follows: a-Operate at 1/2 throttle, approximately 2500 to 3500 rpm, for 2 hours. b-Operate at any speed after 2 hours BUT NOT at sustained full throttle until another 8 hours of operation. c-Mix gasoline and oil during the breakin period, total of 10 hours, at a ratio of 25:1. d-While the engine is operating during the initial period, check the fuel, exhaust, and water systems for leaks. e-Refer to Chapter 6 for synchronizing procedures. After the test period, disconnect the fuel line. Remove the engine from the test tank. Install the engine cowl. 8-4 POWERHEAD "C" SPLIT BLOCK WITH HEAD REEDS INSTALLED UNDER THE CRANKSHAFT (See Tune-up Specifications Last Column) ADVICE Before commencing any work on the powerhead, an understanding of two-cycle engine operation will be most helpful. Therefore, it would be well worth the time to study the principles of two-cycle engines, as outlined briefly in Section 8-1. A Polaroid, or equivalent instant-type camera is an extremely useful item, providing the means of accurately recording the arrangement of parts and wire connections BEFORE the disassembly work begins. Such a record is invaluable during assembling. REMOVAL POWERHEAD "C" 1-Unsnap the spark plug access cover and set it aside. 2-Remove the four screws securing the two sides of the powerhead cowling. There are five rnore pairs of screws. Each pair is attached to a clip across the seam where the two hal1es come together. Remove only ONE of each pair of screws to permit the clips to rernaln in place while the cowling is being removed. Separate the two halves, and then pull them free of the powerhead. 3-Pull the spark plug lead free of the spark plug. Use a pulling and twisting motion on the molded cap portion. NEVER pull on the wire or the connection inside the cap may become separated or the boot damaged. 4-Remove the spark plug. TAKE CARE not to tilt the socket as the plug is removed, or the insulator may be cracked. 5-Remove the three bolts securing the hand rewind starter to the powerhead. Lift the hand starter free of the powerhead. 6-Rotate the fuel shut-off valve to the OFF position. 7-Remove the clamp securing the fuel line to the carburetor. Lift the fuel tank free of the powerhead. 8-Remove the screws securing the knob to the throttle and choke levers. Set the front plate to one side of the carburetor. 9-Separate the quick-disconnect fitting from the carburetor to the coil. The front plate of the carburetor is now free. Loosen the screw on the clamp securing the carburetor. Pull the carburetor away from the powerhead. puller. NEVER at tern pt to use a puller which pulls on the outside edge of the flywheel, or the flywheel may be damaged. After the puller is installed and ready, tighten the center screw onto the end of the crankshaft. Continue tightening the screw until the flywheel is released from the crankshaft. FLYWHEEL 10-Obtain a strap wrench or equivalent tool. Hold the rope cup steady with the strap wrench and "break" the flywheel nut loose, then remove the nut with the proper size socket. The nut has standard righthand threads. 11-Continue holding the rope cup with the strap wrench, and remove the three bolts securing the rope cup. 12-Obtain and set-up the proper type wheel puller. Use the holes from which the rope cup bolts were removed to secure the 13-After the flywheel is released, remove the puller, and then lift the flywheel free of the crankshaft. A "pull" may be felt as the flywheel is lifted due to the permanent magnets installed on the inside rim of the flywheel. Handle the flywheel carefully because any sudden shock (just as dropping the flywheel) will lessen the strength of the magnets. A weak magnet will seriously affect the ignition circuit. 14-Remove the secondary coil from the side of the powerhead. Disconnect the wire leading to the stator assembly. 15-Remove the two screws securing the stator assembly. Lift the stator plate, and at the same time feed the wire connecting the stator plate to the coil through the opening in the cylinder block cover. 16-Remove the six bolts securing the powerhead to the driveshaft housing. 17-CAREFULLY pry the powerhead free of the driveshaft housing. It may be necessary to tap on the joint with a soft head mallet to break the powerhead loose. Lift the powerhead straight up and clear of the driveshaft. BAD NEWS If the unit is several years old, or if it has been operated in salt water, or has not had proper maintenance, or shelter, or any number of other factors, then separating the powerhead from the driveshaft housing may not be a simple task. An air hammer may be required on the studs to shake the corrosion loose; heat may have to be applied to the casting to expand it slightly; or other devices employed in order to remove the powerhead. One very serious condition would be the driveshaft "frozen" with the crankshaft. In this case, a circular plug-type hole must be drilled and a torch used to cut the driveshaft. Let's assume the powerhead will come free on the first attempt. The following procedures pickup the work after the powerhead is on the work bench. DRIVESHAFT HOUSING DISASSEMBLING POWERHEAD "C" 1-Thoroughly clean any gasket material adhering to the mating surfaces of the powerhead and the driveshaft housing. 2-Remove the two bolts securing the lower end cap to the powerhead. It is possible the end cap may not be removed until after the crankshaft has been removed from the powerhead. These two bolts MUST be removed at this time in order to separate the two halves of the crankcase. 3-Remove the six bolts holding the crankcase cover to the cylinder block. One of these bolts secures a wire harness retainer in place. Remember this particular bolt. 4-Separate the two halves of the crankcase. It may be necessary to carefully tap the joint with a soft-head mallet to "break" them free of each other. 5-Remove the two screws securing the reed retainers and reeds to the crankcase. REED ,, 6-Slide the end cap off the crankshaft. 7-Grasp the crankshaft firmly and pull the assembly, together with the piston, out of the cylinder. CRITICAL WORDS The rod is an integral part of the crankshaft. The two are manufactured together and CANNOT be separated. 8-Remove the four bolts securing the cylinder head to the block. DISCARD the gasket. 9-Slide the upper and lower crankcase seal free of the crankshaft. UPPER LOWER CRANKCASE CRANKCASE SEAL SEAL Arrangement of associated piston parts. The Glockrings should be replaced each time the piston is disassembled. free using a drift pin or blunt punch. Use sharp, quick, hard blows with a hammer. Your legs will absorb the shock without damaging the piston. GOOD WORDS If the pis ton pin fails to move after a few hammer blows, as just described, it may be necessary to heat the piston in order to remove the piston pin. Heating the piston in - SAFETY WORDS The piston pin lockrings are made of spring steel and may slip out of the pliers or pop out of the groove with considerable force. Therefore, WEAR eye protection glasses while removing the piston pin lockrings. 10-Remove the G-lockring from both ends of the piston pin using a pair of needle nose pliers. 11-Assume a sitting position in a chair, on a box, whatever. Lay a couple towels over your legs. Hold your legs tightly together to form a cradle for the piston above your knees. Set the piston and crankshaft assembly between your legs, as shown in the illustration. Now, drive the piston pin a container of boiling water for about 10minutes or with a bottle torch for about a minute, will cause the metal in the piston to expand ever so slightly and ease the task of removing the piston pin. If a bottle torch is used, keep the torch moving around the piston to prevent excessive heat in any one area. 12-Use a piston ring expander, tool No. 91-24697 to remove the piston ring. If the tool is not available, expand the ring with your fingers or a pair of reverse pliers enough to slip the ring up and free of the piston. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Detailed instructions for cleaning and inspecting all parts of t!:le powerhead, including the block, will be found in the last section of this chapter, Section 8-8. @ CYLINDERHEAD GASKET I c:::.. G-LOCKR LOWER BALL BEARING I LOWER I RETAINER .. . LOWER.---CRANKCASE SEAL PI STON PIN ING Exploded drawing of Type ncn powerhead with major parts identified. lOCATING 0'" CD ASSEMBLING POWERHEAD "C" 1-Install a new piston ring using piston ring expander tool No. 91-24697. The ring must be installed with the groove end of the ring facing UPWARD. If the ring expander tool is not available, expand the ring slightly with the fingernail of each of your thumbs and at the same time support the back of the ring with your fingers. Now, slide the ring down over the piston and into the groove. The arrow on the piston crown MUSI' face toward the exhaust port when installed. PUNCH 2-Position the new needle bearing into the upper end of the connecting rod. Position the piston on top of the rod so the arrow on the piston crown will face TOWARD the exhaust port when the crankshaft assembly is installed in the crankcase. 3-Assume a sitting position in a chair, on a box, whatever. Lay a couple towels over your legs. Hold your legs tightly together to form a cradle for the piston above your knees. Set the piston and crankshaft assembly between your legs, as shown in the illustration. Now, drive the piston pin into place through the piston using a drift pin or blunt punch. Use sharp hard blows with a hammer. Your legs will absorb the shock without damaging the piston. TOP OF To make this task a little easier, heat the piston, either in a container of boiling water for about 10-minutes, or about a minute with a bottle torch. Heating the piston will expand the metal in the piston slightly and the piston pin will go through more smoothly. If a bottle torch is used, keep the torch moving to prevent excessive heating of one area. SAFETY WORDS WEAR eye protection glasses while installing the piston pin lockrings, because the lockring is made of spring steel and may slip out of the pliers with considerable force. '1-Insert the two G-lockrings into the groove on both sides of the piston with a pair of needle nose pliers. The lockrings will secure the piston pin in place. 5-Lubricate the rims of NEW oil seals with engine oil. Install the narrow seal onto the upper bearing and the wider seal onto the lower bearing with the flat side of the seal facing toward the crankshaft throw, as shown in the accompanying illustration. The upper end of the crankshaft can be easily identified as the end with threads for the flywheel nut. 6-Install NEW bearing retainers into place in both halves of the cylinder block. 7-Place a NEW head gasket on the cylinder block. Mate the head to the block and start the retaining bolts. Tighten the bolts alternately in three stages to the torque value given in the Appendix. Tighten to 1/3 the torque value on the first stage and to 2/3 the torque value on the second stage. On the third and final stage, tighten the bolts to the full torque value. @ 8-Lower the assembled crankshaft into the cylinder block. It is not necessary to use a piston ring compressor for this task. Lower the crankshaft assembly with one hand and at the same time squeeze the piston ring around the piston, as the piston moves into the cylinder. Keep the crankshaft HORIZONTAL with the block while it is being lowered. 9-Seat the crankshaft onto the bearing retainers. Rotate the bearings to allow the two alignment pins to index into their respective notches. 10-Insert a long narrow screwdriver into the exhaust port. Apply a small amount of pressure onto the piston ring with the screwdriver. You should be able to feel the ring compress and expand as pressure is applied and released. BAD NEWS If the piston ring fails to expand and return to its original position, the ring was probably broken during the installation process. The crankshaft assembly and piston must then be removed and a new ring installed. @ 11-Apply a thin coating of Loctite Type "A" onto the screws securing the reed valve and reed stops in place. Install the reed valves and reed stops in place and secure them with the two screws. 12-Apply a continuous bead of Loctite No. 514-, or equivalent, onto the mating surface of the cylinder block. 13-Position the crankcase cover in place onto the cylinder block. Install and tighten the six securing bolts hand-tight. Tighten the bolts alternately and evenly to the torque value given in the Appendix. Tighten the bolts to the required torque value in the usual manner of three stages, 1/3, 2/3, and final value. Remember, one of the bolts secures the wire harness retainer. Clean away any excess Loctite from the seam of the cover and cylinder block. 14-Slide the lower end cap over the end of the crankshaft and secure it in place with the two attaching bolts. Tighten the bolts alternately and evenly to 50 in lbs (6 Nm)in three stages. Rotate the crankshaft through several revolutions. As the crankshaft is rotated, be sensitive for any binding or "rough" spots. POWERHEAD "C" INSTALLATION 1-Slide a NEW gasket down the driveshaft into position on the driveshaft housing. Now, lower the powerhead onto the driveshaft housing with the lower end of the crankshaft indexed into the hollow core of the driveshaft. 2-Install and tighten the six bolts securing the powerhead to the driveshaft housing. 3-Hold the stator plate assembly over the powerhead. Feed the wire from the stator plate through the opening in the base of the cylinder block cover. Now lower the stator plate down over the crankshaft and into place. Secure the stator plate with the two Phillips head screws. 4-Install the secondary coil to the side of the powerhead with the two attaching bolts. Connect the wire leading to the stator assembly. 5-Slide the flywheel down the crankshaft with the keyway in the flywheel aligned with the key on the crankshaft. Rotate the flywheel CLOCKWISE and check to be sure the flywheel does not make contact with any part of the magneto or the wirlng. STATOR PLATE FLYWHEEL break-in procedures. 14After you are satisfied the engine is operating properly, install both halves of the cowling and secure them in place with the attaching hardware. 6Install the rope cup and secure it in Use place with the three attaching bolts. a strap wrench or similar tool to prevent the rope cup from turning while the bolts are being tightened. Thread the flywheel nut onto the crankshaft. 7-Continue to hold the rope cup with the strap wrench and tighten the flywheel nut to the torque value listed in the Appendix. Remove the strap wrench. 8-Slide the carburetor onto the intake manifold and secure it in place with the clamp. Connect the wires from the front plate of the carburetor to the coil with the quick-disconnect fitting. 9-Position the front plate of the carburetor over the throttle and choke levers. Attach the throttle knob to the throttle lever and the choke knob to the choke lever. 10-Place the fuel tank in position behind the powerhead, and then connect the fuel line to the carburetor fitting. Turn the fuel shut-off valve to the ON position. 11-Install the hand rewind starter onto the powerhead and secure it in place with the three attaching bolts. 12-Thread a new spark plug into the powerhead and tighten to the torque value listed in the Appendix. 13-Install the high-tension lead onto the spark plug. Mount the engine in a test tank. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Attempt to start and run the engine without the cowl installed. This will provide the opportunity to check for fuel and oil leaks, without the cowl in place. Follow the 15-Snap the spark plug access cover into place. Break-in Procedures As soon as the engine starts, CHECK to be sure the water pump is operating. If the water pump is operating, a fine stream will be discharged from the exhaust relief hole at the rear of the drive shaft housing. DO NOT operate the engine at full throttle except for VERY short periods, until after 10 hours of operation as follows: a-Operate at 1/2 throttle, approximately 2500 to 3500 rpm, for 2 hours. b-Operate at any speed after 2 hours BUT NOT at sustained full throttle until another 8 hours of operation. c-Mix gasoline and oil during the breakin period, total of 10 hours, at a ratio of 25:1. d-While the engine is operating during the initial period, check the fuel, exhaust, and water systems for leaks. e-See Chapter 2 for tuning procedures. 8-5 CLEANING AND INSPECTING ALL POWERHEADS The success of the overhaul work is largely dependent on how well the cleaning and inspecting tasks are completed. If some parts are not thoroughly cleaned, or if an unsatisfactory unit is allowed to be returned to service through negligent inspection, the time and expense involved in the work will not be justified with peak engine performance and long operating life. Therefore, the procedures in the following sections should be followed in detail and the work performed with patience and attention to detail. REED BLOCK SERVICE REED BOX INSTALLED AROUND THE CRANKSHAFT POWERHEAD "A" Secure the reed blocks together with screws and nuts tightened to the torque value given in the Appendix. Check for chipped or broken reeds. Observe that the reeds are not pre loaded or standing open. Satisfactory reeds will not adhere to the reed block surface, but still there is not more than 0.007" (O.l8mm) clearance between the reed and the block surface. DO NOT remove the reeds, unless they are to be replaced. ALWAYS replace reeds in sets. NEVER turn a used reed over to be used a second time. Check the reed location over the reed block openings to be sure the reed is centered. See "Reed Stop Settings" in the Specifications in the Appendix and adjust the reed stops as required. Using a drill bit shank to measure the reed stop height, if a measurement scale is not available. Refer to the Specifications in the Appendix for the proper height. GOOD WORDS If the engine shows evidence of having overheated, check the condition of the plastic locating pins. If the pins are damaged (melted) the pins will affect engine performance by poor idle, hard starting, etc. REED BLOCK SERVICE EXTERNAL REED BLOCK POWERHEAD "B" Disassemble the reed block by first removing the screws securing the reed stops and reeds to the reed block, and then lifting the reed stops and reeds from the block. Clean the gasket surfaces of the reed block. Check the surfaces for deep grooves, cracks and any distortion that could cause leakage. Replace the reed block if it is damaged. After new reeds have been installed and the reed stop and attaching screws have been tightened to the required torque value, check the new reeds as outlined in the next step. Check to be sure the reeds are not preloaded. They should not adhere to the block, and still the clearance between the reed and the block surface should not be more than 0.007" (0.18mm). DO NOT remove the reeds, unless they are to be replaced. ALWAYS replace reeds in sets. Drawing of a reed plate assembly installed externally on Type "B" powerheads. NEVER turn used reed over to be used a second time. Install new reeds according to the procedures outlined in this Section. Check the reed stop opening of each reed stop by measuring the distance from the top of the closed reed to the inside of the reed stop. Compare your measurement with the Specifications in the Appendix. CAREFULLY bend the reed stop until the required opening is obtained. TAKE CARE not to damage the reed. REED BLOCK SERVICE REED VALVES INSTALLED UNDER THE CRANKSHAFT POWERHEAD "C" Inspect the reed valves for signs of wear. The reed valves should fit flush or nearly flush against the seat. BAD NEWS Check for signs of wear (indentation marks) on the face of the seat on the crankcase cover. If there is evidence of wear, the crankcase cover (both halves) and the cylinder block MUST be replaced. These three items are a matched set, line-bored, and should never be mismatched by using a different crankcase cover or cylinder block. Measure the reed stop opening, as shown in the accompanying illustration. Replace the reed stop if the opening is not within specifications. Reeds, reed stops, and attaching screws installed underneath the crankshaft on powerhead "C." a""' CHECK VALVE Cross-section drawing of the bleed system installed on some powerhead "C" units. BLEED SYSTEM SERVICE (If equipped) Check the condition of the rubber bleed hose. Replace the hose if it shows signs of deterioration or leakage. Check the operation of the two check valves. The air/fuel mixture should be able to pass through the valve in only one direction. The check valves are located in the rna ting surfaces of the intake manifold-to-reed block and the crankcase-to-carburetor. Defective check valves cannot be serviced. lf defective, they MUST be replaced. CRANKSHAFT SERVICE Inspect the splines for signs of abnormal wear. Check the crankshaft for straightness. Inspect the crankshaft oil seal surfaces to be sure they are not grooved, pi tted or scratched. Replace the crankshaft if it is REED VALVE If the reed stop opening is not as specified in the Appendix, GENTLY bend the reed stop to achieve the correct dim ension. Crankshaft assembly for the powerhead "C". The rod is manufactured as an integral part of, and cannot be separated from, the crankshaft. severely damaged or worn. Check all crankshaft bearing surfaces for rust, water marks, chatter marks, uneven wear or overheating. Clean the crankshaft surfaces with 320-gri t carborundum cloth. NEVER spindry a crankshaft ball bearing with compressed air. SPECIAL WORDS The connecting rod of a type "C" powerhead is an integral part of the crankshaft and CAN-NOT be removed. Therefore, if either the crankshaft or the rod is no longer fit for service, the complete unit must be purchased and installed. Clean the crankshaft and crankshaft ball bearing with solvent. Dry the parts, but not the ball bearing, with compressed air. Check the crankshaft surfaces a second time. Replace the crankshaft if the surfaces cannot be cleaned properly for satisfactory service. lf the crankshaft is to be installed for service, lubricate the surfaces with light oil. DO NOT lubricate the crankshaft ball bearing at this time. ' BEARING CAGE NEEDLE BEARINGS Main needle bearings and cage. The bearings should be thoroughly cleaned and closely inspected. One piece needle bearing cage. If the cage is damaged in any manner, the unit must be replaced. CRANKSHAFT AND END CAP BEARINGS (IF USED) After the crankshaft has been cleaned, grasp the outer race of the crankshaft ball bearing installed on the lower end of the crankshaft, and attempt to work the race back-and-forth. There should not be excessive play. A very slight amount of side play is acceptable because there is only about 0.00 1" (.025rnm)clearance in the bearing. Lubricate the ball bearing with light oil. Check the action of the bearing by rotating the outer bearing race. The bearing should have a smooth action and no rust stains. If the ball bearing sounds or feels rough or catches, the bearing should be removed and discarded. , Cleaning the inside diameter of the rod and rod cap with crocus cloth. Cleaning the inside diameter of the piston pin end with crocus cloth. Checking for rod warpage at the piston pin end. This is accomplished by laying one rod on top of a known good rod, and then checking for clearance between the two with a feeler gauge. There should be NO clearance. Clean the crankshaft centermain roller bearings with solvent, and then dry them thorougly BUT NOT with compressed air. Lubricate the bearings with light-weight oil. NEVER intermix halves of upper and lower crankshaft centermain roller bearings. The bearings MUST be replaced only in pairs. Inspect the centermain roller bearings. Replace the bearings in pairs if they are rusted, fractured, worn, galled, or badly discolored. Clean the crankshaft roller bearings installed in the upper end cap with solvent, and then dry them BUT NOT with compressed air. Lubricate the bearings wl th lightweight oil. Inspect the upper end cap roller bearing to be sure it is not rusted, fractured, worn, galled, or badly discolored. If the bearing is damaged, it should be removed and discarded. FEELER GAUGE CONNECTING ROD SERVICE SPECIAL WORDS FOR POWERHEAD "C" The connecting rod of the type "C" powerhead is an integral part of the crankshaft and CAN-NOT be removed. Therefore, only the upper bearing surface may be serviced, if necessary. If either the crankshaft or the rod is no longer fit for service, the complete unit must be purchased and installed. ALL OTHER UNITS Stand each connecting rod on a surface plate and check the alignment. The rod is bent and unfit for further service, if: a-Light can be seen under any portion of the machined surfaces, the surfaces which mate with the rod cap. b-The rod has a slight wobble on the plate. c-A 0.002" (.051rnm) feeler gauge can be inserted between the machined surface and the surface plate, Inspect the connecting rod bearings for rust or signs of bearing failure. NEVER intermix new and used bearings. If even one bearing in a set needs to be replaced, all bearings at that location MUST be replaced. Inspect the bearing surface of the rod and the rod cap for rust ar1d pitting. Inspect the bearing surface of the rod and the rod cap for water marks. Water marks are caused by the bearing surface being subjected to water contamination, which causes "etching". The etching resembles the size of the bearing as shown in the accompanying illustration. Check for rod warpage by placing one on top of a known good rod, and then attempting to insert a feeler Water scoring on the inside of the rod and rod cap. gauge between the two surfaces. There should be NO Such damage is caused by water in the crankcase. This clearance between the two rods. rod set MUsr be replaced. Inspect the bearing surface of the rod and rod cap for signs of spalling. Spalllng is the loss of bearing surface, and resembles flaking or chipping. The spalling condition will be most evident on the thrust portion of the connecting rod in line with the 1-beam. Bearing surface damage is usually caused by improper lubrication. Check the bearing surface of the rod and rod cap for signs of chatter marks. This condition is identified by a rough bearing surface resembling a tiny washboard. The condition is caused by a com bin a tlon of lowspeed low-load operation in cold water, and is aggravated by inadequate lubrication and improper fuel. Under these conditions, the crankshaft journal is hammered by the connecting rod. As ignition occurs in the cylinder, the piston pushes the connecting rod with tremendous force, and this force is transferred to the connecting rod journal. Since there is little or no load on the crankshaft, it bounces away from the connecting rod. The crankshaft then remains immobile for a split second, until the piston travel causes the connecting rod to catch up to the waiting crankshaft journal, then hammers it. In some instances, the connecting rod crankpin bore becomes highly polished. While the engine is running, a "whirr" and/or "chirp" sound may be heard when the engine is accelerated rapidly from idle speed to about 1500 rpm, then quickly returned to idle. If chatter marks are discovered, the crankshaft and the connecting rods should be replaced. Inspect the bearing surface of the rod and rod cap for signs of uneven wear and Piston and rod damaged from operating the engine at too high an rpm without sufficient load on the propeller shaft. This combination caused the powerhead to literally "blow apart". Operating the engine above an idle speed with a flush attachment connected to the lower unit could result in the same type of internal destruction. possible overheating. Uneven wear is usually caused by a bent connecting rod or by improper shimming of the crankshaft end play, failure to maintain the same amount of shim material under each end cap. This improper shimming causes the crankshaft journal not to be centered over the cylinder bore. Overheating is identified as a bluish bearing surface color and is caused by inadequate lubrication or operating the engine at excessive high rpm. Service the connecting rod bearing surfaces according to the following procedures and precautions. a-Align the etched marks on the connecting rod with the etched marks on the connecting rod cap. b-Tighten the connecting rod cap attaching bolts securely. c-Two types of bearings are used on the crankpin end of the rod. One is a non-caged type with individual needles. The other is a caged type with separate rollers. Clean the caged type with 320 grit carborundum cloth. d-Use ONLY crocus cloth to clean bearing surface at the crankshaft end of the connecting rod. NEVER use any other type of abrasive cloth on the caged type. e-Clean the inside diameter of the piston pin end of the connecting rod with crocus cloth. f-Clean the connecting rod ONLY enough to remove marks. DO NOT continue, once the marks have disappeared. The rings on this piston became stuck due to lack of adequate lubrication, incorrect timing, or overheating. g-Clean the piston pin end of the connecting rod using the method described in Step "e", above, using 320 grit carborundum cloth. h-Thoroughly wash the connecting rods to remove abrasive grit. After washing, check the bearing surfaces a second time. i-If the connecting rod cannot be cleaned properly, it should be replaced. j-Lubricate the bearing surfaces of the connecting rods with light-weight oil to prevent corrosion. PISTON SERVICE Inspect each piston for evidence of scoring, cracks, metal damage, cracked piston pin boss, or worn pin boss. Be especially critical during inspection if the engine has been submerged. If the piston pin is bent, the piston and pin MUST be replaced as a set for two reasons. First, a bent pin will damage the boss when it is removed. Secondly, a pis ton pin is not sold as a separate item. Check the piston ring grooves for wear, burns, distortion, or loose locating pins. During an overhaul, the rings should be replaced to ensure lasting repair and proper engine performance after the work has been completed. Clean the piston dome, ring grooves and the piston skirt. Clean carbon deposits from the ring grooves using the recessed end of a broken piston ring. Cleaning the piston ring grooves using the end of a broken ring inserted into a wooden handle, for safety. The pitted damage to this piston was caused by the needle bearings working loose from the piston pin. NEVER use a rectangular ring to clean the groove for a tapered ring, or use a tapered ring to clean the groove for a rectangular ring. NEVER use an automotive-type ring groove cleaner, because such a tool may loosen the piston ring locating pins. Clean carbon deposits from the top of the piston using a soft wire brush, carbon removal solution or by sand blasting. If a wire brush is used, TAKE CARE not to burr or round machined edges. Clean the piston skirt with crocus cloth. Inspect the piston ring locating pins to be sure they are tight. There is one locating pin in each ring groove. If the locating pins are loose, the piston must be replaced. SPECIAL WORDS The pistons of the Model 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 15 and 210 cc do not have a locating pin in the ring groove. The pick is pointing to the locating pin in the piston It is believed, this crown siezed with the cylinder ring groove. The ring MUST straddle this pin to prevent wall when the unit was operated at high rpm and the it from rotating aroWid the piston. If the open end of timing was not adjusted properly. At the same instant, the ring is not properly positioned, the ring will break the rod apparently pulled the lower part of the piston when the piston is installed into the cylinder. downward, severing it from the crown. Ring End Gap Clearance Check each ring to be sure the end gap is not excessive. The end gap may be checked by placing the ring squarely in the cleaned cylinder bore, and then measuring the end gap with a feeler gauge, as shown in the accompanying illustration on this page. Standard acceptable end gap is 0.005" (0.13mm)per inch of bore. To determine the exact amount of end gap, simply multiply the cylinder bore by 0.005". Example: Bore = 2.00" times 0.005" equals an acceptable end gap of 0.0 1 0" (0.26mm) Oversize Piston and Piston Rings Scored cylinder blocks can be saved for further service by reboring and installing oversize pistons and piston rings. HOWEVER , if the scoring is over 0.007 5" deep, the block cannot be effectively rebored for continued use. ONE MORE WORD: Oversize pistons and rings are not available for all engines. Check with the parts department at your local dealer for the model engine you are servicing. This sectioned cylinder shows an ideal cross hatch pattern on the cylinder wall. The pattern is necessary to seat the ring/s against the cylinder wall to provide an adequate seal for maximum compression. Using a feeler gauge to measure ring gap while the The cylinder taper drastically affects ring end gap, ring is in the cylinder, as explained in the text. as shown in this cross-section line drawing. HONING PROCEDURES To ensure satisfactory engine perfomance and long life following the overhaul work, the honing work should be performed with patience, skill, and in the following sequence: a-Follow the hone manufacturer's recommendations for use of the hone and for cleaning and lubricating during the honing operation. b-Pump a continuous flow of honing oil into the work area. If pumping is not practical, use an oil can. Apply the oil generously and frequently on both the stones and work surface. c-Begin the stroking at the smallest diameter. Maintain a firm stone pressure against the cylinder wall to assure fast stock removal and accurate results. d-Expand the stones as necessary to compensate for stock removal and stone wear. The best cross-hatch pattern is ob- Using a hone to clean the cylinder walls. The secret of honing is to keep the hone moving in long even strokes the full length of the cylinder AND to keep the stones wet with an ample amount of lubricant. tained using a stroke rate of 30 complete cycles per minute. Again, use the honing oil generously. e-Hone the cylinder walls ONLY enough to de-glaze the walls. f-After the honing operation has been completed, clean the cylinder bores with hot water and detergent. Scrub the walls with a stiff bristle brush and rinse thoroughly with hot water. The cylinders MUST be thoroughly cleaned to prevent any abrasive material from remaining in the cylinder bore. Such material will cause rapid wear of new piston rings, the cylinder bore, and the bearings. Using a hone to clean the cylinder walls. The secret Cleaning the crankshaft mating surface of a 2of honing is to keep the hone moving in long even cylinder powerhead with solvent and a rag. A tool or strokes the full length of the cylinder AND to keep the abrasive material should NEVER be used to clean these stones wet with an ample amount of lubricant. surfaces. g-After cleaning, swab the bores several times with engine oil and a clean cloth, and then wipe them dry with a clean cloth. NEVER use kerosene or gasoline to clean the cylinders. h-Clean the remainder of the cylinder block to remove any excess material spread during the honing operation. CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE Inspect the cylinder block and cylinder bores for cracks or other damage. Remove carbon with a fine wire brush on a shaft attached to an electric drill or use a carbon remover solution. STOP: If the cylinder block is to be submerged in a carbon removal solution, the crankcase bleed system MUST be removed from the block to prevent damage to hoses and check valves. Use an inside micrometer or telescopic gauge and micrometer to check the cylinders for wear. Check the bore for out-ofround and/or oversize bore. If the bore is tapered, out-of-round or worn more than 0.003" -0.004" (0.08 -0.1 Omm) the cylinders should be rebored to 0.0 15" (0.38mm) oversize and oversize pistons and rings installed. GOOD WORDS Oversize piston weight is approximately the same as a standard size piston. Therefore, it is NOT necessary to rebore all cylinders in a block just because one cylinder requires reboring. The APBA (American Power Boat Association) accepts and permits the use of 0.015" (0.38mm) oversize pistons. Hone the cylinder walls lightly to seat the new piston rings, as outlined in the Honing Procedures Section in this chapter. If the cylinders have been scored, but are not out-of-round or the sleeve is rough, clean the surface of the cylinder with a cylinder hone as described in Honing Procedures. SPECIAL WORDS: If overheating has occurred, check and resurface the spark plug end of the cylinder block, if necessary. This can be accomplished with 240-grit sand paper and a small flat block of wood. Cylinder sleeves are an integral part of the die cast cylinder block and CANNOT be replaced. In other words, the cylinder cannot be resleeved. The cylinder may be rebored to 0.0 15" (0.38mm) oversize, unless it is scored more than 0.0075" (0.16mm) deep. Check the bleed holes inside the transfer ports to be sure the plastic restrictors are in the upper two holes. If these restrictors are missing, it will cause a flooding-type condition in the upper cylinders and affect idlespeed operation. Many times the manufacturer recommends the use Checking the crankshaft "end play" with a feeler of Loctite (a sealing compound) in place of a gasket gauge. An excessive amount of "play'' will cause the when an airtight seal is required. TAKE CARE when powerhead to "clank'' during operation. Too little play using such a substance to prevent an excess of the will cause excessive wear and crankshaft failure. The material onto the surface. SUch an excess could find it proper amount of "play" will extend powerhead life, way into the crankcase and possibly cause plugged reeds increase efficiency, and the unit will "purr" like a or small pellets in the combustion chamber. kitten. 9 LOWER UNIT 9-1 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION The lower unit is considered as that part of the outboard below the exhaust housing. The unit contains the propeller shaft, the driven and pinion gears, the drive shaft from the powerhead and the water pump. The lower unit of all 2-cylinder units and the 4 hp 1-cylinder unit are equipped with shifting capabilites. The forward and reverse gears together with the clutch, shift assembly, and related linkage are all housed within the lower unit. Shifting on units equipped with remote controls is accomplished through a cable arrangement from a shift box, installed near the helm, to the engine. The cable hookup involves two individual cables, one for shifting and the other for throttle control. The lower unit may be removed and serviced without disturbing the remainder of the outboard motor. SPECIAL WORDS The water pump on the 2.2 hp unit is located on the propeller shaft. Therefore, the impeller :nay be removed and a new impeller installed without disturbing any other areas of the lower unit. CHAPTER COVERAGE Three distinctly different lower units, identified as Type A, Type B, and Type C are covered in this chapter with separate sections for each. Each section is presented with complete detailed instructions for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling, adjusting, and installation of only one unit. There are no cross-references. Each section is complete from removal of the first item to final test operation. Check the Lower Unit Type and Backlash Table in the Appendix for the lower unit used on the model being serviced. BE SURE to check the section heading for the model unit being serviced to ensure the correct procedures are followed. The sections and the type unit covered are as follows: 9-4 TYPE A --No reverse capability -operator swings the outboard 180 to move boat sternward. 9-5 Type B --Reverse capability operator may shift into reverse gear. 9-6 Type C Reverse capability unique shift arrangement. 9-7 Type D --No reverse capability water pump installed on propeller shaft. Cutaway view of a lower unit without a forward gear. This type illustration is used extensively throughout this chapter as an aid to seeing and understanding the working relationship of the various parts. ILLUSTRATIONS Because this chapter covers such a wide range of models over an extended period of time, the illustrations included with the procedural steps are those of the most popular lower units. In some cases, the unit being serviced may not appear to be identical with the unit illustrated. However, the step-by-step work sequence will be valid in all cases. If there is a special procedure for a unique lower unit, the differences will be clearly indicated in the step. SPECIAL WORDS All threaded parts are right-hand unless otherwise indicated. If there is any water in the lower unit or metal particles are discovered in the gear lubricant, the lower unit should be completely disassembled, cleaned and inspected. 9-2 TROUBLESHOOTING Troubleshooting MUST be done BEFORE the unit is removed from the powerhead to permit isolating the problem to one area. Always attempt to proceed with troubleshooting in an orderly manner. The shot-in the-dark approach will only result in wasted time, incorrect diagnosis, frustration, and Classroom type cutaway view of a lower unit with major parts, including the propeller and water pump, installed. Notice how the forward, reverse and pinion gears all are "bevel cut". RUBBER HUB Cutaway view showing the rubber hub and sleeve. The rubber hub protects the lower unit if the propeller should strike an underwater object. If the rubber hub Lower unit used with the small horsepower engines. loses its holding power with the inner hub of the This unit has forward, neutral, and reverse gear. propeller, the propeller hub MUSI' be replaced. replacement of unnecessary parts. The following procedures are presented in a logical sequence with the most prevalent, easiest, and less costly items to be checked listed first. 1-Check the propeller and the rubber hub. See if the hub is shredded. If the propeller has been subjected to many strikes against underwater objects, it could slip on its hub. If the hub appears to be damaged, replace it with a NEW hub. Replacement of the hub must be done by a propeller rebuilding shop equipped with the proper tools and experience for such work. 2-Shift mechanism check: Verify that the ignition switch is OFF, to prevent possible personal injury, should the engine start. Shift the unit into REVERSE gear (if so equipped), and at the same time have an assistant turn the propeller shaft to ensure the clutch is fully engaged. If the shift handle is hard to move, the trouble may be in the lower unit remote control cable, or the shift box. 3-Isolate the problem: Disconnect the remote-control cable at the engine and then lift off the remote-control shift cable. Operate the shift lever. If shifting is still hard, the problem is in the shift cable or control box, see Chapter 11 . If the shifting A self-locking propeller nut loses its locking ability and should not be used a second time. feels normal with the remote-control cable disconnected, the problem must be in the lower unit. To verify the problem is in the lower unit, have an assistant turn the propeller and at the same time move the shift cable back-and-forth. Determine if the clutch engages properly. 9-3 PROPELLER REMOVAL 1-Bend the locking tabs forward out of the locking washer. Some lower units have a locknut installed instead of a lockwasher. NEVER pry on the edge of the propeller. Any small distortion will affect propeller performance. 2-Place a block of wood between one blade of the propeller and the anti-cavitation plate to keep the shaft from turning. Use a socket and breaker bar to loosen the retaining nut. Remove the nut, tab washer, splined washer, and then the propeller. 3-If the propeller is frozen to the shaft, heat must be applied to the shaft to melt out the rubber inside the hub. Using heat will destroy the hub, but there is no other way. As heat is applied, the rubber will expand and the propeller will actually be blown from the shaft. Therefore, STAND CLEAR to avoid personal injury. 4-Use a knife and cut the hub off the inner sleeve. 5-The sleeve can be removed by cutting it with a hacksaw, or it can be removed with a puller. Again, if the sleeve is frozen, it may be necessary to apply heat. Remove This rubber hub had to be cut, the sleeve heated and then cut loose, because of extensive corrosion. the thrust hub from the propeller shaft. Procedures for propeller installation are given at the end of this chapter, after the lower unit has been installed. The left sleeve and rubber hub was successfully removed with a puller. The sleeve on the right was removed with a chisel after the rubber hub was cut away. A standard puller in position on the thrust washer in preparation to removing the sleeve and rubber hub from the propeller shaft. A puller is required because sealing compound was not used on the shaft during the previous Inside view of a propeller removed for service work. installation. The hub and sleeve remained on the propeller shaft. 9-4 LOWER UNIT TYPE "A" NO REVERSE GEAR (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) DESCRIPTION The Type "A" lower unit is a direct drive unit. This means the unit has the capability of being shifted only between a neutral position and forward. The 3.6 model does not have shift capability even though all the parts are present. There is no provision in the lower unit for operation in reverse gear. Reverse action of the propeller is accomplished by the boat operator swingin5 the engine with the tiller handle a full 180 and holding it in this position while the boat moves sternward. When the operator is ready to move forward again, he simply swings the tiller handle back to the normal forward position. WORDS OF WISDOM Before beginning work on the lower unit, take time to READ and UNDERSTAND the information presented in Section 9-1, this chapter, and check the Lower Unit Type and Backlash Table in the Appendix to ensure the proper procedures are being followed. Disconnect the high tension spark plug leads and remove the spark plugs before working on the lower unit. LOWER UNIT REMOVAL The shift shaft extends into the torpedo bore of the lower unit. Therefore, the lower unit MUST be removed from the exhaust housing before the propeller shaft assembly can be removed from the gear housing. 1-Position a sui table container under the lower unit, and then remove the FILL screw and the VENT screw. Allow the gear lubricant to drain into the container. As the lubricant drains, catch some with your fingers, from time-to-time, and rub it between your thumb and finger to determine if any metal particles are present. lf metal is detected in the lubricant, the unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, and the damaged parts replaced. Check the color of the lubricant as it drains. A whitish or creamy color indicates the presence of water in the lubricant. Check the drain pan for signs of water separation from the lubricant. The presence of any water in the gear lubrican t is bad news. The unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, the cause of the prob Lower unit from a small horsepower installation with major parts exposed. lem determined, and then corrected. Propeller Removal 2-Check to be sure the spark plugs have been removed to prevent the possibility of engine start during propeller removal. Remove the propeller nut by first placing a block of wood between one of the propeller blades and the anti-cavitation plate to prevent the propeller from turning, and then remove the nut. Remove the splined wash- Remove the outer thrust hub from the propeller shaft. If the thrust hub is stubborn and refuses to budge, use two PADDED pry bars on opposite sides of the hub and work the hub loose. TAKE CARE not to damage the lower unit. Remove the propeller. If the propeller is "frozen" to the shaft, see Section 9-3 for special procedures to break it loose. Remove the inner thrust hub. If this hub is also stubborn, use padded pry bars and work the hub loose. Again, TAKE CARE not to damage the lower unit. Lower Unit Removal 3-Remove the two locknuts securing the lower unit to the exhaust housing. Separate the lower unit slightly from the shaft housing in order to completely remove the upper locknut. After the upper locknut has been removed, separate the two housings. Notice how the water tube and the shift shaft remain in the exhaust housing. NEVER lift or carry the lower unit by the driveshaft because the driveshaft may pull out of the lower unit. Water Pump Removal 1-Remove the two locknuts and flat washers securing the water pump cover to the lower unit. Slide the rubber centrifugal slinger, water pump cover and the face plate upward on the driveshaft. Reach inside the water pump housing, and slide the impeller upward out of the housing. Now, slide the face plate, water pump cover, centrifugal slinger, and impeller off the driveshaft. 2-Pull the driveshaft out of the lower unit. Observe that the impeller key ls still attached to the driveshaft. 3-Remove the locknut and flat washer securing the water pump base to the gear housing. CAREFULLY pry the water pump base loose from the housing with a screwdriver, as shown. Remove and DISCARD the water pump base gasket from the lower unit. Clean any part of the gasket stuck to the water pump base surface. Water Pump Disassembling 4-Work the oil seal out of the water pump cover with a "bent-end" screwdriver. Remove the water tube seal from the water pump cover by first removing the water tube guide fro11 the water pump cover. This can be accomplished by pulling and turning the guide wl th a pair of pliers. 5-Remove the water tube seal by pushing in and up on the seal tab with a small tapered punch. 6-Work the oil seal out of the water pump base using a "bent-end" screwdriver. 7-Remove the flat washer and seal from the shift shaft hole in the water pump base. DISCARD the seal, but retain the flat washer. Propeller Shaft and Bearing Carrier Removal 8-Clamp the lower unit in a vertical position in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Remove the lower unl t cover nut using Cover Nut Tool C-91-74588. 9-If the nut refuses to move, carefully apply heat to the housing, and try again while it is hot. If the nut still cannot be moved, drill the nut as shown in the accorn panying captioned ill us tra tion. 10-Clamp the propeller shaft assembly in a vise equipped with soft jaws to protect the shaft. Now, strike the lower unit approximately midway between the anti-cavitation plate and the torpedo bore with a soft mallet to re,nove the propeller shaft assembly from the lower unit. If the bearing carrier is frozen, it may be necessary to carefully apply heat to the housing in order to break the carrier loose. SPECIAL WORDS: When the propeller shaft assembly is removed from the gear housing, the bearing carrier alignment key will corne out with shaft assembly. However, the drive gear bearing shim may or may not come out with the shaft assembly. 11-Remove the pinion gear, thrust bearing, and washer from the torpedo bore. Remove any shim material left in the torpedo bore that did not come out with the propeller shaft assembly. 12-Release the propeller shaft from the vise. Separate and slide the bearing carrier, 0-ring, and spacer from the propeller shaft. DISCARD the 0-ring. Bearing Carrier Disassembling 13-Clamp the bearing carrier in a vise equipped with soft jaws, as shown. Tap the oil seal out of the carrier with a punch and hammer. DISCARD the oil seal. Inspect the bearing carrier roller bearing. Remove the bearing carrier roller bearing ONLY if it is damaged and unfit for service. 14-If inspection of the bearing carrier roller bearing reveals the bearing must be replaced, remove the bearing by pressing it out of the bearing carrier with a suitable mandrel. Propeller Shaft Disassembling 15-Clamp the propeller shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws to protect the shaft. Remove and DISCARD the drive gear locknut. Remove the special flat washer from the end of the propeller shaft. Retain the washer. 16-Remove the drive gear assembly from the propeller assembly by pulling and turning the drive gear assembly COUNTERCLOCKWISE. Inspect the drive gear ball bearing. Remove the ball bearing from the drive gear ONLY if the bearing is damaged and unfit for service. 17-Pull and turn the clutch spring COUNTERCLOCKWISE to remove it from the propeller shaft. and Pinion Gear Bearing Removal 20-DO NOT remove these bearings unless they are damaged and unfit for service. Special Tools: Bearing Tool C-91-7764-4 and a piece of 1/ lJ.x20-8" threaded stock are required. If the tool is not available, a 3/8" round Allen head bolt may be used AFTER the center of the bolt has been drilled and Homemade tools used to re move both driveshaft bearings and to install the lower driveshaft bearing (left). The other tool (right) is used to install the upper driveshaft bearing. The text explains how these two items can be made in most shops. Drive Gear Disassembling 18If inspection reveals the drive gear ball bearing requires replacement: Clamp the drive gear in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Use Retainer Tool C-91-74-589 and remove the bearing retainer nut. If the tool is not available, use a punch, by setting it into one of the slots of the retainer nut, and then backing the nut out by striking the punch with a ham mer. 19-Release the drive gear from the vise and install Universal Puller Plate C-9122 11 5 between the drive gear and the ball bearing. Now, position the drive gear, bearing and puller plate on an arbor press. Use a suitable mandrel and press the drive gear out of the ball bearing. Exhaust Housing Bearing taped to 1/lJ.x20 thread. Clamp the lower unit in a vertical position in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Thread a 1/4x20 hex nut with a flat washer onto one end of the threaded stock material. Insert the other end through Puller Plate C-91-2931 0, the drive shaft bearing, pinion coupler and the pinion bearing. If the special tool is not available, a piece of raw stock approximately 1/8xlx2" long with a 3/8" hole drilled in the center may be used. After the piece of stock material is in place with the end extending into the torpedo bore, thread Bearing Tool C-91-77644-, or the special tool made in the first part of this step, onto that end of the stock. Tight Homemade parts used to remove the driveshaft bearings and coupler. The parts are assembled on the lower unit. Bearing carrier retaining nut. The rotation direction for installation or removal is stamped on the face of the nut. impeller must be returned to service, NEVER install it in reverse to the original direction of rotation. Installation in reverse will cause premature impeller failure. Inspect the impeller side seal surfaces and the ends of the impeller blades for cracks, tears, and wear. Check for a glazed or melted appearance, caused from operating without sufficient water. If any question exists, and as previously stated, install a new impeller if at all possible. Clean all bearings with sol vent, dry them with compressed air, and inspect them carefully. Be sure there is no water in the air line. Direct the air stream through the en the upper hex nut against the puller plate and draw the pinion bearing, coupler, and upper drivesahft bearing up and out of the lower unit. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Clean all water pump parts with solvent, and then dry them with compressed air. Inspect the water pump cover and base for cracks and distortion, possibly caused from overheating. Inspect the face plate and water pump insert for grooves and/or rough surfaces. If possible, ALWAYS install a new water pump impeller while the lower is disassembled. A new impeller will ensure extended satisfactory service and give "peace of mind" to the owner. If the old bearing. NEVER spin a bearing with compressed air. Such action is highly dangerous and may cause the bearing to score from lack of lubrication. After the bearings are clean 9nd dry, lubricate them with Formula 50 oil, or equivalent. Do not lubricate tapered bearing cups until after they have been inspected. A worn water pump impeller no longer fit for service. The importance of installing a NEW impeller, whenever the lower unit is disassembled, cannot be overemphasized. e..PROPELLER NUT AFT THRUST HUB .. FWD THRUST HUB -------, / GEAR HOUS ING COVER WASHER OIL SEAL -.... ROLLER BEARING PROPELLER SHAFT .. a G._ KEY CARRIER DRIVE GEAR NUT 0-RING SPACER DRIVE GEAR BALL BEARING SHIH ----.._. L-------1 CLUTCH SPRING DRIVE GEAR .. . WASHER PROPELLER SHAFT NUT .. .--NUT Exploded view of a typical small horsepower lower unit showing arrangement of major propeller shaft parts. ,.. -, II DRIVESHAFT.. I --------------1 IMPEllER DRIVE KEY ROllER BEARING COUPLING BEARING .----THRUST BEARING ,..,-----PINION GEAR VENT SCREWX WASHER --!,._o GEAR HOUSING WASHER.. FILL SCREW\ \;o RUBBER RING PUMP COVER IMPEllER PUMP HOUSING WATER PUMP SEAl(PlUGGED ON HODEl 3.6) WASHER GASKET SHIFT SHAFT (NOT INCLUDED 1/ ON HODEl 3.6) Exploded view of a typical small horsepower lower unit showing major driveshaft and water pump parts. Inspect all ball bearings for roughness, catches, and bearing race side wear. Hold the outer race, and work the inner bearing race in-and-out, to check for side wear. Determine the condition of tapered bearing rollers and inner bearing race, by inspecting the bearing cup for pitting, scoring, grooves, uneven wear, imbedded particles, and discoloration caused from overheating. ALWAYS replace tapered roller bearings as a set. Inspect the bearing surface of the shaft roller bearings support. Check the shaft surface for pitting, scoring, grooving, imbedded particles, uneven wear and discoloration caused from overheating. The shaft and bearing must be replaced as a set if either is unfit for continued service. Good shop practice requires installation of new 0-rings and oil seals REGARDLESS of their appearance. Clean the bearing carrier, pinion gear, drive gear clutch spring, and the propeller shaft with solvent. Dry the cleaned parts with compressed air. Check the pinion gear and the drive gear for abnormal wear. Apply a coating of light-weight oil to the roller bearing. Rotate the bearing and check for cracks or catches. Inspect the propeller shaft oil seal surface to be sure it is not pitted, grooved, or scratched. Inspect the roller bearing contact surface on the propeller shaft for pitting, grooves, scoring, uneven wear, imbedded metal particles, and discoloration caused from overheating. ASSEMBLING TYPE "A" UNIT Pinion Gear Bearing Installation 1-Clamp the lower unit in a vertical position in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Coat the driveshaft roller bearing bore in the lower unit with Formula 50 oil, or equivalent. Position the 9/ 16" pinion roller bearing onto Bearing Tool C-91-77548 with the lettered side of the bearing AGAINST the shoulder of the bearing tool. If the special tool is not available, the tool made during disassembly in Step 20 may be used by attaching it to the end of a long-shank Allen wrench, as shown. Press the roller bearing into the driveshaft bore by tapping LIGHTLY on the end of the bearing tool with a mallet. The bearing is properly seated when the bearing tool bottoms-out in the driveshaft bore. Driveshaft Shimming Special tools and sorne simple arithmetic are required to properly shim the drive gear. a-Gauge Rod Adpator C-23-75484. b-Gauge Rod C-91-7458.5. c-Gauge Adaptor C91-74586. d-Depth micrometer. e-An example of the simple subtraction involved is given at the end of the step. The procedures must be followed closely in order to determine the correct amount of shim material required. 2-Insert the Gauge Rod Adaptor into the top of the driveshaft bore. Insert the Gauge Rod through the rod adaptor and the pinion roller bearing. Insert the Gauge Adaptor into the torpedo bore until it bottoms- out in the bore. Now, using the depth micrometer, measure the distance from the gauge rod to the outer end of the gauge adaptor. As a guide: The dimension from the gauge rod to the outer end of the gauge adaptor should be 3.676" + 0.005". This dimension is referenced "N'in the illustration. To determine the proper amount of shim material required, subtract 3.062" from the dimension "A" measured with the depth micrometer. Consider the answer to the subtraction as dimension "B". Now, subtract dimension "B" from 0.629" and the answer is the amount of shim material required to properly adjust the drive gear. EXAMPLE 3.676" "A" (from micrometer) -3.062" Factory number .614" "B" Simple subtraction .629" Factory number -.614" "B" Homemade tools used to remove both driveshaft bearings and to install the lower driveshaft bearing (left). The other tool (right) is used to install the upper driveshaft bearing. The text explains how these two items can be made in most shops. Shim material required .015" in Step 13. The shim material will be installed later Exhaust Housing Bearing Installation 3-Position the pinion coupler into the driveshaft bore. The coupler can go in either way. 4-Place the 11/16" OD driveshaft roller bearing onto Bearing Tool C-91-7754& with the lettered side of the bearing AGAINST the bearing tool shoulder. If the special tool is not availble, a 7/16" round-head Allen bolt may be used. This is the same bolt used to secure the trim tab on the larger Mercury outboard engines. Press the roller bearing into the driveshaft bore by tapping lightly GAUGE ROD ADAPTOR GAUGE ADAPTOR DEPTH MICROMETER ,.--0 on the end of the bearing tool, or 7/16" bolt, with a mallet. The driveshaft roller bearing is properly seated when the bearing tool bottoms-out in the driveshaft bore. Propeller Shaft Assembling 5-Install the ball bearing onto the drive gear by first positioning the drive gear in a press, and then pressing the bearing onto the drive gear using a suitable mandrel, or a socket, as shown. ALWAYS press on the inner race of the bearing and be sure the bearing is firm against the drive gear. 6-Remove the drive gear from the press after Step 4 is completed, and clamp the drive gear in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Coat the threads of the retainer nut with Loctite Type "A", and then install the nut onto the drive gear. Use Retainer Tool C91- 74589 and a torque wrench to tighten the retainer nut to the value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Clean any excess Loctite from the retainer nut and the drive gear. 7-Install the clutch spring onto the drive gear with the extended end of the spring TOWARD the bearing. This is accomplished by pushing and turning the spring COUNTER CLOCK WISE. 8-Install the drive gear assembly onto the propeller shaft by pushing and turning the propeller shaft through the drive gear from the clutch spring end of the gear. ASSEMBLING TYPE "A" 9-17 RETAINER TOOl / 9-Clamp the propeller shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Install the special flat washer and a NEW locknut on the propeller shaft. Tighten the locknut until it seats. 10-Back it off the locknut to allow 0.005" to 0.010" clearance between the locknut and the flat washer. This clearance is a critical dimension to ensure proper operation of the drive gear. After the required clearance has been obtained and checked, set the assembly aside for later installation. attention to detail is critical. GOOD WORDS Assembling the bearing carrier and the propeller shaft is not a difficult task, but The cutaway photographs, like many used in this chapter, will be a great asset during the work. Some of the parts, such as the roller bearing, oil seal, and 0-ring, MUST be installed in only one way, as the procedures indicate. Once the work is started, make an attempt to continue wl thout interruption. Bearing Carrier Assembling 11-Install the roller bearing into the bearing carrier by first applying a coating of light-weight oil to the carrier bore, and then pressing the roller bearing in to the carrier from the LETTERED side using Bearing Tool C-91-74-582, or the appropriate size socket. 12-Apply a coating of Loctite Type "A" to the outer diameter of the bearing carrier oil seal. Use Oil Seal Tool C-91-74583 and press the oil seal into the bearing carrier with the lips of the seal DOWN. Clean any excess Locti te from the bearing carrier and the oil seal. Set the assembly aside for later installation. Propeller Shaft Installation 13-Clamp the lower unit in a horizontal position in a 'lise equipped with soft jaws. Install the thrust bearing and thrust washer onto the pinion gear. Install the pinion gear into the pinion bearing in the torpedo bore. 14-Install the drive gear shims of the proper thickness, as determined in Step 2, into the torpedo bore. 15-Install the propeller shaft into the torpedo bore. Rotate the propeller shaft in order to mesh the drive gear with the pinion gear. 16-Install the propeller shaft spacer into the torpedo bore and check to be sure: a-The 0-ring groove is facing AWAY from the drive gear bearing. b-The shift shaft hole in the spacer is aligned with the shift shaft hole in the gear housing. Apply a coating of Multipurpose Lubricant, or equivalent, to the 0-ring , and then install the 0-ring onto the ring groove of the propeller shaft spacer. Coat the outside diameter of the bearing carrier (the area from the oil seal and the water pump base. 21Insert the seal and the flat washer into the shift shaft hole in the water pump base . . SHiFi SEAL PUMP BASE where the carrier contacts the lower unit)with Perfect Seal, or equivalent. TAKECARE to prevent any Perfect Seal from contacting the oil seal or the bearing. 17-Install the bearing carrier into the torpedo bore with the alignment tab in back of the bearing carrier indexed between the alignment fingers in the propeller shaft spacer. 18-Align the keyway in the bearing carrier with the keyway in the lower unit, and then install the alignment key. 19-Install the cover nut flat washer, if one is used, against the bearing carrier. Coat the threads of the cover nut with Perfect Seal. Start the cover nut in the torpedo bore by hand with the words OFF and ON and the arrows visible. After the nut has been started, continue to tighten the nut to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Use Cover Nut Tool C-91-74-588 and a torque wrench to attain the required torque value. Water Pump Base Assembling 20-Coat the outside diameter of the water pump oil seal with Loctlte Type "A". Position the oil seal onto Oil Seal Tool C91- 74-583 with the lips of the seal AGAINST the oil seal tool. Press the oil seal into the water pump base. Clean any excess Loctite _ BASE HOUSING Water Pump Cover Assembling 22-Apply a coating of Loctite Type "A" to the water pump cover oil seal. Position the oil seal in place on Oil Seal Tool C-9174583 with the lips of the seal AGAINST the oil seal tool. Press the oil seal into the water pump cover. Clean any excess Loctite from the oil seal and the water pump cover. Water Pump Installation 23-Clamp the lower unit in a vertical ASSEMBLING TYPE "A" 9-2 1 . , >-...:..:= .T--' ',= WATER PUMP _ IMPELLER position in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Position a NEW water pump base gasket over the water pump mounting studs. Install the water pump base and secure it to the lower unit with the locknuts and flat washers. Tighten the locknuts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. 24-Slide the water pump insert in to the water pump base with the bent-tabs on the insert indexed into the slots in the base. 25-Install the water pump impeller into the water pump insert. Advice: ALWAYS install a NEW water pump Lnpeller, if possible, during overhaul work on the lower unit. If a new impeller is not available, NEVER install the impeller in reverse to its original position of rotation. Such action will cause premature irnpeller failure in a very short time. , ;, IMPELLER DRIVE - KEY 26-Position the impeller drive key on the flat of the driveshaft. Use some Multipurpose Lubricant to hold the drive key in place. Now, carefully insert the driveshaft through the impeller into the lower unit with the drive key aligned with the keyway in the impeller. Rotate the driveshaft to engage the driveshaft splines with the pinion coupler splines. 27-Slide the water pump face plate down over the impeller with the bent-tab on the face plate indexed with the slot in the water pump base. 28-Position the water pump cover over the water pump base and mounting studs. Slide the flat washers onto the mounting studs. Thread the locknuts onto the mounting studs, and then tighten them to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. 29-Install the water seal tube tab into the water pump cover. Work the water tube grommet into the cover with the tab on the grommet indexed into the guide hole in the water pump cover housing. 30-Slide the rubber centrifugal slinger down the driveshaft until it is against the water pump cover. Install the water tube guide into the water pump cover. WATER PUMP COVER Filling Lower Unit with Lubricant 31-Remove any l:,.lsket material from the FILL and VENT screws and the lower unit surface. CRITICAL WORDS: Never add lubricant to the lower unit without first removing the VENT screw and having the lower unit secured to the exhaust housing. Add lubricant ONLY when the lower unit is in the vertical position. Slide NEW gaskets onto the FILL and VENT screws. Slowly add Super-Duty Gear Lubricant to the lower unit through the FILL hole until the lubricant flows out the VENT hole and no air bubbles are visible. Install the VENT screw. Remove the grease tube, or hose, from the FILL hose and QUICKLY install the FILL screw. Check the lower unit for oil leaks. INSTALLATION TYPE "A" UNIT 32-Move the engine to the full up position and engage the tilt lock lever. Coat the driveshaft splines with a thin layer of Multipurpose Lubricant. DO NOT carry the lower unit by the driveshaft because the shaft may be pulled out of the housing. BAD NEWS: Any excess lubricant on top of the driveshaft to crankshaft splines will be trapped in the clearance space. This trapped lubricant will not allow the driveshaft to fully engage with the crankshaft. As a result, when the lower unit nuts are tightened, a load will be placed on the driveshaft/crankshaft and will cause damage to either the powerhead or the lower unit or both. Therefore, any lubricant MUST be cleaned from the top of the driveshaft. 33-Move the lower unit into position with the driveshaft protruding into the exhaust housing. Raise the lower unit upward toward the exhaust housing and at the same time guide the shift shaft, water tube, and the upper and lower mounting studs into place. If necessary, rotate the flywheel slightly to allow the driveshaft splines to index with the crankshaft splines. 34-Start the two locknuts securing the lower unit to the exhaust housing, but DO NOT tighten them at this time. Check operation of the shift mechanism: a-Shift the outboard into FORWARD gear, and then roto te the flywheel CLOCKWISE. The propeller shaft should rotate counterclockwise. b-Shift the outboard into NEUTRAL, and then rotate the flywheel CLOCKWISE. The propeller shaft should stop rotating counterclockwise within one complete revolution of the propeller shaft. c-NEVER attempt to check the shift mechanism by rotating the propeller shaft. d-If the shifting mechanism fails to operate properly, the lower unit must be removed, and the assembly work checked. If the shifting mechanism is operating properly, tighten the locknuts to the torque value gi'len in the Specifications in the Appendix. Propeller Installation 35-Disconnect the spark plug wires to prevent the engine from starting when the tions in the Appendix. Connect the spark propeller and shaft are rotated. As an aid to removing the propeller the next time, apply a liberal coating of Perfect Seal to the propeller shaft splines. 36-Install the forward thrust hub, the propeller, and then the aft thrust hub onto the propeller shaft splines. Thread the propeller locknut on to the shaft and tighten it to the torque value given in the Specifica tions in the Appendix. Connect the spark plug wires to the spark plugs. 37-Mount the engine in a test tank or body of water. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Start the engine and check the completed work for satisfactory operation and no leaks. 9-5 LOWER UNIT TYPE "B" REVERSE CAPABILITY (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) DESCRIPTION In addition to the normal forward and neutral capabilities of the lower units outlined in Section 9-3, the lower unit Type "B" is equipped with a reverse gear. A clutch and the necessary shift linkage for efficient operation is contained within the lower unit. ADVICE Before beginning work on the lower unit, take time to READ and UNDERSTAND the information presented in Section 9-1, this chapter, and check the Lower Unit Type and Backlash Table in the Appendix to ensure the proper procedures are being followed. Disconnect the high tension spark plug leads, remove the spark plugs, and disconnect the leads at the battery terminals, before working on the lower unit. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Raise the lower unit upward until the tilt lever can be actuated, and then engage the tilt stop. Propeller Removal SAFETY WORDS: An outboard engine may stdrt very easily. Therefore, anytime the propeller is to be removed or installed, check to be sure: a-Shift mechanism is in NEUTRAL. b-Key switch is in OFF position. Lower unit used with medium-size Mercury outboard engines. This unit has forward, neutral, and reverse capabilities. c-Spark plug wires are disconnected. d-Electrical leads disconnected at the battery terminals. 1-Remove the propeller nut by first placing a block of wood between one of the propeller blades and the anti-cavitation plate to prevent the propeller from turning, and then remove the nut. Remove the splined washer. Remove the outer thrust hub from the propeller shaft. If the thrust hub is stubborn and refuses to budge, use two PADDED pry bars on opposite sides of the hub and work the hub loose. TAKE CARE not to damage the lower unit. Remove the propeller. If the propeller is "frozen" to the shaft, see Section 9-3 for special procedures to break it loose. Remove the inner thrust hub. If this hub is also stubborn, use padded pry bars and work the hub loose. Again, TAKE CARE not to damage the lower unit. 2-Position a suitable container under the lower unit, and then remove the FILL screw and the VENT screw. Allow the gear lubricant to drain into the container. As the lubricant drains, catch some with your fingers from time-to-time, and rub it between your thumb and finger to de termine if any metal particles are present. lf metal is detected in the lubricant, the unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, and the damaged parts replaced. Check the color of the lubricant as it drains. A whitish or creamy color indicates the presence of w ater in the lubricant. Check the drain pan for signs of water separation from the lubricant. The presence of any water in the gear lubricant is bad news. The unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, the cause of the problem determined, and then corrected. 3-MODEL 200 ONLY: Remove the plastic cap at the lower rear edge of the exhaust housing. Use an allen wrench to loosen the bolt securing the anodic plate to the lower unit. With a socket wrench, remove the nuts from the bottom of the anti-cavitation plate. Loosen the nut be tween the lower unit and the exhaust housing, as shown. DO NOT attempt to remove the nut at this time. Separate the lower unit from the exhaust housing as far as the loosened nut will allow. Continue to loosen the nut and at the same time separate the two units. Continue working the nut and housing apart until the nut can be removed. After the nut is removed, the exhaust housing and the lower unit can be completely separated. Save the water tube and the water guide tube. Water Pump Removal 4-Remove the centrifugal slinger frorn above the water pump cover. Remove the two 7 I16" nuts and washers from the pump cover, and then lift the pump cover off the studs. MODEL 200 ONLY: Remove the three 1/2" nuts and the flush screw securing the water pump base to the housing. 5-Remove the water pump face plate. Pry the impeller out of the pump base using two screwdrivers. Withdraw the impeller drive pin with a pair of needle-nose pliers. Check the water pump insert closely for wear or damage. A new impeller should ALWAYS be installed during overhaul work on the lower unit. 6-Pry the water pump base upward and out of the lower unit using two long-shank screwdrivers, as shown. TAKE TIME to pad the areas where the screwdrivers will contact the mating surface of the lower unit with the exhaust housing. Remove the water pickup tube fro:n the seal at the rear of the lower unit. Lift the pump base up and off the driveshaft. Remove the water tube seal and cupped washer from the lower unit. Remove and save the shims from the water pump side of the driveshaft ball bearing. Some shims may have remained with the pump base. Remove the 0-ring from the groove in the pump base. Remove the water pump base oil seal by prying it out or by driving it toward the buttom side of the base. MODEL 45 THRU 110: Remove the water pump insert by driving it out from the oil seal side of the pump base. MODEL 200: Remove the pump insert by driving it out fro;n the driveshaft opening in the pump cover. MODEL 45 THRU 110: Remove the water tube seal from the pump base. Set the pump aside for disassembly later. Propeller Shaft and Bearing Carrier Disassembling 7-Clamp the lower unit in a vertical position in a vise between two blocks of wood to protect the finished sdrface of the unit. DRIVESHAFT PROPELLER SHAFT STOP: The reverse gear-to-pinion gear backlash should be checked PRIOR to disassembly. The reverse gear backlash can be checked only at a point of propeller shaft rotation where it is not possible to shift from neutral gear into reverse. This position is attained by slowly rotating the propeller shaft and at the same time attempting to shift into the reverse gear position. Once this position is reached: a-Push down on the driveshaft. b-Pull outward on the propeller shaft. c-Hold pressure on the lower shift shaft toward reverse. d-Lightly rotate the propeller shaft clockwise and counterclockwise. The amount of free play felt is the reverse gear-to-pinion gear backlash. For the correct amount of backlash allowable for the unit being serviced, check the Spedfica tions in the Appendix. Record the amount of backlash felt because it may affect the shimming of the reverse gear during assembly. 8-Remove the lower unit cover nut using the correct cover nut tool for the unit being serviced. OBSERVE the cover nut has cast-in arrows and embossed letters OFF to indicate the direction the nut is to be turned for removal. MODEL 45 THRU 110: the nut is turned CLOCK WISE! This means the nut has lefthand threads. MODEL 200: the nut is turned counterclockwise because the threads are standard right-hand. If the nut refuses to budge, strike the handle of the tool with a mallet to jar it loose. If striking the tool handle with a mallet is not successful in breaking the nut loose, apply heat to the lower unit and continue to strike the tool handle. 9-If the nut still remains "frozen" it will be necessary to drill the cover nut, as shown. Remove the cover nut and the flat anti-galling washer installed under the nut. 10-Clamp the propeller shaft in a horizontal position in a vise between two blocks of soft wood. Strike the lower unit approximately midway between the anti-cavitation plate and the bearing carrier cavity with a soft-face mallet. TAKE CARE the lower unit does not fall. The propeller shaft and the bearing carrier will remain in the vise. Now, if the lower unit refused to move, indicating the bearing may be "frozen" in Using a shaft p,.ller adaptor and slide hammer to remove the bearing carrier. the unit, carefully apply heat to the lower unit and at the same time continue to strike the lower unit in an effort to separate the carrier from the unit. 11-Retain all of the shims. Some shims may remain in the tower unit and others may come out with the bearing carrier thrust washer. Release the propeller shaft and bearing carrier from the vise. Slide the propeller shaft out of the bearing carrier. Set the propeller shaft and bearing carrier aside for disassembling later. Driveshaft Pinion Gear and Forward Gear Removal 12-Check the forward gear-to-pinion gear backlash PRIOR to removal. The backlash is checked by first pushing the driveshaft down and holding it in that position with one hand, and at the same time, rocking the forward gear to left-and-right with the other hand. The amount of free play felt is considered the forward-to-pinion gear backlash. The backlash should be from 0.003" to 0.005". 13-Bend the pinion gear locktab away from the head of the pinion gear retainer bolt. Clamp the driveshaft in a vise, equipped with soft jaws, as close as possible to the water pump studs. Loosen the pinion gear retainer bolt with a wrench, and then release the driveshaft from the vise. Now, turn the driveshaft and at the same time hold the pinion gear retainer bolt. Remove the bolt and tab washer. 14-Clamp the dr i veshaf t back in the vise. Hold a block of wood against the lower unit mating surface and strike the block of wood with a mallet to drive the lower unit off the driveshaft ball bearing. 00 NOT allow the lower unit to fall. Remove, save, and tag the shims from the lower unit driveshaft bearing cavity or on the driveshaft ball bearing. TAKE EXTRA CARE not to intermix these shims with those from above the driveshaft ball bearing. Release the driveshaft from the vise. Reach into the lower unit and lift out the pmwn gear. Set the drive shaft aside for disassembly later. 15-Place a block of wood at the edge of the work bench. Hold the lower unit firmly with the anti-cavitation plate away from you and the aft edge of the plate facing down, as shown. Now, with the lower unit in this position, raise it above the block of wood, and then bring it down squarely and sharply against the wood. The shock will jar the forward gear and the bearing loose and they will drop onto the block of wood. If they failed to come out of the lower unit, repeat the shock treatment un til they are released. Set the forward gear and bearing aside for later service. Shift Shaft Removal FIRST THESE WORDS: Take time to observe the position of the shift cam in relation to the lubricant FILL hole as an aid to correct installation. On 1971, '72, and '73 models, the shift cam position is opposite to earLier models. 16-Remove the shift shaft bushing retainer screw. 17Clamp the shift shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Drive the lower unit off the shift shaft ..ushing using a softface mallet or a block of wood and a ballpean hammer. TAKE CARE to prevent the lower unit from falling. Remove the shift cam from the lower unit cavity. Remove the shift shaft from the vise, and then slide the bushing off the shaft. Remove the Eclip. Remove the 0-ring from the groove in the shift shaft bushing. Pry the oil seal out of the shift shaft bushing towe. 17-Slide the water pump cover down over the driveshaft and the pump studs. Install the washers and nuts onto the studs, and then tighten the nuts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. 18-Install the centrifugal slinger over the driveshaft and against the pump cover. Install a NEW 0-ring into the groove at the top of the driveshaft. Some models may not have the groove and therefore, do not use the 0-ring. Place the water tube guide into the inlet of the water pump cover. Check the forward gear backlash again at this time. . ' WATER TUBE '""' ,, .. inserted from the opposite side of the sliding punch. Start the pin into the hole and remove the punch. 20After the cross-pin is started, place the earn follower into the forward end of the propeller shaft. Push against the cam follower until the cross-pin is aligned with the hole on the opposite side of the sliding clutch and then push the cross-pin on in. Install the cross-pin retainer. SPRING gear backlash is 0.00 3" to 0.005". Model 200 Only Position a NEW gasket on the face plate and one on the pump base. Install the face plate and the water pump cover. Apply a small amount of Multipurpose Lubricant to the drive pin area of the driveshaft. Position the impeller drive pin on the flat area of the driveshaft. Slide the impeller over the driveshaft and down over the drive pin. With a thin blade screwdriver, check to be sure the drive pin did not slide off the flat area on the driveshaft. Slide the water pump cover over the driveshaft and down over the impeller and at the same time rotate the driveshaft CLOCKWISE. Install the washers and nuts onto the water pump studs, and then tighten them to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Install the centrifugal slinger. Install a NEW 0-ring into the groove on the driveshaft. Some models may not have the groove and, therefore do not use the 0-ring. Propeller Shaft Assembling 19-Install the sliding clutch onto the propeller shaft with the ramp side of the clutch TOWARD the forward end of the shaft. Now, position the clutch until the pin hole aligns with the slot in the propeller shaft. Insert the spring into the forward end of the propeller shaft. Insert a small punch through the hole in the sliding clutch and propeller shaft slot, and then pry the spring toward the aft end of the shaft until the cross-pin can be 21-On some models the retainer is a spring and on other models the retainer is a clip. TAKE CARE not to over-stretch the retainer. CROSS-PIN SPRING 22-Place the shift cam in the FORWARD gear posi tlon. Insert the propeller shaft complete with cam follower into place in the center of the forward gear assembly. Install shim material into the lower unit. If the reverse gear backlash was correct prior to disassembly and the pinion gear depth has not been changed, install shim material EQUAL to the amount r..moved during disassembly. The correct reverse Pinion Gear and Driveshaft Shimming Shim material must be added or removed from the lower unit to obtain the proper pinion gear depth and reverse gear backlash. The following conditions outline possible circumstances that may have been encount ered and the corrective action to be taken for each. a-The pinion gear was lowered and the backlash was correct. Add shim material EQUAL to the amount removed from under the driveshaft ball bearing. b-The pinion gear was raised and the gear backlash was correct. Remove shim mateial EQUAL to the amount added under the driveshaft ball bearing. c-The pinion gear depth was unchanged and the gear backlash was MORE than specifications. Remove shims at a ratio of 0.001" shim material for each 0.0015" of gear lash change required. d-The pinion gear depth was unchanged and the gear backlash was LESS than specifications. Add shim material at a ratio of 0.001" material for each 0.0015" gear lash change required. Bearing Carrier Installation 23-Install a NEW 0-ring between the thrust washer and the bearing carrier. Coat the 0-ring and the propeller shaft oil seals with Multipurpose Lubricant. Coat the outer diameter of the bearing carrier with Perfect Seal. TAKE CARE to prevent any Perfect Seal from contacting the 0-ring, oil seals, or the bearings. Slide the bearing carrier over the propeller shaft and at the same time work the lips of the propeller shaft oil seal over the propeller shaft with a small screwdriver. Push the bearing carrier into the lower unit and at the same time rotate the driveshaft CLOCKWISE to index the reverse gear with the pinion gear. 24-Coat the threads of the cover nut with Perfect Seal. Position the lower unit cover washer over the bearing carrier. Slide the cover nut over the propeller shaft with the words OFF ON and the arrows visible. To avoid the possiblllity of cross-threading, start the cover nut by hand, COUNTERCLOCK WISE for MODEL 45 thru 110 and CLOCKWISE for MODEL 200. 25-For MODEL 45 thru 110: use Gear Case Cover Tool C-91-48830; for MODEL 200: use tool C-91-33450, and tighten the cover nut to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Shimming Reverse Gear Backlash All MODEL 45 thru 200 26-Shift the lower unit into neutral gear. Rotate the propeller shaft and at the same time attempt to shift into reverse gear. The reverse gear backlash can only be checked at the point of propeller shaft rotation where it is impossible to shift into reverse gear, the clutch dogs are aligned, as shown. When this point is reached, push down on the driveshaft and pull out on the propeller shaft, and at the same time maintain pressure on the lower shift shaft toward the reverse gear position. Now, lightly rock the propeller shaft right and left. The amount of free play felt is the clearance between the reverse gear and the pinion gear teeth, commonly referred to as the backlash. The correct amount of backlash should be 0.003" to 0.005". If the reverse gear backlash it not corr ..ct, retnove the bearing carrier and add shim material to increase backlash or remove shim material to decrease backlash. For each 0.00 l" of shim material change, the backlash will change approximately 0.00 15" After making a shim change, recheck the backlash as described in this step. Filling the Lower Unit 27-ALWAYS fill the lower unit with lubricant and check for leaks BEFORE installing the lower unit to the powerhead. Take time to remove any old gasket material from the FILL and VENT recesses and from the screws. Place the lower unit in an upright vertical position. Fill the lower unit with Super-Duty Lubricant, or equivalent, through the FILL hole at the bottom of the unit. NEVER add lubricant to the lower unit without first removing the VENT screws AND having the unit in its normal operating position (vertical). Failure to remove the vent screw will result in air becoming trapped within the lower unit. Trapped air will not allow the proper amount of lubricant to be added. Continue filling SLOWLY until the lubricant flows out the VENT hole with no air bubbles visible. Use a NEW gasket and install the VENT screw. Slide a NEW gasket onto the FILL screw. Remove the lubricant tube and QUICKLY install the FILL screw. Check the lower unit for leaks. WORDS OF ADVICE The oil level (vent)screw should be removed periodically and a piece of wire used to determine oil level. DRJVESHAFT HOLD AND PUSH DOWNWARD PROPELLER SHAFT HOLD AND PULL OUTWARD Hold the lower unit in position with one hand and check the shift operation with the other hand. Shift into neutral gear: In neutral the propeller shaft must be free to turn in either direction. Shift into reverse gear: The propeller shaft should NOT be free to rotate more then 1/2-turn. Shift into forward gear: The propeller shaft should not be free to turn counterclockwise. If the lower unit fails any of the shift tests just described, the upper and lower shift shafts are not aligned properly. Remove the lower unit and repeat steps 25 and 26. 29-Start the 9/ 16" self-locking nut at the leading edge of the exhaust housing. MODEL 45 thru 110: use a screwdriver and push the water pickup screen over the rear driveshaft stud. Install the 1/2" rear stud. DO NOT tighten the nut at this time. Tighten the 9/16" front retainer nut, and then tighten the rear nut. Tighten both nuts to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. MODEL 200: install the nut on the stud inside the anodic plate recess and install the anodic plate. GOOD WORDS A new anodic plate should be installed following a lower unit overhaul. Insert the plastic cap into the hole at the lower rear edge of the exhaust housing. Release the tilt lock and lower the engine to the normal operating position. INSTALLATION TYPE "8" UNIT 28-Swing the exhaust housing outward until the tilt lock lever can be actuated, and then engage the tilt lock. Move the shift lever to the FORWARD gear position. Cover the driveshaft and shift shaft splines with a light coating of Multipurpose Lubricant. TAKE CARE not to use an excessive amount of lubricant on the driveshaft splines on any Mercury Outboard. BAD NEWS: An excess amount of lubricant on top of the driveshaft to crankshaft splines will be trapped in the clearance space. This trapped lubricant will not allow the driveshaft to fully engage with the crankshaft. As a result, when the lower unit nuts are tightened, a load will be placed on the driveshaft/crankshaft and will cause damage to either the powerhead or the lower unit or both. Therefore, any lubricant MUST be cleaned from the top of the driveshaft. Install the water guide tube into the water pump cover with the tube entered into the water passage in the bottom cowl. Position the driveshaf t into the exhaust housing and at the same time align the water tube with the water guide tube and mainatain the lower unit mating surface parallel with the exhaust housing mating surface. Push the flower unit toward the exhaust housing and at the same timer rotate the flywheel to permit the crankshaft splines to index (mate) with the driveshaft splines. Propeller Installation 30-Disconnect the spark plug wires to prevent the engine from starting when the propeller and shaft are rotated. As an aid to removing the propeller the next time, apply a liberal coating of Perfect Seal to the propeller shaft splines. 31-Install the thrust hub into the center of the propeller, and then slide the propeller and thrust hub onto the propeller shaft. Slide the washer onto the shaft, and then thread the propeller locknut onto the shaft and tighten it to the torque value given in the Specifications in the Appendix. Use a block of wood between a propeller blade and the anti-cavitation plate to prevent the propeller shaft from rotating while the nut is being tightened. Connect the spark plug wires to the spark plugs. Connect the electrical lead to the battery terminal. Mount the engine in a test tank or body of water. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Start the engine and check the completed work for satisfactory operation and no leaks. Testing a small horsepower engine in a fifty-gallon tank. The engine should NEVER be run above idle or possibly moderate speed in such a test tank. 9-6 LOWER UNIT "C" REVERSE CAPABILITY UNIQUE SHIFT ARRANGEMENT (See Lower Unit Table in Appendix) DESCRIPTION In addition to the normal forward and neutral capabilities of the smaller engines, as outlined in Section 9-4, the lower unit of these model Mercury outboards are equipped with a reverse gear. A clutch and the necessary shift linkage for efficient operation is contained within the lower unit. Since mid .1 987, the manufacturer has introduced minor changes in the design of this type lower unit. The newer lower units may be easily identified from the exterior by the following features: a-A rubber plug on the starboard side of the intermediate housing, just above the anti-cavitation plate. This plug conceals the shift coupler. b-A sacrificial anode, resembling a large washer, on the starboard side of the lower unit, just above the anti-cavitation plate, next to the oil level vent plug. c-Two bolts securing the bearing carrier to the lower unit. Exterior veiw of a "newer" type lower W1it (manufactured since Mid 1987 ), with major differences identifi ed. If servicing a lower unit exhibiting these features, the following design differences will be encountered during disassembling of the unit: a-Two piece shift rod, connected together with an externally accessible coupler. b-Additional gaskets in the water pump. c-An additional water pump base, containing a new design double lip oil seal plus additional gaskets. d-New design sliding clutch at the forward end of the propeller shaft. e-New design bearing carrier with a new design double lip oil seal. When these differences affect the disassembly procedures, of the unit being serviced, separate steps will be given and identified as "newer" units. Models manufactured before mid 1987 will be identified as "older" units. ADVICE Before beginning work on the lower unit, take time to READ and UNDERSTAND the information presented in Section 9-1, this chapter, and check the Lower Unit Type and Backlash Table in the Appendix to ensure the proper procedures are being followed. Disconnect the high tension spark plug leads, remove the spark plugs, and disconnect the leads at the battery terminals, before working on the lower unit. Shift the engine into FORWARD gear. Raise the lower unit upward until the tilt lever can be actuated, and then engage the tilt stop. Propeller Removal SAFETY WORDS: An outboard engine may start very easily. Therefore, anytime the propeller is to be removed or installed, check to be sure: a-Shift mechanism is in NEUTRAL. b-Key switch is in OFF position. c-Spark plug wires are disconnected. d-Electrical leads disconnected at the battery terminals. 1-Remove the propeller nut by first placing a block of wood between one of the propeller blades and the anti-cavitation plate to prevent the propeller from turning, and then remove the nut. Remove the splined thrust hub. The drain screw is magnatized to pickup metal particles in the lubricating fluid. The presence of metal particles on the screw or in the fluid is BAD NEWS! The lower unit must be disassembled and the damaged parts replaced. SPECIAL WORDS FOR OLDER UNITS The splined thrust hub will be used later as a special tool to remove the bearing carrier from the lower unit. Position a suitable container under the lower unit, and then remove the FILL screw and the VENT screw. Allow the gear lubricant to drain into the container. As the lubricant drains, catch some with your fingers from time-to-time, and rub it between your thumb and finger to determine if any metal particles are present. If metal is detected in the lubricant, the unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, and the damaged parts replaced. Check the color of the lubricant as it drains. A whitish or creamy color indicates the presence of wacause of the problem determined, and then corrected. Older units: Remove the shift lever coupler located in the bottom cowling behind the carburetor. Newer units: Pry the plastic plug from the starboard side of the intermediate housing. Shift the unit into REVERSE GEAR. Loosen, but DO NOT REMOVE the exposed bolt. Older units: Remove the four attaching bolts securing the lower unit to the driveshaft housing. Newer units: Remove the two attaching bolts, one located at the leading edge of the intermediate housing and the other directly aft of the water pickup on the underside of the anti-cavitation plate. All units: Ease the lower unit from the intermediate housing. ter in the lubricant. Check the drain pan for signs of water separation from the lubricant: The . presence of any water in the gear lubncant Is bad news. The unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, the Access to the coupler for the upper and lower shift rods is gained by removing the rubber plug on the star board side of the interm ediate housing. WATER PUMP Removal 2-Slide the centrifugal rubber slinger up and free of the driveshaft (older units only). Remove the four screws securing the water pump cover. Slide the water pump cover up and free of the driveshaft. 3-Remove the impeller and the Woodruff key. SPECIAL WORDS FOR ''OLDER" MODELS The impeller is sandwiched between two fiber washers. TAKE CARE not to lose these washers. Newer units: Remove the insert cartridge, water pickup tube and grommet from the water pump housing. Remove the gasket on top of the water pump face plate. All units: Remove the water pump face plate and the gasket installed under the lower plate. Propeller Shaft and Bearing Carrier Removal Newer units: 4-Remove the two bolts securing the bearing carrier to the lower unit. Clamp the propeller shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Obtain a soft headed mallet and strike the lower unit just above the bearing carrier to jar the bearing carrier free. An alternate method of releasing the bearing carrier is as follows: Clamp the skeg in a vice equipped with soft jaws. Obtain puller P/N 91-27780 or a slide hammer with a jaw expander attachment. Hook the jaws inside the bearing carrier and use the slide hammer to jar the bearing carrier free. A third method of releasing the bearing carrier is as follows: Rotate the bearing carrier cap 90 (1/4 turn), and then gently tap the bearing carrier cap with a soft headed mallet to jar the carrier free. Remove the propeller shaft from the bearing carrier. Remove and discard the 0ring. Older units: Steps 5 thru 9 5-Remove the four slotted screws from the lower unit housing cavity. 6Slide the splined thrust hub onto the propeller shaft with the shoulder facing outward, as shown. Engage the ears of the thrust hub into the recesses of the bearing carrier. Bearing Carrier Disassembling All units: 10Remove the reverse gear from the bearing carrier. Newer models have a washer in front of the reverse gear, take care 7-Slide the propeller onto the propeller shaft until the splines of the propeller are fully engaged with the splines of the propeller shaft. CRITICAL WORDS The threads on the bearing carrier are LEFT-HAND. Therefore, the carrier must be rotated CLOCKWISE to remove. Using the proper size socket or end wrench on the propeller, rotate the propeller CLOCKWISE. Continue rotating the propeller until the bearing carrier is loose. 8-Slide the bearing carrier free of the propeller shaft. 9-Pull outward ')n the propeller shaft. The shaft, reverse gear, sliding clutch, and cam follower, will all come out with the propeller shaft. not to lose this washer. WATCH for and SAVE any shim material from the back side of the reverse gear. The shim material is critical in obtaining the correct backlash during assembling. On some models, the reverse gear and ball bearing assembly is pressed into the bearing carrier. The ball bearing is pressed onto the back of the reverse gear and must be separated using a bearing separator. If the reverse gear and ball bearing assembly is pressed into the bearing carrier, the assembly may be "pulled" from the carrier using a slide hammer with jaw expander attachment, or special puller assembly and plate tool P/N 91-&3165M. This tool has jaws similar to the slide hammer attachment, but uses a long screw and plate to extract the bearing, instead of a "hammer" action. When using either tool check to be SURE the jaws are hooked onto the inner race. OIL SEAL CRITICAL WORDS Perform the following work only if the seal/s have been damaged and are no longer fit for service. Removal of the seal/s destroys sealing qualities. Therefore, the seal/s cannot be installed a second time. Be absolutely sure a new seal/s are available before re moving the old seal/s. 11-Inspect the condition of the two seals (older units) or the double lip seal (newer units) in the bearing carrier. If the seal/s appear to be damaged and replacement is required, use the same slide hammer and jaw attachment or special tool as used in the previous step to remove the seal/s. SPECIAL WORDS Perform the following work only if the needle bearing (newer models) or bushing (older models) is damaged and is no longer fit for further service. Removal of the bearing or seal will distort it and therefore it cannot be reinstalled. Be absolutely sure a new part is available before removing the bearing or bushing. Unfortunately, the oil seals, good or bad, must be removed before the bearing or bushing can be driven out, and of course they must be replaced with new ones. 12-Note the position of the bearing or bushing in relation to the carrier. Look for any embossed numbers or letters and which shoulder of the bearing or bushing needs to be flush with the carrier. Remove the bearing or bushing using the same method and tools as described for the removal of the reverse gear bearing and oil seal/s, or obtain a suitably sized socket and driver, and drive the bearing or bushing from the carrier. All Units 13-Reach into the lower unit cavity and grasp the pinion gear. Pull upward on the dr iveshaft with your other hand and the pinion gear (all units), bearing, and bearing race (older units only) will come free into your hand. When removing the driveshaft WATCH for and SAVE any shim rna ter ial found on top of the driveshaft bearing. This shim material is critical to obtaining the correct backlash during installation. On newer units, the driveshaft has a ball bearing in addition to the needle bearing inside the lower unit. This ball bearing, sleeve and bushing are not serviceable. If any part of the driveshaft is defective, it must be replaced with a new driveshaft assembly. SPECIAL WORDS The shift shaft used on older units has a great many more parts on it than the shaft SHIFT:. SHIFT' FU\T SPRING .SHAFT WASHER(TOWARD PROPELLER} NEWER UNITS OUTER0-RING used in newer units. However, the cam at the lower end is identical for all units. Shift Shaft Removal 14Newer units: washer and retaining Remove ring from the the bolt, shift shaft. All units: Pull upward on the shift shaft until it is clear of the lower unit. 15-Disassemble the shift shaft assembly only if a part shows excessive signs of wear. Newer units: Slide the plastic bushing from the shaft. Remove the 0-ring from the water pump base. Older units: The assembly consists of the shift shaft and from left to right, shift cam, flat washer, spring, flat washer, inner 0-ring, outer 0-ring, retainer, and retainer boot, as shown. Change the inner 0-r ing ONLY if the lower unit lubr kant shows signs of water indicating the 0-ring has failed. The 0-ring is very difficult to install without being damaged. Water Pump Base Removal Newer units: 16-Remove the water pump base. Remove and discard the gasket. There is a single oil seal contained within the water pump base. CRITICAL WORDS Perform the following work only if the seal has been damaged and is no longer fit for service. Removal of the seal destroys .., OIL ........-SEAL its sealing qualities. Therefore, the seal cannot be installed a second time. Be .. NEEDLE BEARING OLDERUNITS absolutely sure a new seal is available before removing the old seal. Inspect the condition of the seal in the water pump base. If the seal appears to be damaged and replacement is required, use the same slide hammer and jaw attachment or special tool as used in step 10 to remove the seal. Newer units: A single needle bearing is used at this location, just above the pinion gear. Older units: A single needle bearing and two oil seals are stacked on top of the bearing. If the oil seals or bearings are fit for further service, they are best left alone. Removing either the oil seals or the bear- ings will destroy them. If only the oil seals must be removed (older units only), obtain puller P/N 91-27780 or a slide hammer with expanding jaw attachment to "pull" the seal. If the bearing must be removed, obtain needle bearing installation/removal tool P/N 91-17351 or a suitably sized 3/8" drive socket which will rest on the outer bearing cage. Use the tool and attached guide plate to remove the bearing. If using the alternate method, install the socket on a very long extension and drive the bearing down into the lower unit cavity. CRITICAL WORDS If a two piece bearing, such as the type installed in "older units", is to be replaced, the bearing and the race MUST be replaced as a matched set. Renove the bearing only if it is unsuitable for further service. Water Pump Base Removal Older units: 17-Tilt the lower unit. The forward gear tapered roller bearing will fall into your hand. If the bearing fails to fall free, strike the open end of the lower unit on a block of wood to jar the bearing free. WATCH for and SAVE any shim material found behind the forward gear. This shim material is critical to obtaining the correct backlash during installation. The shim material will be located between the forward gear and the bearing. Newer units: The forward gear bearing is a one piece ball bearing and will not --or should not --just fall out of the lower unit cavity. The bearing must be "pulled" from the lower unit only if unfit for further service. Obtain puller P /N 91-27780 or a slide hammer with a jaw expander attachment. Hook the jaws inside the inner bearing race and use the slide hammer to jar the race free. WATCH for and SAVE any shim material found behind the forward gear. This shim material is critical to obtaining the correct backlash during installation. The shim material will be located between the forward gear and the bearing. Older units: Obtain puller P/N 91-27780 or a slide hammer with a jaw expander attachment. Hook the jaws inside the bearing race and use the slide hammer to jar the race free. Clutch Mechanism Disassembly 18-Remove the cam follower (all units) and guide (newer units only) from the propeller shaft. Older units: Insert an awl under the end loop of the cross pin ring and unwind the ring from the sliding clutch. 19-Use a long pointed punch and press out the cross pin LEAVING the punch inside the propeller shaft once the pin has been driven free. Press the end of the propeller shaft down against the work bench and slow Arrangement of shift parts on the propeller shaft. ly extract the punch. In this way, the compression spring inside the shaft will be contained and will not fly out. Observe how the clutch is installed on the shaft before sliding the clutch from the shaft. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Clean all water pump parts with solvent, and then dry them with compressed air. Inspect the water pump cover and base for cracks and distortion, possibly caused from overheating. Inspect the face plate and water pump insert for grooves and/ or rough surfaces. If possible, ALWAYS install a new water pump impeller while the lower unit is disassembled. A new impeller will ensure extended satisfactory service and give "peace of mind" to the owner. If the old impeller must be returned to service, ALWAYS install the impeller in the original direction of rotation. Installation in reverse will cause premature impeller failure. If installation of a new impeller is not possible, check the three seal surfaces. All must be in good condition to ensure proper pump operation. Check the upper, lower, and ends of the impeller vanes for grooves, cracking, and wear. Check to be sure the bonding of the impeller hub to the impeller will not allow the hub to slip inside the impeller. Clean all bearings with solvent, dry them with compressed air, and inspect them carefully. Be sure there is no water in the air line. Direct the air stream through the bearing. NEVER spin a bearing with compressed air. Such action is highly dangerous and may cause the bearing to score from lack of lubrication. After the bearings are clean and dry, lubricate them with Formula 50 oil, or equivalent. Inspect all ball bearings for roughness, scratches and bearing race side wear. Hold the outer race, and work the inner bearing race in and out, to check for side wear. Determine the condition of tapered bearing rollers and inner bearing race, by inspecting the bearing cup for pitting, scoring, grooves, uneven wear, embedded particles, and discoloration caused from overheating. ALWAYS replace tapered roller bearings as a set. Clean the forward gear with solvent, and then dry it with compressed air. Inspect the gear teeth for wear. Under normal conditions the gear will show signs of wear but it will be smooth and even. Clean the bearing carrier with solvent, and then dry it with compressed air. NEVER spin bearings with compressed air. Such action is highly dangerous and may cause the bearing to score from lack of lubrication. Check the gear teeth of the reverse gear for wear. The wear should be smooth and even. Check the teeth on the sliding clutch to be sure they are not rounded-off, or chipped. Such damage is usually the result of poor operator habits and is caused by shifting too slowly or shifting while the engine is operating at high rpm. Such damage might also be caused by improper shift cable adjustments. Inspect the roller bearing surface of the propeller shaft. Check the shaft surface for pitting, scoring, grooving, embedded particles, uneven wear and discoloration caused from overheating. Clean the driveshaft with solvent, and then dry it with compressed air. Inspect the bearing for roughness, sera tches, or side wear. If the bearing shows signs of such damage, it should be replaced. If the bearing is satisfactory for further service coat it with oil. Inspect the driveshaft splines for excessive wear. Check the oil seal surfaces above and below the water pump drive pin area for grooves. Replace the shaft if grooves are discovered. Inspect the driveshaft roller bearing surface above the pinion gear splines for pitting, grooves, scoring, uneven wear, embedded metal particles and discoloration caused by overheating. Inspect the propeller shaft oil seal surface to be sure it is not pitted, grooved, or scratched. Inspect the roller bearing con e f CLEANING & INSPECTING 9-59 SH IFT SHAFT : ICOVER ' BOOT .. : ' : c=r-----0-RING ' Fl BER WASHER ' OUTER 0-RING..cb ..IMPELLER INNER ---.....;. 0-RING I ' SPRING -I I Early model solenoid (above), and late model solenoid (below), hooked up for testing. An audible "click'' should be heard from the solenoid and the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohms. 13 12 110 9 1-RETAI NER 10-0-RING -7/32x11/32x1/16 2-0-RING -7/32x11/32x1/16 11-DOWN BLEED SCREW 3-UP BLEED SCREW 12-0-RING 1-1/2x1-5/8x1/16 - 4-CHAMFERED END 13-0-RING -5/8x3/4x1/16 5-CYLINDER LINER 14-0-RING -1-5/16x1-1/2x3/32 6-PI STON 15-0-RING -1-5/8x1-13/16x3/32 7-SL I PPER SEAL 16-0-RING -1-3/4x1-15/16x3/32 8-0-RING -1-1/4x1-11/32x3/32 17-0-RING 1-7/8x2-1/16x3/32 9-BOLT 18-0-RING -3/4x27/32x3/32 - Cross-section of a 3/4" diameter piston rod cylinder with the bleed screw and 0-ring sizes identified. 11 1-RETAI NER 2-0-RING 810 -1-5/16x1-1/2x3/32 7/Bxlxl/16 1-7/8x2-1/16x3/32 UP BLEED SCREW 0-RING 0-RING -- 35 SL I PPER SEAL 0-RING -1-5/16x1-1/2x3/32 0-RING 1-1/4x1-7/16x3/32 11-DOWN BLEED SCREW 12-0-RING 1-5/8x1-13/16x3/32 13-0-RING -1-3/4x1-15/16x3/32 - 7 BOLT0-RING - -1-1/2x1-5/8x1/16 14-0-RING 1x1-3/16x3/32 15-PI STON Cross-section of a 1" diameter piston rod cylinder with the bleed screw and 0-ring sizes identified. Typical trim/tilt cylinder and hose installation for the trim/tilt system covered in this manual. 10-7 HYDRAULIC TRIM SERVICE TRIM/TILT CYLINDERS Trim Cylinder Removal WARNING: Exercise care when working with the trim cylinders. Take extra precautions to prevent the engine from falling, or moving down rapidly. Such action could cause BODILY INJURY. Disconnect the two trim hoses from the cylinder to be removed. Cap the hoses and plug the holes in the cylinders as a precaution against contamination, including air, from entering the system. The caps and plugs will also prevent an unnecessary loss of oil. Remove the mounting bolts at each end of the cy Iinder, and then remove the cylinder. ALWAYS keep the work area clean to prevent contamination. The smallest amount of foreign material can lead to a malfunction in the system. Removing the retainer assembly and liner from the cylinder housing. Trim Cylinder Disassembling Remove the UP and DOWN bleed screws, identified as 3 and 11 in the illustration, previous page. Use a 1-3/4" spanner wrench and unscrew the retainer assembly from the cylinder assembly. After the retainer assembly is loose, pull the rod and piston assembly, retainer assembly, and the cylinder liner from the cylinder housing. Use a long wire pick to dislodge the 0ring from the cylinder housing, and then remove the ring. Clamp the rod assembly in a vise equipped with soft jaws, and then slide the cylinder liner off the retainer and piston, using a twisting motion. Remove the bolt and piston from the piston rod. Remove the four 0-rings from the outside retainer and one 0-ring from inside the retainer behind the seal and scraper. DO NOT remove or damage the seal or scraper. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Make an effort to keep the work area clean, because any contamination in the system could lead to a malfunction. Inspect the cylinder liner and piston for wear. Check to be sure the piston is not bent or distorted. Removing the bleed screws from the cylinder. The UP screw is at the bottom of the cylinder and the DOWN screw is at the top. Removing the retainer assembly from the liner. Removing the Q-ring and slipper seal from the liner. Remove all seals and 0-rings. Clean all parts in a solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Trim Cylinder Assembling Lubricate all 0-rings and 0-ring contact surfaces with Multipurpose Lubricant, as protection against damaging the ring during installation. Install the proper 0-ring into the cylinder housing. Use Multipurpose Lubricant to hold the 0-ring in the recessed groove. Press the 0-ring firmly into the bottom of the groove, using the cylinder liner as a tool. Install the 0-ring into the groove of the new brass piston. CAREFULLY stretch the slipper seal over the 0-ring. USE CARE when stretching the slipper seal. If the slipper is overstretched, installation of the piston into the liner will be more difficult. Position the proper 0-ring into the recessed end of the piston. Installing the liner onto the piston. Install the proper size 0-ring into the grooves on the retainer. CAREFULLY insert the 0-ring into the groove inside the retainer, without damaging the seal or the scraper. Slide the retainer assembly onto the piston rod. Coat the internal surface of the cylinder liner, piston, slipper seal assembly and Installation Tool C-91-69626 with Multipurpose Lubricant. Clamp the rod eye in a vise, as shown. Position the cylinder liner onto the retainer with the chamfered side TOWARD the retainer. Now, position installation tool C-91-69626 on the cylinder liner and place the piston, with the slipper seal installed, into the tool, with the 0-ring TOWARD the end of the rod. Push the slipper seal into the tool by hand until the retainer bolt can be started. Remove the retainer bolt and apply a small amount of Blue Loctite to the threads. Install the bolt and use the bolt to draw the piston into the liner. Tighten the bolt to a torque value of 35 ft lbs. (47.6 Nm) on 3/4" diameter rods or to 60 ft lbs. (81.6 Nm) on 1" diameter rods. Apply Multipurpose Lubricant to the end of the liner which seats against the 0-ring in the housing. The retainer should be carefully inspected to ensure the threads have not been damaged and the 0-ring seats Apply Loctite to the threads of the bolt securing the are clean. slipper seal to the end of the cylinder shaft. Working the cylinder shaft through the retainer. After the shaft is in place, it should move smoothly through the retainer. Insert the complete piston, piston rod, cylinder liner, and retainer assemblies into the cylinder housing. Coat the threads of the retainer with Perfect Seal, or equivalent. Thread the retainer assembly into the cy Iinder housing and tighten it to a torque value of 35-40 ft lbs. (47 .6-54.4 Nm). Check the cylinder movement by moving the piston rod completely in and out of the cylinder several times. The movement should be free with no feel of binding. Install the bleed screws into the cylinder housing. Check to be sure the 0-r ings under the bleed screws remain in place. As a protection against corrosion, touchup any scratches, nicks, etc., by sanding and painting. Fill and bleed the cylinders according to the procedures outlined in Section 10-5. Trim Cylinder Installation WARNING: Exercise care when working with the trim cylinders. Take extra precautions to prevent the engine from falling, or moving down rapidly. Such action could cause BODILY INJURY. Position the trim cylinder in place, as shown. Install the top mounting bolt and tighten it to a torque value of 50 ft lbs. (67.8 Nm). The starboard cylinder has a washer installed between the outer side of the cylinder and the mounting bracket. Install the lower mounting bolts, with a spacer and rubber bushing. Tighten the bolt to a torque value of 50 ft lbs. (67.8 Nm). Remove the caps from the hoses and the plugs from the cylinders. Connect the hoses to the cylinders. TAKE CARE not to crossthread the hoses in the cylinders. Tighten the hoses securely. Operate the trim system and check for leaks. See Section 10-5 to bleed any air that may have entered the system during the service work. 10-8 HYDRAULIC PUMP SERVICE TESTING Trim Pump Motor Test This simple procedure will determine if the trim pump motor requires service. a-Disconnect the black and blue motor wires from the solenoid terminals. b-Connect a 12-volt supply between the motor terminals where the black and blue wires were disconnected. The motor should run. If the motor fails to operate, it requires service or replacement, see Section 10-9. The cylinder can be checked prior to installation by using compressed air at each pressure port. The piston should move smoothly in each direction. Exercise care Installing the piston and liner into the pump housing. because the piston will move rapidly and with force. PUMP REMOVAL Disconnect the large red and black battery wires at the battery to eliminate the possibility of sparks. Tag the wires and terminals at the pump and solenoid, and then disconnect the wires. Remove the mounting nuts, and then remove the pumpand- mounting bracket assembly. If the pump is to be replaced, TAKE CARE to prevent loss of hydraulic fluid, and then disconnect the hoses. DISASSEMBLING Clean the outside of the pump with solvent, and then blow it dry with compressed air. The pump MUST be thoroughly cleaned before the disassembly work begins to prevent contamination entering the system. Even the smallest amount of foreign material could lead to a malfunction. Keep the work area as clean as possible for the same reason. Remove the reservoir fill screw, and then drain the oil. Remove the four 7 /16" hex-head screws from the control valve and the eight screws from the valve body and gear assembly. Separate the reservoir from the valve body and DISCARD the seal. CLEANING AND INSPECTING If the pump is damaged or shows signs of wear, the entire body and gear assembly must be replaced as a unit because the valves and gears have such a precision matched fit. Hydraulic pump for the trim/tilt system with associated parts and wiring prior to removal. Tag the wires as an aid during installation. ASSEMBLING TRIM/TILT PUMP Place a SMALL amount of Liquid Neoprene C-92-25711-1 in the seal groove of the valve body to hold the seal in place during assembly. TAKE CARE with the Liquid Neoprene because any excess amount may enter the valve body and plug the ports. Result: Failure of the pump. Install the seal on the valve body, and then install the The gear assembly secured in the valve body with General view of the trim/tilt installed on the outPhillips head screws. The assembly is identical to the board, connected, and ready for operation. two at the top of Page 10-17. 11 HYDRAUliC PUMP ASSY (2) 0 .All!"' SPRING (2) 0-RING (4) ---...."''''" BRUSH (2) .... COIIIUTATOR " "" PlATE BAllVAlVE ASSY Fl ElD AND lOCKVASHER (..) FRAME ASSY BOlT (4) ..ARMATURE THRUST WASHER /.;VENT SCREW FillER SCREW C> ..SEAlING WASHER BODY - VAlVE BODY AND GEAR ASSEMBlY Exploded view of the hydraulic pump and control valve with major parts identified. The gear assembly secured in the valve body with 6point screws and two bolts. The assembly is identical to the one on Page 10-15 and top of next column. valve body and gear cage assembly onto the reservoir. Secure the parts together with the eight attaching screws. Tighten the opposite screws evenly and securely. Now, apply a coating of Liquid Neoprene, or equivalent, around the edges of the housings to ensure a good seal. After the neoprene has thoroughly dried, paint the parts. Because the vent screw is left open, the pump is vented, therefore, it is self-bleeding. INSTALLATION TRIM/TILT PUMP Attach the pump and mounting bracket assembly to the transom with the mounting nuts. The pump MUST be installed vertically. Connect the hoses to the pump and tighten the fittings securely. Insert the harness adaptor into the receptacle of the hydraulic pump. Connect the wires from the opposite end of the adaptor. TAKE CARE to rna tch the color code or the tags made during removal. The wiring diagrams in the Appendix will be helpful if the color code is not apparent or tags were not used during removal. Slide the rubber sleeves over the connections. Place the rubber boot over the large red battery cable, and then connect the wire to the solenoid. Connect the opposite end of the red wire to the positive (+ )battery terminal and the large black wire to the solenoid. Connect the opposite end of the black wire to the negative (-) battery terminal. The gear assembly secured in the valve body using 6-point screws. The only difference between this unit, and the one in the left column, and at the bottom of Page 10-15, is the method of attachment to the valve body. A GOOD WORD: Because the vent screw is left open, the pump is vented, therefore, it is self-bleeding. 10-9 ELECTRIC MOTOR SERVICE TRIM/TILT SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING Before going directly to the electric motor as a source of trouble, check the Typical hydraulic pump with major parts and wiring identified. battery to be sure it is up to a full charge; inspect the wiring for loose connections, corrosion and the like; and take a good look at the control switches and connections for evidence of trouble. The control switches may be eliminated as a source of trouble by connecting the pump directly to the battery for testing purposes. This can be accomplished by disconnecting the black and the blue wires from the solenoid, and then connecting the black wire to the negative (-)battery terminal and the blue wire to the positive (+) terminal. If the pump motor does not run with this direct connection, either the pump motor or the pump and valve assembly is defective. If the pump motor does operate, the problem is in the wiring or the panel switches. DISASSEMBLING Remove the two screws from the top of the motor and reservoir assembly. Scribe a mark on the reservoir and a matching mark on the motor housing as an aid to assembling. Separate the reservoir from the motor. TAKE CARE not to lose the spacers from the armature. Pull the armature out of the frame. Disconnect the ground wire from the upper end cap. Remove the end cap from the frame and field assembly. Hookup to check the continuity between the brush holders and the end cap. The meter should read infinity, indicating a lack of continuity. CLEANING AND TESTING Any sign of oil in the pump motor indicates either the reservoir seal is damaged or the vent screw was closed. If the vent was closed, air could not escape and oil was forced into the pump motor. Test ing for a short between a brush pigtail and the end cap. Hookup to check the resistance of the thermal switch. The meter is set on the Rxl scale. Checking the field coils for a short. Testing the field coil for continuity. The meter should read infinity, indicating no continuity. CORRECT INCORRECT Armature segments properly cleaned (left), and improperly cleaned (right). Check the amount of wear to the brushes. If they are worn to half their original length, they should be replaced. If the commutator is worn, true it on a lathe, and undercut the :nica. Check the armature on a growler for shorts, open windings, or shorted windings. Check the resistance of the thermal switch. If the switch has no continuity or has high resistance, it MUST be replaced. Check between each brush holder and the end cap for a short. There must be no continuity. GOOD WORDS If there is any measurable high resistance in any of the tests in this step, the frarne and field assembly MUST be replaced. Check the field coils for a short, ground, or excessive resistance in the windings. With the tester on Rxl, check for resistance between the green wire and the black jumper wire. Check for resistance between the blue wire and the black jumper wire. Check the black ground wire for resistance. With the tester still on the Rxl scale, check for a short between the black jumper Checking between the commutator segments. Continuity must exist. Method of testing the armature for a short circuit using a growler and a hacksaw blade. If the blade vibrates, the mica must be cleaned out or the armature replaced. wire and ground. A short is indicated if the needle moves to the right. The assembly MUST be replaced. Install the armature into the frame and field assembly. Place the ball bearing on top of the armature shaft, if such a bearing TEST LEADS COMMUTATOR Armature check for a short: One test light lead on each commutator segm ent al ternately, and the other lead on the armature core. No continuity. is used. Depress the brushes into place, and slide them over the commutator bars. TAKE CARE not to mar the brushes. Position the assembly onto the reservoir housing and work the shaft into the pump. Install the screws into the cap. Be sure to install the ground wire onto one of the screws securing the cap. Tighten the two bolts to the reservoir housing. Hydraulic pump identical to the one in the left column except with later model solenoid. Hydraulic pump with early model solenoid. Other major parts are identified. II REMOTE CONTROLS 11-1 INTRODUCTION Remote controls are seldom obtained from the original outboard manufacturer. Shift boxes and steering arrangements may be added by the boat manufacturer. Be cause of the wide assortment, styles, and price ranges of remote controls, the boat manufacturer, or customer, has a wide se lection from which to draw, when outfitting the boat. Therefore, the procedures and suggestions in this chapter are for the "Commander" shift controls widely used with the outboard units covered in this manual. The procedures are specific and in enough detail to allow troubleshooting, repair, and adjustment of the "Commander" shift unit for maximum comfort, performance and safety. WOULD YOU BELIEVE Probably 90% of steering cable problems are directly caused by the system not being operated, just sitting idle during the offseason. Without movement, all steering cables have a tendency to "freeze". Would you also believe: Service shops report almost 50% of the boat cables replaced every year are due to lack of movement. Therefore, during off-season when the boat is laid up in a yard, or on a trailer alongside the house, take time to go aboard and operate the steering wheel from hard-over to hardover several times. These sections provide step-by-step detailed instructions for the complete disassembly, cleaning and inspection, and assembly of the "Commander" shift box. Disassembly may be stopped at any point desired and the assembly process begun at that point. However, for best results and maxi mum performance, the entire system should be serviced if any one part is disassembled for repair. An exploded drawing of the "Commander" shift box is presented between the assembling and disassembling procedures. This diagram will be most helpful in gaining an appreciation of how the shift box functions and the relationship of individual parts to one another. If at all possible, keep the parts in order as they are removed. Make an effort to keep the work area clean and keep disassembled parts covered with a shop cloth to prevent contamination. GOOD WORDS If the control cable has a "Zerk" fitting at the engine end, the cable MUST be retracted, then the fitting lubricated with Quicksilver Multi-Purpose lubricant or Quicksilver 2-4C Lubricant. STEERING CHECKS The steering system may be checked by performing a few very simple tests. First, move the steering wheel from hard-over to hard-over, port and starboard several times. The outboard unit should move without any sign of stiffness. If binding or stiffness is encountered, the cause may be a defect in the swivel bearing. Next, remove the steering bolt at the outboard unit, and again turn the steering wheel back-and-forth from hard-over to hard-over, port and starboard several times. If there is any sign of stiff ness, it is proof the problem is with the cables. They may be corroded or there rnay be a defect in the steering mechanism. 2-Disconnect the remote control wiring harness plug from the outboard trim/tilt motor and pump assembly. 3-Disconnect the tachometer wiring plug from the forward end of the control housing. 4-Remove the three locknuts, flat washers, and bolts securing the control housing to the mounting panel. One is located next to the RUN button (the ignition safety stop switch), and the second is beneath the control handle on the lower portion of the plastic case. The third is located behind the control handle when the handle is in the NEUTRAL position. Shift the handle into FORWARD or REVERSE position to remove the bolt, then shift it back into the 11-2 COMMANDER CONTROL SHIFT BOX REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING The following detailed instructions cover removal and disassembly of the "Commander" control shift box from the mounting panel in the boat. 1-Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. Disconnect the high tension leads from the spark plugs, with a twisting mo tion. NEUTRAL position for the following steps. SECURING BOLT SECURING BOLT (HIDDEN IN RECESS) 5Shift Cable Removal Pull the remote control housing away and free of the mounting panel. Remove the plastic cover from the back of the housing. Lift off the access cover from the housing. (Some "Commander" remote control units do not have an access cover.) 6-Remove the two screws securing the cable retainer over the throttle cable, wiring harness, and shift cable. Unscrew the two Phillips-head screws securing the back cover to the control module, and then lift off the cover. Throttle Cable Removal 7-Loosen the cable retaining nut and raise the cable fastener enough to free the throttle cable from the pin. Lift the cable from the anchor barrel recess. 8-Remove the grommet. CABLE RETAINER SECURING SCREW cable from the control housing. 9-Shift the outboard unit into REVERSE gear by depressing the neutral lock bar on the control handle and moving the control handle into the REVERSE position. LOOSEN, but do not remove, the shift cable retainer nut with a 3/8" deep socket as far as it will go without removing it. Raise the shift cable fastener enough to free the shift cable from the pin. DO NOT attempt to shift into REVERSE while the cable fastener is loose. An attempt to shift may cause the cable fastener to strike the neutral safety microswitch and cause it damage. Lift the wiring harness out of the cable anchor barrel recess and remove the shift Control Handle Removal For Power Trim/Tilt With Toggle Trim Switch Or Push-Button Trim Switch GOOD WORDS For non-power trim/tilt units, it is not necessary to remove the cover of the con trol handle. If servicing one of these units, proceed directly to Step 13. All others perform Steps 11 and 12. 10-Depress the NEUTRAL lock bar on the control handle and shift the control handle back to the NEUTRAL position. Remove the two Phillips head screws which secure the cover to the handle, and then lift off the cover. The push button trim switch will come free with the cover, the toggle trim switch will stay in the handle body. Unsnap and then remove the wire retainer. Carefully unplug the trim wires and straighten them out from the control panel hub for ease of removal later. 11-Back-off the set screw at the base of the control handle to allow the handle to be removed from the splined control shaft. 12-Grasp the "throttle only" button and pull it off the shaft. SPECIAL WORDS Take care not to damage the trim wires when removing the control handle, on power trim models. SHIFT CABLE 13-Remove the control handle. 14-Lift the neutral lockring from the control housing. TAKE CARE to support the weight of the control housing to avoid placing any unnecessary stress on the control shaft during the following disassembling steps. 15-Remove the three Phillips-head screws securing the control module to the plastic case. Two are located on either side of the bearing plate and one is in the recess where the throttle cable enters the control housing. 16-Back-out the detent adjustment screw and the control handle friction screw until their heads are flush with the control module casing. This action will reduce the pre-load from the two springs on the detent ball for later removal. GOOD WORDS As this next step is performed, count the number of turns for each screw as they are backed-out and record the figure somewhere. This will be a tremendous aid during assembling. 17-Remove the two locknuts securing the neutral safety switch to the plate assembly and lift out the micro-switch from the recess in the assembly. 18-Remove the Phillips-head screw securing the retaining clip to the control module. 19-Support the module in your hand and tilt it until the shift gear spring, shift nylon pin (earlier models have a ball), shift gear pin, another ball the shift gear ball (inner), fall out from their recess. If the parts do not fall out into your hand, attach the control handle and ensure the unit is in the NEUTRAL position. The parts should come free when the handle is in the NEUTRAL position. SHIFT GEAR BALL (OUTER) SHIFT GEAR BALL ( INNER) RETAINER SHIFT NYLON SHIFT CLIP GEAR PIN GEAR SPRING PIN Arrangement of parts from the control module recess. As the parts are removed and cleaned, keep them in order, ready for installation. 20-Remove the three Phillips-head screws securing the bearing plate assembly to the control module housing. 21-Lift out the bearing plate assembly from the control module housing. Power Trim/Tilt Units Only 22-Uncoil the trim wires from the recess in the remote control module housing and lift them away with the trim harness bushing attached. All Units 23-Remove the detent ball, the detent ball follower, and the two com pression ' DETENT l BALL FOLLOWER .BUSHING springs (located under the follower), from their recess in the control module housing. 24-If it is not part of the friction pad, remove the control handle friction sleeve from the recess in the control module housing. 25-Pull the throttle link assembly from the module. Remove the compression spring from the throttle lever. It is not necessary to remove this spring unless there is cause to replace it. At this point, there is the 0 [p VJ(J{)fJf)[J[J[ VJ(J{)fJf)[J[J[ t DEtNT \ I DETENT BALL COMPRESSION BALL FOLLOWER SPRING EARLIER HODEL FRICTION (NO SERVICE) /SLEEVE COMPRESSION SPRING least amount of tension on the compression spring, therefore, now would be the time to replace it, if required. 26-Lift the shift pinion gear (with attached shift lever), off the pin on the bearing plate. The nylon bushing may come away with the shift lever or stay on the pin. Remove the shift lever and shift pinion gear as an assembly. DO NOT attempt to separate them. Both are replaced if one is worn. Non-Power Trim/Tilt Units Only 27-Remove the trim harness bushing and wiring harness retainer from the control shaft. (On non-power trim/tilt units these All Units 28-Remove the shift gear retaining ring from its groove with a pair of Circlip pliers. SPECIAL WORDS If the C ircllp slipped out of its groove, this would allow the shift gear to ride up on the shaft and cause damage to the small parts contained in its recess. The shift gear ball (inner), the shift gear pin, the shift gear ball (outer), or the nylon pin and PARTICULARLY the shift gear spring MUST be two Items act as spacers.) SHIFT PINION GEAR inspected closely. 29-Lift the gear from the control shaft. 30-Remove the "throttle only" shaft pin and "throttle only" shaft from the control shaft. 31-Remove the step washer from the base of the bearing plate. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Clean all metal parts with solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. THROTTLE ONLY SHAFT SLOT CONTROL HANDLE FRICTION PAD NEVER allow nylon bushings, plastic washers, nylon pins, wiring harness retainers, and the like, to remain submerged in solvent more than just a few moments. The solvent will cause these type parts to expand slightly. They are already considered a "tight fit" and even the slightest amount of expansion would make them very difficult to install. If force is used, the part is most likely to be distorted. Inspect the control housing plastic case for cracks or other damage allowing moisture to enter and cause problems with the mechanism. Carefully check the teeth on the shift gear and shift lever for signs of wear. Inspect all ball bearings for nicks or grooves which would CAUSE them to bind and fail to move freely. Closely inspect the condition of all wires and their protective insulation. Look for exposed wires caused by the insulation rubbing on a moving part, cuts and nicks in the insulation and severe kinking which could cause internal breakage of the wires. Inspect the surface area above the groove in which the Circlip is positioned for signs of the Circlip rising out of the groove. This would occur if the clip had lost its "spring" or worn away the top surface of the groove as mentioned previously in Step 29. If the Circlip slipped out of its groove, this would allow the shift gear to ride up on the shaft and cause damage to the small parts contained in its recess. The shift gear ball (inner), the shift gear pin, the shift gear ball (outer), or the nylon pin and PARTICULARLY the shift gear spring MUST be inspected closely. 1 -Remote Control Cover 20 -Throttle-Only Shaft - 2-Screw, 3-1/2" (89mm) 21 -Throttle-Only Shaft Barrel I 3-Toggle Switch Cover 22 -Throttle-Only Shaft Pin 0 4-Lockring 23 -Retaining Ring 5-Control Handle 24 -Shift Gear 6-Neutral Lock Bar 25 -Shift Gear Ball -Inner 7 -Compression Spring 26 -Shift Gear Pin 8-Control Handle Cap 27 -Shift Gear Ball or Nylon Pin 3: 0.. .. 9-Screw 28 -Shift Gear Spring 10 -Set Screw 29 -Shift Pinion Gear 11 -Retaining Clip 30 -Bushing 12 -Screw 31 -Shift Lever 13 -Set Screw 32 -Cable Fastener 8 14-Screw 33 -Nut / / 15 -Grommet 34 -Step Washer / ::0 -i z / 16 -Compression Spring 35 -Bearing Plate Assembly 17 -Compression Spring 36 -Nut 18-Detent Ball Follower 37 -Screw 19-Detent Ball 38 -Cable Fastener I;) I;) / / / / /// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / ( ( / 39-Nut 40 -Compression Spring 41 -Throttle Lever Assembly I 42 -Cable Retainer I 43 -Screw I 44 -Cover (if Equipped) I 45 -Cover I I 46 -Screw I I 47 -Cover I 48 -Washer 49-Nut 50 -Wiring Harness Retainer Exploded drawing of the Commander shift box with major parts identified. MUST be assembled in only one order --the proper order. Therefore, the work should not be "rushed" or attempted if the person assembling the unit is "under pressure". Work slowly, exercise patience, read ahead before performing the task, and follow the steps closely. 1-Place the step washer over the con trol shaft and ensure the steps of the washer seat onto the base of the bearing plate. 2-Rotate the control shaft until the "throttle only" shaft pin hole is aligned centrally between the neutral detent notch and the control handle friction pad. Lower the "throttle only" shaft into the barrel of the control shaft with the wide slot in the "throttle only" shaft aligned with the line drawn on the accompanying illustration. Secure the shaft in this position with the "throttle only" shaft pin. SPECIAL WORDS When the pin is properly installed, it should protrude slightly in line with the plastic bushing, as shown in the accompanying illustration. Make an attempt to gently pull the "throttle only" shaft out of the control shaft. The attempt should fail, if the shaft and pin are properly installed. 3-Place the shift gear over the control shaft, and check to be sure the "throttle only" shaft pin clears the gear. AREA TO BE INSPECTED The throttle-only shaft should be inspected for wear along the ramp, as indicated. Inspect the "throttle only" shaft for wear along the ramp. In early model units, this shaft was made of plastic. Later models have a shaft of stainless steel. Check for excessive wear or cracks on the ramp portion of the shaft, as indicated in the accompanying illustration. Also check the lower "stop" tab to be sure it has not broken away. SPECIAL WORDS Good shop practice dictates a thin coat of Multipurpose Lubricant be applied to all moving parts as a precaution against the "enemy" moisture. Of course the lubricant will help to ensure continued satisfactory operation of the mechanism. ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION COMMANDER CONTROL SHIFT BOX FIRST, THESE WORDS The Commander control shift box, like others, has a number of small parts that .THROTTLE ONLY SHAFT 4-Install the retaining ring over the control shaft with a pair of Circlip pliers. Check to be sure the ring snaps into place within the groove. Non-Power Trim/Tilt Units Only 5-Slide the wiring harness retainer and the trim harness bushing over the control shaft. The trim harness bushing is placed "stepped side" UP and the notched side toward the forward side of the control housing. Power Trim/Tilt Units Only 6-Insert the trim harness bushing into the recess of the remote control housing and carefully coil the wires, as shown in the accompanying illustration. Ensure the black line on the trim harness is positioned at the exact point shown for correct installation. The purpose of the coil is to allow slack in the wiring harness when the control handle is shifted through a full cycle. The bushing and wires move with the handle. All Units 7-Position the bushing, shift pinior:l gear and shift lever onto the pin on the bearing plate, with the shift gear indexing with the shift pinion gear. 8-Install the two compression springs, POSITION OF BLACK LINE ON TRIM HARNESS SHIFT LEVER ASSEMBLING SHIFT BOX 11-13 FRICTION SCREW SCREW the detent ball follower and the detent ball into their recess in the control module hous 9-If the friction sleeve is not a part of the friction pad, then place the control handle friction sleeve into its recess in the control module housing. SPECIAL WORDS In Step 16 of the disassembling procedures, instructions were given to count the number of turns required to remove the detent adjustment screw and the control handle friction screw. The number of turns is now necessary for ease in performing the next step. t DE DETENT BALL FOLLOWER EARLIER HODEL (NO SERVICE 0 [p WJIJfJ[;[JJ] WJIJfJ[;[JJ] tENT "' / BALL COMPRESSION SPRING ) FRICTION SLEEVE 10-Thread the detent adjustment screw and the control handle friction screw the exact number of turns as recorded during Step 16 of the disassembling procedures. A fine adjustment may be necessary after the unit is completely assembled. 11-Place the compression spring (if removed) in position on the shift lever and shift pinion gear assembly against the bearing plate, as shown. Use a rubber band to secure the shift pinion gear to the bearing plate. Lower the complete bearing plate assembly into the control module housing. 12-Secure the bearing plate assembly to the control module housing with the three Phillips head screws, remove the rubber band. 13-Insert the gear shift ball (inner) into the recess of the shift gear and hole in the "throttle only" shaft barrel. Now, insert the shift gear pin into the recess with the rounded end of the pin away from the control shaft. Insert the nylon pin or shift gear ball (outer) into the same recess. Next, insert the gear shift spring. 14-Hold these small parts in place and at the same time secure them with the retaining clip and the Phillip head screw. (On power trim/tilt units, this retaining clip secures the trim wire to the control module also. 15-Insert the neutral safety microswitch into the recess of the plate assembly and secure it with the two locknuts. Arrangement of parts, cleaned and ready for installation into the control module recess. 16-Secure the control module to the plastic control housing case with the three Phillips head screws. Two are located on either side of the bearing plate and the third in the recess where the throttle cable enters the control housing. 17-Temporarily install the control handle onto the control shaft. Shift the unit into forward detent ONLY, not full forward, to align the holes for installation of the throttle link. After the holes are aligned, remove the handle. Install the throttle link. 18-Again, temporarily install the control handle onto the control shaft. This time shift the unit into the NEUTRAL position, and then remove the handle. Place the neutral lockring over the control shaft, with the index mark directly beneath the small boot on the front face of the cover. 19-Install the control onto the splines of the control shaft. TAKE CARE not to cut, pinch, or damage the trim wires on the power trim/tilt unit. CRITICAL WORDS When positioning the control handle, ensure the trim wire bushing is aligned with its locating pin against the corresponding slot in the control handle. On a Power Trim/Tilt unit only: if this bushing is NOT installed correctly, it will not move with the control handle as it is designed to move --when shifted. This may pinch or cut the trim wires, causing serious problems. On a Non-Power Trim/Tilt unit, misplacement of this bushing (it is possible to install this bushing upside down) will not allow the control handle to seat properly against the lockring and housing. This situation will lead to the Allen screw at the base of the control handle to be incorrectly tightened to seat against the splines on the control shaft, instead of gripping the smooth portion of the shaft. Subsequently the control handle will feel "sloppy" and could cause the neutral lock to be ineffective. WARNING IF THIS HANDLE IS NOT SEATED PROPERLY, A SLIGHT PRESSURE ON THE HANDLE COULD THROW THE LOWER UNIT INTO GEAR, CAUSING SERIOUS INJURY TO CREW, PASSENGERS, AND THE BOAT. 20-Push the "throttle only" button in place on the control shaft. 21-Ensure the control handle has seated properly, and then tighten the set screw at the base of the handle to a torque value of 70 in. lbs (7.9Nm). SAFETY WORDS FAILURE to tighten the set screw to the required torque value, could allow the handle to disengage with a loss of throttle and shift control. An extremely DANGEROUS condition. Power Trim/Tilt Models or Non-Power Models If Handle Cover Was Removed 22-Slide the hooked end of the neutral lock rod into the slot in the neutral lock release. Route the trim wires in the control handle in their original locations. Connect them with the wires remaining in the handle and secure the connections with the wire retainer. Install the handle cover and tighten the two Phillips head screws. NEUTRAL LOCK ROD NEUTRAL LOCK RELEASE @ @ 23-Move the wiring harness clear of the barrel recess. Thread the shift cable anchor barrel to the end of the threads, away from the cable converter, and place it into the recess. Hook the pin on the end of the cable fastener through the outer hole in the shift lever. Depress the NEUTRAL lock bar on the control handle and shift the handle into the REVERSE position. TAKE CARE to ensure the cable fastener will clear the neutral safety micro-switch. The access hole is now aligned with the locknut. STOP Check to be sure the pin on the cable fastener is all the way through the cable end and the shift lever. A pin partially engaging the cable and the shift lever may cause the cable fastener to BEND when the nut is tightened. Tighten the locknut with a 3/8" deep socket to a torque value of 20 to 25 in. lbs (2.26 to 2.82 Nm). Position the wiring harness over the installed shift cable. 24-Install the grommet into the throttle cable recess. 25-Thread the throttle cable anchor barrel to the end of the threads, away from the cable connector, and then place it into the recess over the grommet. Hook the pin on the end of the cable fastener through the outer hole in the shift lever. BACK COVER SECURING STOP AGAIN Check to be sure the pin on the cable fastener is all the way through the cable end and the throttle lever. A pin partially engaging the cable and throttle lever may cause the cable fastener to BEND when the nut is tightened. Tighten the locknut to a torque value of 20 to 25 in. lbs (2.26 to 2.82 Nm). 26-Position the control module back cover in place and secure it with the two Phillips-head screws. Tighten the screws to a torque value of 60 in. lbs (6.78 Nm). Install the cable retainer plate over the two cables and secure it in place with the two Phillip-head screws. 27-Place the plastic access cover over the control housing. 28-Position the control housing in place on the mounting panel and secure it with the three long {3-1/2") bolts, flat washers, and locknuts. One is located next to the RUN button (the ignition safety stop switch). The second is beneath the control handle on the power portion of the plastic case. The third bolt goes in behind the control handle when the handle is in the NEUTRAL position. SECURING BOLT (HIDDEN IN RECESS) Commander shift box ready for installation. Therefore, in order to install this bolt, shift the handle into the FORWARD or the REVERSE position, and then install the bolt. After the bolt is secure, shift the handle back to the NEUTRAL position for the next few steps. 29-Connect the tachometer wiring plug to the forward end of the control housing. GOOD WORDS Clean the prongs of the connector with crocus cloth to ensure the best connection possible. Exercise care while cleaning to prevent bending the prongs. 3ft. (1m) 30-Connect the remote control w1rmg harness plug from the outboard trim/tilt motor and pump assembly. 31-Install the high-tension leads to their respective spark plugs. 32-Route the wiring harness alongside the boat and fasten with the "Sta-Straps". Check to be sure the wiring will not be pinched or chafe on any moving part and will not come in contact with water in the bilge. Route the shift and throttle cables the best possible way to make large bends and as few as possible. Secure the cables approximately every three feet (one meter). 11011 CLAMP STANDARD NEUTRAL POSITION The neutral position of the remote control handle may be changed to any one of a number of convenient angles to meet the owner's preterence. The change is accomplished by shifting the handle one spline on the shaft at a time. Each spline equals 15 of arc, as shown. The procedures on Page 11-15 explain the positioning in detail. 12 HAND REWIND STARTER 12-1 INTRODUCTION Eight, yes eight, hand rewind starters have been used over the years on the 1-and 2-cylinder powerheads covered in this manual. Because the number of outboard models having so many different starters is quite lengthy, it would not be practical to list the model and effective years for each unit. Therefore, starters have been classified as Type "A" through Type "H" with complete and detailed procedures provided to disassemble, clean and inspect, then assemble and install each type. If service is required on a hand starter, first, remove the cowling. At this point you may be able to identify the starter with one of the illustrations presented on this page and the page following. If so, proceed directly to the appropriate section. If identification is not possible, remove the rope retainer (handle), untie the "stop" knot in the rope and allow the rewind spring to unwind within the recess of the sheave. If a shift inter lock cable is used, disconnect the cable. Next, remove the attaching hardware, lift the hand starter from the powerhead, turn it over and check the underneath side. Positive identification can now be made by comparing the starter to be serviced with the illustrations. A determination may thus be made as to the procedures to be followed. Procedures for the eight hand rewind starters begin on the following pages: Type "A" Page 12-3 Type "811 Page 12-15 Type "C" Page 12-19 Type "D" Page 12-25 Type ''E11 Page 12-34 Type "F" Page 12-37 Type "G" Page 12-44 Type "H11 Page 12-52 TOP VI EW TYPE 11A11 HAND REWIND STARTER , BOTTOM VI EW TYPE 11A11 STARTER TYPE non BOTTOH VI EW TYPE non ST RTER.."'='>o.," ,. TOP VI EW REWIND STARTER ,_ , BOTTOM VIEW TYPE 11E11 STARTER TYPE 11F11 (Bottom view of the Tvpe "H" hand rewind starter is shown on Page 12-52, under Step 4.) 12-2 TYPE "A" HAND REWIND STARTER REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING PRELl MINAR Y TASKS First, remove the wrap around cowling. Next, remove the rope retainer (handle) from the rope. This is accomplished by simply pushing the inner portion through the outer shell of the handle. Untie the "stop" knot in the rope and allow the rewind spring to unwind within the recess of the sheave. If the choke rod passes down through the top of the cowl, disconnect the upper portion of the shaft from the lower portion by pulling the cotter pin securing the two together. Pull the upper portion of the choke shaft up through the cowling. TOP VIEW TYPE 11G11 HAND REWI NO STARTER SHIFT INTERLOCK. ACTUATOR Later model rewind starters are equipped with a shift interlock cable mowtted on the side of the starter housing. Early models have the cable mowtted on the top of the housing. The interlock cable of both models is secured in the same manner. If the unit being serviced is equipped with a shift interlock actuator (cable), remove the cable attaching screw and the retainer clip, as shown in the accompanying illustration. Now, remove the cowling. Remove the screws securing the three legs of the hand rewind starter mechanism to the powerhead. The following steps pickup the work af DISASSEMBLING 1-Place the hand starter on a suitable work surface. Pry out the one tab bent into the recess in the rewind housing. Use a hammer and flat punch to push aside the two tabs of the tab washer. This washer secures the sheave shaft retaining nut. CRITICAL WORDS The sheave shaft retaining nut has LEFT -HAND threads. 2-Remove the nut with a 3/ 4-" end wrench by rotating the nut CLOCK WISE because it is a LEFT -HAND nut. 3-Carefully lift the starter housing from the sheave assembly so as not to disturb the rewind spring encased in the sheave. Place the sheave face down on a flat surface. 4-Lift off the spring retainer plate, and then remove the shaft bushing and the spring bushing from the sheave. 5-Remove the sheave shaft, the fiber washer, and the pawl retainer plate from the sheave. GOOD WORDS The return spring will come away with the pawl retainer plate. ter these few preliminary tasks have been corn pleted. TYPE "A DISASSEMBLING CUPPED WAVY WASHER WASHER 6-Remove and DISCARD the wavy washer. It cannot be used a second time. Remove the flat washer and the cupped washer. Lift off the three pawls from their pins. Remove and DISCARD the wavy washer under each pawl. 7-Obtain two pieces of wood, a short 2" x 4" (5cm x 1 Ocm)will work fine. Place the two pieces of wood approximately 8" (20 em)apart on the floor. Center the sheave on top of the wood with the spring side facing DOWN. Check to be sure the wood is not touching the spring. WARNING THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following step MUST be performed with care to pervent personal injury to self and others in the area. 8-Stand behind the wood, keeping away from the openings as the spring unwinds with considerable force. Tap the sheave with a soft mallet. The spring retainer plate will drop down releasing the spring. The spring will fall and unwind almost instantly and with FORCE. 9-Unwind the rope from around the sheave and feed it through the holes. Turn the anchor pin 90 in either direction to release the rope. ANCHOR PIN CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the tab on the spring retainer plate. This tab is inserted into the inner loop of the spring. Therefore, be sure it is straight and solid. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. Check the condition of the pawl pivot pins for excessive wear. These pins are a part of the sheave casting. They CANNOT be serviced. Therefore, if they are not acceptable, a new sheave MUST be purchased and installed. Inspect the pawls for wear around the pivot holes and for rounded outer edges. Replace the pawls in sets of THREE ONLY. Check the pawl retainer plate for wear, especially the center hole and the areas where the sides of the pawls contact the retainer plate. Inspect the pawl retainer plate return spring (if equipped). The manufacturer recommends this spring be replaced each time the rewind starter is disassembled for service. A weak spring could allow the pawls SPRING RETAINER PLATE CUPPED WAVY WASHER WASHER After the parts shown have been cleaned and are ready for assembling, apply a coating of low-temperature lubricant to ensure long time service. NUT----. TAB WASHER---. SCRE -. .. RETAINER--------. ! .. SPRING --------. BUSHING----------. PIN ---------. SHEAVE -------. WAVY WASHER-------. 067 .O 0 NYLON BUSHING------. a SPACER RETAI NER .. WASHER-----------. WAVY WASHER--------. RETAINER PLATE ----. SHEAVE SHAFT ------. 1; SPACER +--- ROPE -HANDLE Arrangement of parts, in order, for the hand rewind starter covered in this section. SHIPPING TABS A new rewind spring is installed into the sheave using the shipping container as a helpful tool. Two screwdrivers are used to tap the coiled spring out of the container and into the sheave. to contact the flywheel while the powerhead is operating and cause a very unpleasant noise and even damage to the edge of the flywheel. A weak spring will also cause excessive wear to the pawls. It is STRONGLY recommended the wavy washer under the pawl retainer plate, and the three wavy washers under the pawls be REPLACED. New wavy washers will ensure smooth operation of the rewind mechanism. Coat the following parts with low-temperature lubricant: the entire length of the used rewind spring (a new spring will be coated with lubricant from the package), the pawl pins, both sides of the cupped ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "A" REWIND HAND STARTER SPECIAL WORDS The rewind starter may be assembled with a new rewind spring or a used one. Procedures for assembling are NOT the same because the new spring will arrive in a shipping container already wou..d and ready for installation. The used sprmg must be manually wound into its recess. NEW REWIND SPRING INSTALLATION The situation may arise when it is only necessary to replace a broken spring. The following few procedures outline the tasks required to replace the spring. A new spring is already properly wound and will arrive in a special shipping container. This container is designed to be used as an aid to installing the new spring. . a-Remove the retainers from the shipping container used to keep the spring ..rom accidentally falling out of the contam_er. Place the shipping container over the sprmg recess with the tabs resting on the outer edge of the recess. b-Align the hook on the outer end of the spring with the sheave anchor or notch. washer the flat washer, the shoulder on the ' . sheave shaft, and the tab on the sprmg retainer plate. SHEAVE Protect your eyes with a face mask or safety glasses while working with the rewind spring, especially a used one. The spring is a "tiger in a cage", ?lmo..t 13 feet (4meters) of spring steel wound and conftned tnto a space less tha.. 4" (about 10 em) in diameter. c-Place two large blade screwdrivers into the holes of the shipping container over the tensioned spring. Push on both screwdrivers at the same time to press the spring out of the shipping container and into the spring recess of the sheave. USED REWIND SPRING INSTALLATION A used spring naturally will not be wound. Therefore, special instructions are necessary for installation. SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. 1-Insert the sheave shaft through the sheave with the spring recess facing UPWARD. Obtain two large washers and place them over the sheave shaft. Hold the washers in place and at the same time clamp the sheave shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Shift the shaft in the vise to allow for "up and down" clearance and permit the shaft to rotate freely while the rewind spring is being installed. TYPE "A" ASSEMBLING SAFETY WORDS It is STRONGLY recommended a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a "'.lger" is being forced into a cage. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the installer or other persons nearby. FEEDING IN COUNTERCLOCKWISE PAWL RETAINER PLATE 2-Loop the spring loosely into a coil to enable it to be fed into its recess. 3-Insert the hook on the end of the spring into the notch of the recess. 4-Feed the spring around the inner edge of the recess and at the same time rotate the sheave CLOCKWISE. Proceed WITH GREAT CARE. Guide the spring into place. The spring will be slippery with lubrication. DO NOT lose control of the spring. Carefully remove the sheave from the vise and the sheave shaft and washers from the sheave. 5-Thread the starter rope thru the holes in the sheave and secure it with the anchor pin. Wind the rope COUNTERCLOCKWISE WAVY WASHER around the outer rim of the sheave (when viewed from the pawl side of the sheave). 6-Place one NEW wavy washer on each pawl pin. Slide the pawls over the pins and wavy washers. Check to be sure the "dot" or depression on the pawl is facing UPWARD and angled OUTWARD, as shown. 7-Place the cupped washer, with the cupped side facing UPWARD over the center hole of the sheave. Place the flat washer over the cupped washer with the chamfered side of the flat washer facing OUTWARD (away from the sheave). Install another NEW wavy washer onto the flat washer. 8-Install a NEW return spring between the sheave and the pawl retainer plate, and then position the plate over the pawls. Place the fiber washer over the pawl retainer plate. 9-Insert the sheave shaft into the pawl retainer plate. The large diameter of the shoulder on the sheave shaft MUST be flush against the pawl retainer plate. If the wavy washer is not centered beneath the pawl retainer plate, the sheave shaft will appear misaligned. To correct this condition, remove the shaft and the retainer plate, then center the wavy washer and again install the plate and shaft. Again, check the alignment of the sheave shaft. 10-Lift the sheave assembly off the work bench, grasp the threaded end of the sheave shaft and turn the assembly over. Place the unit on the work bench with the spring side UPWARD. Assembly of the sheave, with the spring retainer plate installed, is now ready for installation into the rewind starter housing. 11-Slide the shaft bushing and the spring bushing over the sheave shaft. 12-Lower the spring retainer plate over the shaft. Insert the tab on the plate with the inner loop of the rewind spring. It may be necessary to hook a thin long screwdriver into the loop as an assist to aligning the loop and the tab. 13-Feed the rope through the rope guide. Tie a figure "8" knot in the rope about 1 foot (30 em) from the end. Place the sheave assembly into the rewind housing. 14-Support the sheave assembly with one hand. Slide a NEW tab washer over the threaded portion of the sheave shaft with the cupped side of the washer facing DOWN. Thread the left-hand sheave shaft retaining nut onto the shaft in a LEFT -HAND (COUNTERCLOCKWISE) direction until it is just FINGER-TIGHT, at this time. ADJUSTING REWIND SPRING TENSION 15-Insert a large blade screwdriver into the slot of the sheave shaft. Hold the retaining nut with the proper size wrench and at the same time rotate the shaft with the screwdriver COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the figure "8" knot in the rope rests against the rope guide. Continue to rotate the shaft through TWO full turns after the knot is against the rope guide. The correct tension has now been placed on the rewind spring. 16-Hold the tension on the spring with the screwdriver in the shaft slot and at the same time tighten the retaining nut securely. REMEMBER --left-hand thread --tighten COUNTERCLOCKWISE. GOOD WORDS DO NOT bend the tabs on the washer up against the retaining nut until AFTER the rewind operation has been checked. CHECK REWIND OPERATION SLOWLY pull the starter rope outward. The pawls must move to the engaged position as the pawl retainer plate begins to turn. If the pawls fail to engage, check the alignment or replace the wavy washers between the pawls. Again, extend the rope to its full length and allow it to rewind. The rope should rewind smoothly without catching. NEVER release the rope from the fully extended position. If the rewind mechanism catches, but falls to rewind, the sheave shaft and its wavy washer are not correctly aligned. The unit MUST be disassembled to correct the condition. Once the rewind operation is satisfactory, proceed to the next step. LEFT-HAND 17-Bend two tabs of the tab washer up against the flats of the retaining nut. Use tabs opposite each other. Bend one other tab down into the recess of the rewind housing. Install the rewind starter onto the power head and secure the legs with the screws and lockwashers. FIGURE 11811 KNOT The sheave shaft must be flush with the retainer plate for correct alignment during installation. SPECIAL WORDS If the unit being serviced is equipped with a shift interlock actuator (cable), at tach the cable securing screw and the re tainer clip, as shown in the accompanying illustration. If the choke handle shaft passes through the top of the cowling, feed it through and make the connection to the lower portion of the shaft with the cotter pin. 18-Feed the rope through the top cowl ing and install the rope retainer. Two styles of retainer are used on this model rewind starter. Secure the one handle with a figure "8" knot in the end of the rope, as shown. SHIFT INTERLOCK ADJUSTMENT Early Model --Prior to 1977 Secure the cable attaching screw, but DO NOT tighten it at this time. Final adjustment will be made later. Hook the end of the cable over the sliding earn and fasten it with the flat washer and cotter pin. Shift the control handle into the NEUTRAL position and adjust the cable to position the toggle pin in line with the spring peg. Tighten the cable attaching screw to hold this position. Shift the control handle into the FORWARD position and try to pull the handle outward. The attempt should fail. Shift the control handle back into the NEUTRAL position and again pull on the handle. The rope should rewind normally. Late Model 1977 and On Secure the cable attaching screw to the side of the rewind housing, but DO NOT tighten it at this time. Hook the interlock cable over the peg on the interlock actuator with a flat washer and cotter pin. BE SURE the control handle is in the NEUTRAL position. Adjust the cable until the interlock actuator is positioned on the rise of the interlock earn. Tighten the cable attaching screw to hold this position. Shift the control handle into the FORWARD position and try to pull the handle outward. The attempt should fail. Shift the handle back into the NEUTRAL position and again pull on the handle. The rope should rewind normally. Detailed drawing of an early model rewind housing Late model rewind starter with the interlock cable with the interlock cable installed on top. installed on the side of the housing. 12-3 TYPE "B" SIDE MOUNT REWIND HAND STARTER REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the upper cowling from the powerhead. Disconnect the high tension leads from the spark plugs. Pry the cover from the round starter rope handle. Untie the retaining knot in the rope, and then pull the handle free of the rope. Allow the rope to rewind through bottom cowling onto the starter sheave. Remove the three screws securing the starter to the powerhead and lift the starter free. SPECIAL WORDS The center bolt of this starter has LEFTHAND threads. 2-Rotate the center bolt CLOCKWISE, because it has LEFT -HAND threads, and then remove the bolt and the large flat washer from the pinion gear. 3-Lift the pinion spring retainer, pinion spring, and the large flat washer from the pinion gear. SAFETY WORDS THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following steps MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. 4-With the rope still tightly wound around the pinion gear sheave, hold the sheave with one hand and CAREFULLY ro very likely could cause personal injury to the service worker or other persons nearby. 6-Place three pieces of wood on the floor, as shown in the accompanying illustration to confine the spring when it is released. Grasp the spring holder by the mounting flange, the arm without a slotted hole. Strike the top of the container on the floor. The spring will fall free and unwind instantly and with force, but away from you. One end of the spring will re11ain hooked inside the container. 7-Unwind the pull rope from the sheave. The rope is held in place by two rivets. It may be necessary to drive the rivets out. To accomplish this task, place the sheave between the open jaws of a vise with the helix gear down. Drive the rivets back with a hammer and punch, until the rope is free. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. Coat the entire length of the used rewind spring (a new spring will be coated with lubricant from the package), with lowtemperature lubricant. tate the pm10n gear CLOCKWISE with the other hand. The pinion gear will come free of the helix gear. 5-SLOWLY and CAREFULLY separate the sheave from the spring container. Do not allow any part of the spring to come away with the sheave. If the spring does start to separate with the sheave, use a long thin blade screwdriver to confine the spring within the container. WARNING If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out wlth tremendous ferocity and 6" ( 15cm) Protect your eyes with a face mask or safety glasses while working with the rewind spring, especially a used one. The spring is a real "tiger in a cage", almost 13' (4 m), of spring steel wound into less than 4" (about lOcm). ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "B" REWIND STARTER SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. It is STRONGLY recommended a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a "tiger" is being forced into a cage, over 14 ft (4.3m) of spring steel wound into about 4" (1 0.2cm) circumference. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the installer or other persons nearby. 1-Hook the "S" shaped end o.f the rewind spring into the recess of the container. Feed the spring into the container by holding the spring with one hand and rotating the container CLOCKWISE with the other hand. 2-Continue rotating the container until the entire length of the spring is encased wl thin the container. 3-Slide the looped end of the starter rope into the sheave. Hook the rope onto the rivet closest to the helix gear. Drive the rivet into place with a hammer and punch. With the helix gear facing downward, wind the rope CLOCKWISE 1-1/2 turns around the sheave. Drive the second rivet into place. Continue winding the remainder of the rope onto the sheave. 4-With the helix gear facing upward, rotate the sheave onto the gear COUNTERCLOCKWISE. As the sheave moves downward on the gear, engage the hook end of the rewind spring into the slot on the inside of the sheave. A check of the spring engagement with the slot can be made through the slot in the back of the spring container. 5-With the helix gear still facing upward, hold the spring container wl th one hand and with the other hand rotate the pinion geM onto the helix gear, COUNTERCLOCKWISE. The manufacturer recommends NO lubricant of any kind be applied to the helix gear. 6-Place the flat washer onto the helix gear, then the pinion spring, and finally the pinion spring retainer in to place on the helix gear. 7-Position another flat washer on to;> of the spring retainer, and then thread the center bolt in to the end of the hell x gear COUNTERCLOCKWISE, because the bolt has LEFT -HAND threads. Tighten the bolt to 30in lbs (3Nm). 8-Place the starter assembly on a flat surface with the pinion gear facing upward. Check the distance between the pinion and the curved portion of the pinion gear spring extension, as shown. This measurement should NOT be less than 1/ 16" ( 1.5mm). Reason: when the starter rope is pulled, there must be sufficient clearance for the pinion gear to rnove outward to index with the teeth on the flywheel. 9-Install the side mount rewind starter to the powerhead wlth the three attaching screws. Adjust the starter assembly as far down as the slots in the mounting holes will permit. The screws will then be in the uppermost end of the slots. Thread the end of the pull rope through the bottom cowling. Attach the handle onto the end of the pull rope using a figure "8" knot. Pull the rope through the handle and secure it all with the handle cap. Adjust the return spring tension by looping the rope COUNTERCLOCKWISE around the starter sheave inside the rope guide. The rewind spring should rewind the rope handle against the bottom cowling. Install the upper cowling. 12-4 TYPE "C" HAND REWIND STARTER WITH FOUR-ARM CAM FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "C" as identified frorn the photographs on Page 12-2. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the cowling. Disconnect the high tension leads to the spark plugs. Insert a scre-.vdriver between the rewind starter housing and the fuel filter. A slight downward pressure on the screwdriver will "pop" the fuel filter free. Move the filter and associated fuel lines to one side. 2-Remove the three attaching bolts securing the rewind starter to the powerhead. Lift off the hand starter. SCREWDRI 3-Hold the shift interlock lever back with the thumb on one hand, and at the same time, pull approximately 1' (25cm) of the rope out and tie a loose overhand knot in the rope. Do not tighten the knot, because it will be necessary to untie it later with one hand. Allow the spring to rewind. This knot in the rope will permit removing the handle from the end of the rope. After the handle has been re1noved, pull the rope further out of the housing. Continue to pull the rope out until the little square window containing the other end of the knoted rope aligns with the rope guide in the starter housing. Exert a good hold on the sheave and at the same time remove the knot from its recess in the sheave. Hold the sheave securely with one hand and untie the knot you made in the other end of the rope earlier in this step. Now, pull the rope back through the rope guide and the sheave until lt is free. SPECIAL WORDS The center bolt on this type rewind starter has standard RIGHT -HAND threads. 5-Remove the center Torx bolt from the sheave. If a Torx socket is not available, use the proper size screwdriver. Exercise CARE not to damage the bolt head. Using a screwdriver provides very little surface for the blade to grasp, therefore, the 4-Carefully allow the spring to unwind by allowing the sheave to rotate in your grasp, until all the tension on the spring is gone. head may be easily damaged. Some Type "C" rewind starters may have a regular hex-head bolt --then no problem. 6-Remove the center bolt, four arm cam and small spring from the sheave. SAFETY WORDS THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely cause severe personal injury to the service worker or other persons nearby. 7-CAREFULLY Lift the sheave out of the housing. Rernove the felt pad from around the shaft in the housing. 8-Turn the sheave over and EVER SO CAREFULLY lift the container with the rewind spring out of the sheave. SPECIAL WORDS There is no reason WHATSOEVER to remove the spring from the container. If the spring is broken or no longer fit for service for any reason, a new spring must be purchased. The new spring will come in a container, lul:>ricated and ready for installation. If the old spring is used it will be lubricated, still in the container, prior to installation. TYPE "C" DISASSEMBLING 12-2 1 9-Turn the sheave over again. Snap the Circlip off each post. Lift each pawl from its post and then STOP. Notice the small spring on each post and the position of the springs. One end of the spring snaps over the pawl and the other end indexes into a recess in the sheave. Lift each spring and observe and REMEMBER exactly how it is installed, as an aid during installation. Exploded drawing of the Type "C" hand rewind starter covered in this section. Major parts are identified. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a flle and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. Coat the entire length of the used rewind spring (a new spring will be coated with lubricant from the package), with lowtemperature lubricant. ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "C" REWIND STARTER l-Slide each small spring down over the pawl posts with one end of the spring indexed into the recess in the sheave as observed in Step 9 of disassembling. Slide each pawl onto the posts with the long end facing inward, as shown. Slip each spring end over the side of the pawl. The illustration shows one pawl correctly installed and the other pawl ready. After installation, the pawls will face in opposite directions with the long _ flat surface facing outward. Snap a Circlip onto each post to restrain the pawls in place. 2-Very CAREFULLY place the rewind spring container into the sheave with the three tabs indexed into the notches of the sheave. 3-Apply a couple drops of lubricant to one side of the felt pad. Now, place the felt pad over the center shaft with the "lubrica ted" side going down first to hold the pad in place. Raise and insert the assembled sheave up into the housing from the underneath side, as shown. Rotate the sheave to index the spring loop into the notch on the shaft. Hold the sheave and housing together, and then turn the complete unit over. 4-Slide the spring down the shaft. This spring serves as a spacer between the cam and the sheave and exerts an upward pressure against the cam to keep it indexed over the shoulder on the center bolt. Install the four arm cam onto the shaft on top of the spring. 5-Shift the earn until the arms are positioned against the two pawls, as shown. SPECIAL WORDS The center bolt on this ty;:>e rewind starter has standard RIGHT -HAND threads. Secure the cam in place with the Torx bolt. This bolt has a very special shoulder. Tighten the Torx bolt just good and "snug" with a Torx socket or the proper size screwdriver. Exercise CARE not to damage the bolt head. Using a screwdriver provides very little surface for the blade to grasp, therefore, the head may be easily damaged. Again, tighten just good and "snug". Some Type "C" rewind starters may have a hexhead bolt with a special shoulder --then no problem . 6-Place tension on the rewind spring by holding the housing and at the same time rotating the sheave COUNTERCLOCKWISE. Rotate the sheave as far as possible, thus placing maximum tension on the spring. Hold the tension for the next step. 7-Hold the shift interlock lever clear and allow the sheave to unwind very SLOWLY until the rope knot window in the sheave is aligned with the rope guide in the housing. Hold the sheave and housing in this position and at the same time feed a new rope through the window and out the rope guide. Tie an overhand knot in the rope with one hand, then feed the knot into the window. Continue to hold the sheave and housing and tie a knot about 1' (25cm) from the other end of the rope. Check to be sure the knot FIGURE 11811 KNOT .. , with the three attaching bolts. Check to be sure the upper and lower lock levers operate properly. Tighten the bolts to the torque value given in the Torque Table in the Appendix. 10-Snap the fuel filter into place on the starter housing bracket. Install the cowling. Later model rewind starters are equipped with a shift interlock cable moWlted on the side of the starter housing. Early models have the cable moWlted on the top of the housing. The interlock cable of both models is secured in the same manner. is imbedded in the window, and then slowly release your grip on the sheave and allow the spring to rewind. After the knot in the other end of the rope is against the rope guide, release your grip on the sheave. 8-Install the handle onto the end of the rope. One of two type of handles may be used. After the handle has been installed, untie the knot made about 1 ft (25 em)from the end and allow the rope to completely rewind into the housing, with the rope guide up against the rope guide of the housing. 9-Install the rewind starter assembly onto the power head and secure it in place 12-5 TYPE "D" REWIND HAND STARTER WITH SINGLE PAWL FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "D" as identified from the photographs on Page 12-2. PRELl MINAR Y TASKS First, remove the wrap around cowling. Disconnect the high tension leads from the spark plugs. Next, remove the rope retainer (handle)from the rope. This is accomplished by simply pushing the inner portion through the outer shell of the handle. Untie the "stop" knot in the rope and allow the rewind spring to unwind within the recess of the sheave. If the choke rod passes down through the top of the cowling, disconnect the upper portion of the shaft from the lower portion by pulling the cotter pin securing the two together. Pull the upper portion of the choke shaft up through the cowling. If the unit being serviced is equipped with a shift interlock actuator (cable), remove the cable attaching screw and the retainer clip, as shown in the accompanying illustration. Now, remove the cowling. Remove the screws securing the three legs of the hand rewind starter assembly to the powerhead. The following steps pickup the work after these few preliminary tasks have been completed. DISASSEMBLING 1-Place the hand starter on a suitable work surface. Pry out the one tab bent into the recess in the rewind housing. Use a hammer and flat punch to push aside the two tabs of the tab washer. This washer secures the sheave shaft retaining nut. CRITICAL WORDS The sheave shaft retaining nut has LEFT -HAND threads. 2-Remove the nut by rotating the nut CLOCKWISE because it has LEFT-HAND threads. SAFETY WORDS THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following steps MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. 3-Carefully lift the starter housing from the sheave assembly so as not to disturb the rewind spring encased in the sheave. Place the sheave face down on a flat surface. If.-Lift off the spring retainer plate. .5-CAREFULLY turn the sheave over. Remove the sheave shaft, lever, wavy washer, and the flat washer from the sheave. DISCARD the wavy washer --it cannot be used a second time. A new one must be obtained. 6-CAREFULLY turn the sheave over again. Remove the bushing from the sheave shaft opening. 7-Turn the sheave over again. Untie the knot, and then remove the pull rope from the sheave. 8-Obtain two pieces of wood, a short 2" x 4" (5cm x lOcm) will work fine. Place the two pieces of wood approximately 8" (20 em) apart on the floor. Center the sheave on top of the wood with the spring side facing DOWN. Check to be sure the wood is not touching the spring. WARNING THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real tiger in a cage. If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following step MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. SOFT HALLET contact the flywheel while the powerhead is 9-Stand behind the wood, keeping away from the openings as the spring unwinds with considerable force. Tap the sheave with a soft mallet. The spring retainer plate will drop down releasing the spring. The spring will fall and unwind almost instantly and with FORCE. 10-Snap the Circlip out of the groove on the pawl post. 11-Slide the pawl up and free of the post. The spring may come free with the pawl or it may remain on the post. Observe and REMEMBER how one end of the spring is snapped onto the pawl and the other end of the spring indexes into the recess of the sheave. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the tab on the spring retainer plate. This tab is inserted into the inner loop of the spring. Therefore, be sure it is straight and solid. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. Check the condition of the pawl pivot post for excessive wear. The post is a a part of the sheave casting. The post CANNOT be serviced. Therefore, if it is not acceptable, a new sheave MUST be purchased and installed. Inspect the pawl for wear around the pivot holes and for rounded outer edges. Check the pawl retainer plate for wear, especially the center hole and the areas where the sides of the pawl contact the retainer pia te. Inspect the pawl retainer plate return spring (if equipped). The manufacturer recommends this spring be replaced each time the rewind starter is disassembled for service. A weak spring could allow the pawl to operating and cause a very unpleasant noise and even damage to the edge of the flywheel. A weak spring will also cause excessive wear to the pawl. ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "D" REWIND STARTER SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. It is STRONGLY recommended a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a "tiger" is being forced into a cage, over 14' (4.3 m) of spring steel wound into about 4" (l0.2crn) circumference. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the installer or other persons nearby. SPECIAL WORDS The rewind starter may be assembled with a new rewind spring or a used one. Procedures for assernbllng are NOT the PLATE REWIND .._k BUSHING SPRING @1 ..............BUSHING FLAT ..WASHER WAVY LEVER HEAVE SHAFT Exploded drawing of the Type "D" hand rewind starter covered in this section. same because the new spring will arrive in a shipping container already wound, lubricated, and ready for installation. The used spring must be manually wound into its recess. NEW REWIND SPRING INSTALLATION The situation may arise when it is only necessary to replace a broken spring. The following few procedures outline the tasks required to replace the spring. A new spring is already properly wound and will arrive in a special shipping container. This container is designed to be used as an aid to installing the new spring. a-Remove the retainers from the ship ping container used to keep the spring from accidentally falling out of the container. Place the shipping container over the spring recess with the tabs resting on the outer edge of the recess. b-Align the hook on the outer end of the spring with the sheave anchor or notch. c-Place two large blade screwdrivers into the holes of the shipping container over the tensioned spring. Push on both screw drivers at the same time to press the spring out of the shipping container and into the spring recess of the sheave. USED REWIND SPRING INSTALLATION A used spring naturally will not be wound. Therefore, special instructions are necessary for installation. SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. SHIPPING TAB A new rewind spring is installed into the sheave using the shipping container as a helpful tool. Two screwdrivers are used to tap the coiled spring out of the container and into the sheave. 1Insert the sheave shaft through the sheave with the spring recess facing UPWARD. Obtain two large washers and place them over the sheave shaft. Hold the washers in place and at the same time clamp the sheave shaft in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Shift the shaft in the vise to allow for "up and down" clearance and permit the shaft to rotate freely while the rewind spring is being installed. SAFETY WORDS It is STRONGLY recommended a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a "tiger" is being forced into a cage. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the installer or other persons nearby. spring into the notch of the recess. 4Feed the spring around the inner edge of the recess and at the same time rotate the sheave CLOCK WISE. Proceed WITH GREAT CARE. Guide the spring into place. The spring will be slippery with lubrication. DO NOT lose control of the spring. Carefully remove the sheave from the vise and the sheave shaft and washers from the sheave. 5Coat the pawl post with a small amount of Multi-Purpose lubricant. Place the spring in position on the underside of the pawl with the hook of the spring over the side of the pawl. Slide the pawl and spring onto the pawl post with the other end of the spring indexed into the spring recess in the sheave. 6Check to be sure the sheave is in the proper position, as shown. Snap the Circlip onto the post and into the groove to secure the sheave and spring in place. 8Lubricate the bushing with Multi-Purpose lubricant. Insert the bushing into the center of the sheave. 9Turn the sheave over --with the pawl side facing up. Slide the lever onto the 2-Loop the spring loosely into a coil to enable it to be fed into its recess. 3-Insert the hook on the end of the 7-Feed a new rope through the hole in the sheave. Tie a figure " 8" knot near the rope end. Pull the rope back against the knot, and then wrap it around the sheave CLOCKWISE. necessary, may used to help index the tab into the loop. SCREWDRIVER sheave shaft, then a NEW wavy washer and finally a flat washer. Hold the pieces on the shaft and slide the shaft down through the bushing. The large diameter of the shoulder on the sheave shaft MUST be flush against the sheave. Hold the shaft in place and turn the sheave over for the next step. 10-Place the spring retainer plate over the shaft and down into the sheave cavity on top of the spring. The tab on the plate must index into the loop on the end of the spring. If a small screwdriver be 11-Hold the starter housing with one hand. With the other hand, hold the sheave assembly together, then lift the assembly up and into the housing with the sheave shaft indexed through the hole in the starter housing. Feed the rope through the rope guide. Tie a figure "8" knot in the rope about 1' (30cm)from the end. Place the sheave assembly into the rewind housing. 12-Support the sheave assembly with one hand. Slide a NEW tab washer over the threaded portion of the sheave shaft with the cupped side of the washer facing DOWN. Thread the left-hand sheave shaft retaining nut onto the shaft in a LEFT -HAND (COUNTERCLOCKWISE) direction until it is just FINGER-TIGHT, at this time. ADJUSTING REWIND SPRING TENSION 13-Insert a large blade screwdriver into the slot of the sheave shaft. Hold the retaining nut with the proper size wrench and at the same time rotate the shaft with the screwdriver COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the figure "8" knot in the rope rests against the rope guide. Continue to rotate the shaft through TWO full turns after the knot is against the rope guide. The correct tension has now been placed on the rewind spring. 14-Hold the tension on the spring with the screwdriver in the shaft slot and at the same time tighten the retaining nut securely. REMEMBER --left-hand thread --tighten COUNTER CLOCK WISE. GOOD WORDS DO NOT bend the tabs on the washer up against the retaining nut until AFTER the rewind operation has been checked. CHECK REWIND OPERATION SLOWLY pull the starter rope outward. The pawls must move to the engaged position as the pawl retainer plate begins to turn. If the pawls fail to engage, check the alignment or replace the wavy washers between the pawls. Again, extend the rope to its full length and allow it to rewind. The rope should rewind smoothly without catching. NEVER release the rope from the fully extended position. If the rewind mechanism catches, but fails to rewind, the sheave shaft and its wavy washer are not correctly aligned. The unit MUST be disassembled to correct the condition. Once the rewind operation is satisfactory, proceed to the next step. 15-Bend two tabs of the tab washer up against the flats of the retaining nut. Use tabs opposite each other. Bend one other tab down into the recess of the rewind housing. Install the rewind starter onto the powerhead and secure the legs with the screws and lockwashers. SPECIAL WORDS If the unit being serviced is equipped with a shift interlock actuator (cable), attach the cable securing screw and the retainer clip, as shown in the accompanying illustration. If the choke handle shaft passes through the top of the cowl, feed it through and make the connection to the lower portion of the shaft with the cotter pin. 16-Feed the rope through the top cowl and install the rope retainer. Two styles of retainer are used on this model rewind starter. Secure the one handle with a figure "8" knot in the end of the rope, as shown. SHIFT INTERLOCK ADJUSTMENT Secure the cable attaching screw to the side of the rewind housing, but DO NOT tighten it at this time. Hook the interlock cable over the peg on the interlock actuator with a flat washer and cotter pin. BE SURE the control handle is in the NEUTRAL position. Adjust the cable until the interlock actuator is positioned on the rise of the interlock cam. Tighten the cable attaching screw to hold this position. Shift the control handle into the FORWARD position and try to pull the handle outward. The attempt should fail. Shift the handle back in to the NEUTRAL position and again pull on the handle. The rope should rewind normally. 12-6 TYPE "E" REWIND HAND STARTER ONE SMALL PAWL SHOWING ON UNDERSIDE FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "E" as identified fro:n the photographs on Page 12-2 and 12-3. The Type 0E" starter is a very small plastic unit. Procedures are presented to remove the starter and replace the rope. A new spring and other parts are not available as replacement items. Therefore, if the spring is broken or the starter has suffered other damage, besides a broke pull rope, it must be replaced as a complete assembly. Later model rewind starters are equipped with a shift interlock cable mounted on the side of the starter housing. Early models have the cable mounted on the top of the housing. The interlock cable of both models is secured in the same manner. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING Model 3.6 Only 1-Pull the carburetor front cover free of the cowling. Unscrew the fuel cap; compress the plastic fuel cap retainer; and then remove the fuel cap assembly. Remove the cowling. Model 3.5 Only lA-Remove the rubber seal from around the fuel tank filler neck. Lift up on the cowling to disengage the two locating pins. Tilt the cowling forward to clear the starter handle and pull the cowling free. 2-Remove the four nuts securing the rewind hand starter assembly to the powerhead. 3-Lift the hand starter and at the same time pull forward to perrnit the assembly to clear the fuel tank mounting bracket. 4-Untie the knot in the end of the pull rope, and then remove the rope handle. Allow the rewind spring to unwind and the rope to retract inside the starter housing. Unwind the rope from around the sheave. Untie the knot in the other end of the rope. Pull the rope free of the sheave. CLEANING AND INSPECTING As mentioned at the beginning of this section, replacement of the pull rope is about the only service work possible on this type starter. If there is an indication the starter is not functioning properly --the reason for removal in the first place --and the indication is something broken inside -the main spring, pawl spring, etc., then the starter assembly must be replaced. The unit is small, many parts are plastic, and the cost is nominal. Clean the housing and accessible parts with solvent, then blow them dry with compressed air. Check the overall condition of the starter housing. Inspect the pawl for what might be termed "excessive" wear. Exert some pressure on the pawl to ensure the spring actuating the pawl has a reasonable amount of tension. ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION TYPE "E" STARTER 1-Tie an overhand knot about 1' (30cm)from one end of a new rope. Hold the 3tarter assembly with the pawl side facing up. Rotate the sheave COUNTERCLOCKWISE as far as possible to place the rewind spring under maximum tension. Hold tension on the sheave for the next step. 2-While holding tension on the sheave with one hand, allow the sheave to rotate slightly to align the rope hole in the sheave with the rope opening in the starter housing. Continue to hold tension on the sheave with one hand and with the other hand, feed the long end of the new rope through the opening and the hole in the sheave. Tie a knot in the end of the rope, and then release a bit of tension on the sheave and allow the rope to rewind into the sheave, until the knot you tied in Step 1 is against the housing. Feed the short end of the rope through the handle and retainer, then tie a figure "8" knot in the end of the rope. Pull the rope and retainer back into the handle. Untie the knot against the starter housing and allow the rope to rewind until the handle is against the housing. 3-Position the assembled starter on the powerhead with the front of the starter going on first. Lower the back side down with the rear mounting hole of the starter going under the fuel mounting bracket and over the studs. 12-7 TYPE "F" REWIND HAND STARTER 4-Install and tighten the four mounting nuts to secure the starter to the powerhead. 5-Install the cowling and then the rubber seal around the fuel tank filler cap. Model 3.5 Only Compress the fuel cap retainer, insert it into the tank, and screw the cap in place. Model 3.6 Only 5A-Snap the carburetor cover into place. FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "F" as identified from the photographs on Page 12-3. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the spark plug access cover by pulling down and back on the cover. 2-Five clips and two pair of screws secure the cowling in place. Remove only ONE screw from each clip. Leaving one screw in place will hold the clip and assist in FILLER replacing the cowling. Two sets of two screws each must be removed. One set on each side of the cowling, located just a little below the centerline, one towards the rear and the other just forward of the fuel tank shutoff valve. 3-Remove the three bolts securing the rewind starter assembly to the powerhead, then remove the starter assembly. 4-Turn the starter housing over with the sheave facing up. Pull on the handle to gain some slack in the rope; hold the sheave from rewinding; and then remove the handle. Two types of handle arrangement are used. After the handle is removed, ease the grip on the sheave and allow the sheave to completely rewind with the rope inside the sheave. 5-Snap the Circlip out of the groove in the center shaft. 6-Lift the spacer off the friction plate and free of the center shaft. 7-Lift the friction plate slightly and snap the friction spring out of the hole in the center shaft. Remove the friction plate. The return spring will come with the plate. Remove the spring cover, and then the friction spring. 8-Remove the ratche t from the top of the sheave. The pull rope is secured in the handle recess with a figure "8" knot tied close to the end. Excess rope beyond the knot can be cut off. Burn the end of a nonfiber rope with a match to prevent it from unraveling. SAFETY WORDS THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following two steps MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. 9-Very CAREFULLY "rock" the sheave and at the same time lift the sheave about l/2n (13mm). The spring will disengage from the sheave and remain in the housing, as shown. 10-Now, SLOWLY turn the housing over and GENTLY place it on the floor with the spring facing the floor. Tap the top of the housing with a mallet and the spring will fall free of the housing and unwind almost instantly and with FORCE, but be contained within the housing. Tilt the container with the opening AWAY from you. The spring will be released from the housing and unwind rapidly. Turn the housing over and unhook the end of the spring from the peg in the housing. 11-Untie the knot in the end of the old starter rope and pull the rope free of the sheave. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the tab on the spring retainer plate. This tab is inserted into the inner loop of the spring. Therefore, be sure it is straight and solid. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "F" REWIND STARTER SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. Protect your eyes with a face mask or safety glasses while working with the rewind spring, especially a used one. The spring is a real "tiger in a cage", almost 13' (4 m), of spring steel wound into less than 4" (about lOcm). It is STRONGLY recommended a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a "tiger" is being forced into a cage, over 14' (4.3m) of spring steel wound into about 4" (1 0.2cm)circumference. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the ins taller or other persons nearby. 1-Hold the spring in a coil in one gloved hand, as shown. 2-With the other hand, hook the looped end of the spring over the peg in the housing. Feed the spring CLOCKWISE into the housing. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to hold the spring in one gloved hand and with the other gloved hand, rotate the housing COUNTERCLOCKWISE. Continue working the spring until it is all confined within the housing. 3-Feed one end of a new rope through the hole in the sheave, and then tie a figure "8" knot in the end of the rope. Pull on the rope until the knot is confined inside the sheave recess. Wind the entire pull rope CLOCKWISE around the sheave. 4-Lower the sheave down over the center shaft of the housing. As the sheave goes into the housing the hook on the lower face of the sheave MUST index into the loop end of the spring. In the illustration, the sheave is turned over to expose the hook to view. Once the hook is indexed into the spring, the sheave rnay be fully seated in the housing. 5-Position the ratchet in place on the sheave, with the flat side of the ratchet against the sheave and the round hole indexed over the post. 6-Slide the friction spring down the center shaft. This spring serves as a spacer and exerts an upward pressure on the friction plate. Install the spring cover on top of the spring. GOOD WORDS Two holes are located in the sheave on the same side of the center shaft. With the holes on the side of the shaft facing you, one end of the friction spring must index into the right hole. Hook one end of the return spring into the slot of the friction plate. Now, lower TYPE "F" ASSEMBLING the friction plate onto the center shaft and index the free end of the spring into the right hole, as described in "Good Words", in the sheave. 7-Place the spacer over the hole on the friction plate. 8-Push down on the friction plate, and then snap the Circlip into the goove on the center shaft to secure the plate and associated parts in place. 9-Place the pull rope into the notch in the sheave. With the rope in the notch, rotate the sheave THREE complete turns COUNTER CLOCK WISE. Hold tension on the rope and at the same time feed the free end of the rope through the rope guide in the starter housing. Continue to hold tension on the sheave for the next step. 10-Feed the free end of the rope through handle and tie a figure "8" knot in the end. Pull the rope back into the handle recess. Relax the tension on the sheave and allow the sheave to rewind until the handle is against the starter housing. 11-Install the rewind hand starter assembly onto the powerhead and secure it in place with the three attaching bolts. Tighten the bolts securely. 12-Place the two halves of the cowling into place over the powerhead. Secure the cowling with the attaching hardware --the clips and screws. 13-Connect the high tension leads to the spark plugs. Snap the spark plug access cover into place. 12-8 TYPE "G" REWIND HAND STARTER 1986 AND ON FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "G" as identified from the photographs on Page 12-3. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Remove the cowling. Insert a narrow blade screwdriver between the fuel filter and the lower edge of the hand starter housing. Exert a slight downward pressure on the screwdiver and at the same pull downward on the filter with the other hand and the fuel filter will "pop" free. Move the filter and connecting hoses to one side out of the way. 2-Unsnap the interlock link rod free of the lower lock lever. 3-Remove the three attaching bolts securing the hand rewind starter to the power head. IJ.-Lift the starter housing up and free of the powerhead. 5-Pull about 1' (30cm)of rope out of the starter housing and tie a loose knot in the rope to prevent the rope frorn rewinding back into the housing. Do not tighten the knot because it will be necessary to untie the knot with one hand later. 6-Remove the handle retainer; feed the rope back through the handle; untie the knot; then pull the handle free of the rope. Two type handles are used, as shown. SPECIAL WORDS If the only service on the hand starter is to replace a broken rope, the disassembling procedures may be stopped after the next step. Proceed directly to middle of Step 4 in the assembling section. HOWEVER, if the rewind spring is to be replaced or other service work performed, it is best to leave the rope on the sheave. Therefore, skip Step 7, and continue with Step 8. The illustrations reflect complete disassembling of the starter. 7-Rotate the sheave until the knot in the end of the rope is aligned with the hole in the sheave. Hold the tension on the sheave with one hand, and with the other hand, untie the loose knot in the rope made in Step 5. Pull the rope free of the sheave and housing. 8-Ease your grasp on the sheave and allow the sheave to rotate until all tens..on on the spring is released. It the rope has not been removed, it will simply wind around the sheave. . FIGURE 8" KNOT ROPE ROPE RETAINER HANDLE 9-Loosen the three screws securing the tabs holding the sheave in place. It is not necessary to remove the tabs. Rotate the tabs to permit the sheave to clear the housing. SAFETY WORDS THE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "tiger" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released from its container, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following two steps MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. 10-Very CAREFULLY lift and "rock" the sheave. The spring will disengage from the sheave and remain in its container in the housing, as shown. 11-Place the starter housing on a flat surface in the upright position resting on its three legs. Using a hammer and awl, "pop" the rewind spring container out of the starter housing. There is NO reason whatsoever to remove the spring from the container. If the spring is in satisfactory condition, it will be lubricated prior to installation. If the spring is broken, a new spring will come in a container, lubricated, and ready for installation. 12-If the rope was not removed in Step 7, untie the knot and remove it from the sheave. 13Drive the plastic cap free of the sheave using a punch and hammer. 14-Pry the oil seal out of the sheave, with a long thin blade screwdriver. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with corn pressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. A new rewind spring will arrive packed in a container, lubricated, and ready for installation. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the tab on the spring retainer plate. This tab is inserted into the inner loop of the spring. Therefore, be sure it is straight and solid. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. SPECIAL WORDS If starter operation was erratic or excessively noisy, check the starter clutch for damage from lack of lubrication. If necessary, replace the complete sheave assembly with a pre-lubricated starter clutch installed. The sheave of the Type "G" starter relies on a clutch arrangement containing tapered roller bearings located in the center of the sheave. If the clutch is defective, the sheave assembly must be replaced. SCREW.. @--CAP SHEAVE o PULL ROPE HANDLE SUPPORTI BUSHING . "G" hand re wind starter co vered zn Major parts are Exploded drawmg of the Type . this section. identified. ASSEMBL YING AND INSTALLATION TYPE "G" REWIND STARTER 1-Install a new oil seal into the center of the sheave with metal part facing UP. This task may be accomplished using the proper size socket and a hammer. 2-Tap the plastic cap into the center of the sheave using a soft head mallet. The cap secures the seal in place. 3-Snap the rewind spring container, with the spring inside, into the housing. A new spring will come with the container ready for installation. 4-Insert the sheave into the starter housing. Swing the three tabs around to lock the sheave in place. Tighten the tab screws securely. Hold the sheave to maintain tension and at the same time rotate the sheave COUNTERCLOCKWISE as far as possible to wind the spring. Continue holding pressure on the sheave, but let it slip a little until the rope knot recess in the sheave is aligned with the rope hole in the starter housing. Hold tension on the sheave for the next step. 5-Feed the rope through the rope knot recess of the sheave and the hole in the starter housing. Hold tension on the sheave with one hand and tie a figure "8" knot close to the end of the rope. Pull the rope through until the knot is up tight in the rope recess of the sheave. Continue holding tension on the sheave for the next step. 6-Still holding tension on the sheave and at the same time holding the sheave in place within the starter housing, tie a knot FIGURE 11811 KNOT ', in g. Now, release a bit of pressure on the sheave. The spring will rewind just a bit and pull the knot in the rope up tight against the housing. 7-Feed the free end of the rope through the handle and secure it with the retainer, or with a figure " 8" knot and the retainer. in the rope as close as possible to the housing to prevent the sheave from rewind TORQUE WRENCH Two type handles are used, as shown. After the handle is secured, untie the knot next to the housing and allow the sheave to rewind pulling the rope around the sheave. 8-Slide the starter assembly down over the crankshaft and into position on the powerhead. 9-Secure the starter with the attaching hardware. Tighten the bolts alternately and evenly to the torque value given in the Torque Table in the Appendix. 10-Snap the interlock link rod into the lower lock lever. 11-Snap the clear plastic fuel filter into place on the bracket on the starter housing. The Type "G" starter has a window on the top of the housing. This window permits a broken pull rope to be replaced without removing the starter from the powerhead. 12-9 TYPE "H" REWIND HAND STARTER FIRST, THESE WORDS Be sure to read Section 12-1, and be convinced the starter being serviced is a Type "H" as identified from the photographs on Page 12-3. REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLING 1-Pry the shift interlock link rod from the plastic cam on the starter. 2-Remove the three bolts securing the starter legs to the powerhead. 3-Remove the starter and place it upside down on a suitable work surface. 4-Pry the circlip from the pawl post using a narrow slotted screwdriver. 5-Lift the pawl, with the spring attached free of the sheave. 6-Rotate the sheave to align the slot in the sheave with the starter handle, as shown. Lift out a portion of rope, feed the rope into the slot and with a CONTROLLED MOTION allow the sheave to rotate in a CLOCKWISE direction until the tension on the rewind spring is completely released. DO NOT allow the sheave to spin without control. 7-Pry the seal from the handle and push out the knot in the end of the rope. Untie the knot and pull the handle free of the rope. 8-Remove the bolt and washer from the center of the sheave. 9-Remove the sheave bushing and starter housing shaft from the sheave. SPECIAL WORDS If the only work to be performed on the hand rewind starter is to replace the rope, take EXTRA care NOT to disturb the sheave and spring beneath the sheave. Hold the sheave against the starter housing to prevent the spring from disengaging from the sheave and CAREFULLY rotate the sheave to allow the rope hole to align with the starter handle. Pull the knotted end out of the sheave until all of the rope is free. If either the sheave or the starter rewind spring is to be replaced the rope may be left in place until the sheave is removed from the starter housing. SAFETY WORDS Wear a good pair of heavy gloves and safety glasses while performing the following tasks. ..... WARNING TilE REWIND SPRING IS A POTENTIAL HAZARD. The spring is under tremendous tension when it is wound --a real "TIGER" in a cage! If the spring should accidentally be released, severe personal injury could result from being struck by the spring with force. Therefore, the following steps MUST be performed with care to prevent personal injury to self and others in the area. DO NOT attempt to remove the spring unless it is unfit for service and a new spring is to be installed. SPECIAL WORDS There are two design variations in the housing of the spring. For ease of identification and to ensure the proper procedures are performed, the designs are de signa ted "a" and "b". One design starter has the spring encased in a removeable housing and is identified here as Design na". The other starter has the spring encased inside a recess of the sheave housing and is identified as Design ''bn. . When necessary, separate instructions are presented for both starter designs. Design "a' Hand Rewind Starter With Removeable Housing Pry out the two retainer plugs from the sheave. Lift out the tabbed guide plate from the center of the spring housing. Rotate the sheave in a CLOCKWISE direction, while holding the spring housing stationary until the two locking tabs disengage. Very CAREFULLY lift out the spring housing containing the coiled spring from the sheave and remove the backing plate. Design ''b" Hand Rewind Starter With Spring Encased Inside Sheave Insert a screwdriver into the hole in the sheave, push down on the section of spring visible through the hole. At the same time gently lift up on the sheave and hold the spring down to confine it in the housing and prevent it from escaping uncontrolled. If the rope has not been removed from the sheave, remove it at this time. AUTHORS' WORD The accompanying illustration shows the spring being released from the same type but different model rewind spring. THEREFORE, the principle is exactly the same. The procedure outlined in the next step may be followed with safety. 10-Obtain two pieces of wood, a short 2" x 4" (5cm x IOcm) will work fine. Place the two pieces of wood approximately 8" (20 em) apart on the floor. Center the housing on top of the wood with the spring side facing DOWN. Check to be sure the wood is not touching the spring. Stand behind the wood, keeping away from the openings as the spring unwinds Protect your eyes with a face mask or safety glasses while working with the rewind spring, especially a used one. The spring is a "tiger in a cage", almost 13 feet (4meters), of spring steel wound and confined into a space less than 4 inches (about 10 em) in diameter. LINK ROD GU IDE .. PLATE 1 BOLT ................ I .. I C IRCLI p___.@ ( ( BOLT qr" LOCK WASHER I STARTER HOUS ING SPRING HOUS lNG BACKING PLATE PAWL SPRING Exploded drawing of hand rewind starter "H", with major parts identified. with considerable force. Tap the sheave with a soft mallet. The spring retainer plate will drop down releasing the spring. The spring will fall and unwind almost instantly and with FORCE. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash all parts except the rope and the handle in solvent, and then blow them dry with compressed air. Remove any trace of corrosion and wipe all metal parts with an oil dampened cloth. Inspect the rope. Replace the rope if it appears to be weak or frayed. If the rope is frayed, check the holes through which the rope passes for rough edges or burrs. Remove the rough edges or burrs with a file and polish the surface until it is smooth. Inspect the starter spring end hooks. Replace the spring if it is weak, corroded or cracked. Inspect the inside surface of the sheave rewind recess for grooves or roughness. Grooves may cause erratic rewinding of the starter rope. Coat the entire length of the used rewind spring (a new spring will be coated with lubricant from the package), with lowtemperature lubricant. ASSEMBLING AND INSTALLATION TYPE ''H" HAND REWIND STARTER GOOD WORDS If the rewind spring or the sheave was not removed, proceed directly to Step 6. Wear a good pair of gloves while winding and installing the spring. The spring will develop tension and the edges of the spring steel are extremely sharp. The gloves will prevent cuts to the hands and fingers. New Spring Installation 1-Apply a light coating of Quicksilver Mulit-purpose lubricant or equivalent antiseize lubricant to the inside surface of the starter housing. A new spring will be wound and held in a steel hoop. Hook the outer end of the new spring onto the starter housing post, and then place the spring inside the housing. CAREFULLY remove the steel hoop. The spring should unwind slightly and seat itself in the housing. Old Spring Installation SAFETY WORDS The authors, the manufacturers, and almost anyone else who has handled the spring from this type rewind starter STRONGLY recommend a pair of safety goggles or a face shield be worn while the spring is being installed. As the work progresses a ''TIGER" is being forced into a cage --over 14' ( 4.3 m) of spring steel wound into about 4" (10.2cm) circumference. If the spring is accidentally released, it will lash out with tremendous ferocity and very likely could cause personal injury to the installer or other persons nearby. 2-Apply a light coating of Quicksilver Multi-purpose Lubricant or equivalent antiseize lubricant to the inside surface of the starter housing. Wind the old spring loosely in one hand in a clockwise direction, as shown. 3-Hook the outer end of the spring onto the slot in the removeable housing for Design a" starters, or the starter housing post for Design ''b0 starters. Rotate the sheave CLOCKWISE and at the same time feed the spring into the housing in a COUNTERCLOCKWISE direction. Continue working the spring into the housing until the entire length has been confined. Design "a" Starters Continues Install the backing plate over the sheave hub. Position the spring housing over the sheave, with the two tabs on the housing aligned with the two grooves in the sheave. Rotate spring housing COUNTERCLOCKWISE to engage the two locking tabs against the grooves. Insert the guide plate into the sheave hub with the tab of the plate entering the inner loop of the spring. Insert the retainers into the slots next to the locking tabs of the spring housing. Turn the sheave over and using a pair of needle nose pliers, pull the two ends of the retainers through until seated. If-Melt the tip of the rope to prevent fraying. a figure leaving knot. the knot. 5 Insert the melted end of the rope through the hole in the starter sheave. Tie "8" knot in the end of the rope about one inch (2.5cm) beyond the Tuck the end of the rope beyond the knot into the groove, if so equipped, next to Wind the rope in a CLOCKWISE direction two turns around the sheave, ending 1"(2.5cm) the groove next to the hole. edge of the starter housing in a CLOCKWITHOUT ROTATING THE SHEAVE, feed the rope between the sheave and the WISE direction. Push the rope into place with a narrow screwdriver. Continue feed- for Design "a" starters, make sure the tab on the guide plate slides into the hole of the starter housing. For Design ''b" starters: Use a small screwdriver through the hole to guide the inner loop of the spring onto the post on the underneath side of the sheave. Units With Spring and Sheave Undisturbed 6-Align the hole in the edge of the sheave with the starter handle. Thread the rope through the hole and up through the top side. Tie a figure "8" knot in the end which was just brought through, leaving about one inch (25cm). Tuck the short free end into at the slot in the sheave. Lower the sheave into the starter housing. At the same time, ing and tucking the rope for two turns, ending with the rope at the slot of the sheave. All Units Slide the sheave bushing into the starter housing shaft. Insert the shaft and bushing into the center of the sheave. 7-Coat the threads of the center bolt with Loctite. Install the washer and bolt. Tighten the bolt to a torque value of 5.8 ft lbs (8Nm). 8-Thread the rope through the starter handle housing and through the handle. Tie a figure "8" knot in the rope as close to the end as practical. Pull the knot back into the handle recess, and then install the seal in the handle to hide the rope knot. 9-Lift up a portion of rope, and then hook it into the slot of the sheave. Hold the handle tightly and at the same time rotate the sheave COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the spring beneath is wound tight. This will take about three complete turns of the sheave. Slowly release the tension on the sheave and allow it to rewind CLOCKWISE while the rope is taken up as it feeds around the sheave. 10-With the bevelled end of the pawl facing to the left, hook each end of the pawl spring into the two small holes in the pawl, from the underneath side of the pawl, and with the pattern of the spring, as shown. The short ends of the spring will then be on the upper surface of the pawl. Move the spring up against the center of the sheave shaft, and then slide the center of the pawl onto the pawl post, as indicated in the accompanying illustration. 11-Snap the circlip into place over the pawl post to secure the pawl in place. 12-Check the action of the rewind starter before further installation work pro ceeds. Pull out the starter rope with the handle, then allow the spring to slowly rewind the rope. The starter should rewind smoothly and take up all the rope to lightly seat the handle against the starter housing. Position the rewind starter in place on the powerhead. STARTER LOCK WASHER COLLAR CLIP L SPRING SHOULDER SCREW CAt\ """' L INK ROD The no-start-in-gear protection system cannot be adjusted. If the system fails to prevent the sheave from rotating in any shift position except NEUTRAL, each component should be inspected. The part should be replaced if there is any evidence of excessive wear or distortion. 13-Apply Loctite to the threads of the three attaching bolts. Secure the starter legs to the powerhead with the bolts, and tighten them to a torque value of 5.8 ft lbs (8Nm). 14-Snap the shift interlock link rod into the plastic cam on the starter housing. SPECIAL WORDS If the link rod adjustment at the shift lever and inside the starter housing was undisturbed, the no-start-in-gear protection system should perform satisfactorily. When the unit is NOT in NEUTRAL, the starter lock should drop down to block the sheave and prevent it from rotating. This means an attempt to pull on the rope with the lower unit in any gear except NEUTRAL should FAIL. If the no-start-in-gear protection system fails to function properly, first remove the rewind hand starter from the powerhead. Inspect the blocking surface of the starter lock, the condition of the cam and the return action of the spring. Because no adjustment of the length of the link rod is possible, make sure the lower end of the rod is indeed connected to the shift mechanism below the bottom cowling and the rod itself is not binding or bent. Install the starter on the powerhead and again check the no-startin- gear system. APPENDIX METRIC CONVERSION CHART LINEAR ENERGY OR WORK (watt-second -joule -newtoninches X 25.4 = rnillirnetres (rnrn) metre) feet X 0.3048 = metres (rn) foot-pounds X 1.3558 = joules (j) yards X 0.9144 = metres (rn) calories X 4. 187 = joules (j) miles X 1.6093 = kilometres (krn) Btu X 1055 = joules (j) inches X 2. 54 = centimetres (ern) watt-hours X 3500 = joules (j) kilowatt -hrs X 3. 600 = megajoules (MJ) AREA inches2 X 645. 16 = rnillirnetres2 FUEL ECONOMY AND FUEL CONSUMPTION (rnm2) miles/gal X 0.42514 = kilometres/litre inches2 X 6.452 = centimetres2 (cm2) (km/1) feet2 X 0.0929 = metres2 (m2) Note: yards2 X 0.8361 = metres2 (m2) 235.2/(mi/gal) :: litres/100km acres X 0.4047 = hectares (104 m2) 235.2/(litres/100 km) = mi/gal (ha) miles2 X 2. 590 = kilometres2 (km2) LIGHT foot candles X 10.76 = lumens/metre2 VOLUME (lm/rn2) inches3 X 16387 = millimetres3 (mm3) inches3 X 16.387 = centimetres3 (cm3) inches3 X 0.01639 = lJtres (l) PRESSURE OR STRESS (newton/sq metre -pascal) quarts X 0.9463 5 = litres (l) 1nches HG (60 F) X 3.377 = kilopascals (k.Pa) gallons X 3. 7854 = lJtres (l) pounds/ sq in X 6. 895 = kilopascals (kPa) feet3 X 28.317 = lit res (l) inches H20 (60' F) X 0. 2488 = kilopascals (kPa) feet3 X 0.0283 2 = metres3 (m3) bars X 100 = kilopascals (kPa) fluid oz X 29. 60 = millilitres (ml) pounds/sq ft X 47.88 = pascals (Pa) yards3 X u. 7ti46 = metres3 (m3) POWER MASS horsepower X 0. 746 = kilowatts (kW) ounces (av) X 28.3 5 = grams (g) ft-lbf/min X 0.0226 = watts (W) pounds (av) X 0.4536 = kilograms (kg) tons (2000 lb) X 907. 18 = kilograms (kg) TORQUE tons (2000 lb) X 0.90718 = metric tons (t) pound-inches X 0. 11299 = newton-metres (Nm) pound-feet X 1.3558 = newton-metres (Nm) FORC E ounces -f (av) X 0. 278 = newtons (N) pounds -f (av) X 4. 448 = newtons (N) VELOCITY kilograms -f X 9.807 = newtons (N) miles/hour X 1. 6093 = kilometres/hour (km/h) ACCELERATION feet/sec X 0.3048 = metres/sec (m/s) feet/ sec2 X 0.3048 = metres/sec2 (m/S2) kilom et res/h r X 0. 27778 = metres/sec (m/s) inches/sec2 X 0.0254 = metres/sec2 (m/s2) miles/hour X 0.4470 = metres/sec (m/s) TEMPE RATURE 32 98.6 212 -40 0 140 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 I FF c -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 c Celsius = 0.556 (' F -32) . F = (1.8' C) +32 MODEL BEGIN CYL HP CU IN WOT BORE STROKE SERIAL DISPL INCHES INCHES NO. 1965 1738941 1 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 60 1745521 2 6.0 5000-5400 1.750 1.500 110 1742746 2 9.8 10.9 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 200 1755849 2 20 22 5000-5400 2.562 2.125 30 4800-5200 2.875 2.300 350M-350S 1755799 2 1966 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 39-39LS 1865633 1 3.9 60-60LS 1958278 2 6.0 5000-5400 1.750 1.500 110-110LS 1865779 2 9.8 10.9 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 200-200LS 1866496 2 20 22 5000-5400 2.562 2.125 350M, LS, S, SLS 1960827 2 35 32.5 4800-5200 3.000 2.300 1967 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 39, 39LS 2098037 1 3.9 5000-5400 1.750 1.500 60, 60LS 2096171 2 6.0 110, 110LS 2098352 2 9.8 10.9 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 200, 200LS 1997990 2 20 22 5000-5400 2.562 2.125 350M, MLS, S, SLS 2097800 2 35 32.5 4800-5300 3.000 2.300 1968 1968 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 39, 39LS 2278851 1 3.9 5000-5400 1.750 1.500 60, 60LS 2284857 2 6.0 110, 110LS 2290663 2 9.8 10.9 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 200, 200LS 2296267 2 20 22 5000-5400 2.562 2.125 350M, LS, S, SLS 2300972 2 35 32.5 4800-5300 3.000 2.300 1969 1969 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 40, 40L 2498136 1 4.0 75, 75L 2529895 2 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 10.9 110, 110L 2508759 2 9.8 10.9 5000-5400 2.000 1.750 200, 200L 2550065 2 20 22 5000-5400 2.562 1.750 3.000 2.300 350M, ML, S, SL 1970 2487588 2 32.5 4800-5300 1970 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 40M, 40ML 2771662 1 4.0 75M, 40ML 28 10637 2 7.5 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110M, ML 2798057 2 9.8 16.7 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200M, ML 2827677 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 2.875 2.562 400M, ML, E, EL 2874704 2 40 4800-5300 1971 1971 2.000 1.250 40, 40L 3028361 1 4.0 4500-5500 75, 75L 3016581 2 7.5 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110, llOL 3002814 2 9.8 16.7 4500-5500 2.00 1.750 200, 200L 2991679 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 400M, ML, E, EL 3043031 2 40 NOTE: See Appendix Page A-12 for Special Notes, ignition system identification, TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS CARB POINT POWERHEAD PLUG GAP TYPE PICKUP TIMING TYPE GAP TYPE CHAMP SPARK PLUG IGN PRIMARY MAX 1965 J8J .025 I Not Adj Not Adj A .020 B J7J .025 I A .020 B J7J .025 I A .020 A J6J .025 I .275BTDC A .020 A J6J .025 I .222BTDC A .020 A 1966 J8J .025 I A .020 B .025 I A .020 B .025 I A .020 A J6J .025 I .275BTDC A .020 A J6J .025 I .300BTDC A .020 A 1967 B L9J .030 I A .020 L7J .030 I A .020 B A L4J .030 I A .020 L4J .030 I Note 1 A .020 A L4J .030 I .300BTDC A .020 A 1968 1968 L9J .030 I A .020 B L7J .030 I A .020 B L4J .030 I A .020 A A L4J .030 I Note 1 A .020 L4J .030 I .3000BTDC A .020 A 1969 L9J .030 I A .020 A L7J .030 I A .020 A L4J .030 I A .020 A A L4J .030 I Note 1 A .020 L4J .030 I .300BTDC A .020 A 1970 L77V Set II .005ATDC Not Adj A .020 A L77V Set II .002ATDC .193BTDC A .020 A L77V Set II .002ATDC .193BTDC A .020 A L77V Set II 1 BTDC to .196BTDC A .020 A 4 ATDC L77V Set III 5-7 BTDC 27 BTDC A 1971 L78V Set II .005ATDC Not Adj A .020 A L78V Set II .002ATDC .193BTDC A .020 A L78V Set II .002ATDC .193BTDC A .020 A L78V Set II 1 BTDC to .196BTDC A .020 A 4 ATDC L78V Set III 5-7 BTDC 27 BTDC A A 2 BTDC carburetor identification, and timing notes called out in this table. MODEL BEGIN CYL HP CU IN WOT BORE STROKE SERIAL DISPL INCHES INCHES NO. 1972 1972 40, 40L 3296137 1 4.0 5.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 75, 75L 3274633 2 7.5 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110, 110L 3263263 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200, 200L 3226958 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M, ML, E, EL 3219678 2 40 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 1973 1973 40M, 40ML 3529446 1 4.0 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 75M, 75ML 3488153 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110M, Ml 3482753 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200M, ML 3537531 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M, ML, E, EL 3474578 2 40 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 1974 1974 40, 40L 3764825 1 4.0 5.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 75, 75L 3801458 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 11 O, 11 OL 3795658 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 200, 200L 3755885 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M, ML, E, EL 3859435 2 40 33.3 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 1975 1975 4108120 1 5.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 45L 4107220 1 4.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 4087015 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 4085865 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.87 5 110 4079675 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 110L 4079000 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.875 200 4103290 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 200L 4102790 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M 41 18385 2 40 33.3 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 402ML 41 19010 2 40 33.3 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 402E 41 17710 2 40 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 402EL 41 19360 2 40 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 1976 1976 40M 9075839 2 4.0 4000-5000 1.562 1.438 45M, 45ML 4377557 1 4.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 75M, ML, E, EL 4314385 2 7.5 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110M, ML, E, EL 4304785 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200M, ML, E, EL 4293920 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M, ML, E, EL 4362215 2 40 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 NOTE: See Appendix Page A-12 for Special Notes, ignition system identification, TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS A-5 SPARK PLUG IGN PRIMARY MAX CARB POINT POWERHEAD PLUG GAP TYPE PICKUP TIMING TYPE GAP TYPE CHAMP 1972 L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 A L78V Set II 2ATDC .193BTDC B .020 A L78V Set II 2 ATDC .193BTDC A .020 A L78V Set II 1 BTDC-.196BTDC A .020 A 4 ATDC L77V Set III 5-7 BTDC 27 BTDC A A 2 BTDC 1973 L78V Set II 5ATDC .198BTIJC A .020 A L78V Set II None .1 93BTDC B .020 A L78V Set II None .193BTDC A .020 A AL78V Set IV 2 BTDC-33 BTDC B 2 ATDC AL77V Set II 5-7 BTDC 27 BTDC A 1974 AL78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A AL77V Set IV None 34.5 BTDC B AL77V Set IV None 34.5 BTDC A AL78V Set IV 2 BTDC-33 BTDC B 2 ATDC AL77V Set II 5-7 BTDC 27 BTDC A 1975 L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 .020 13 L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 jj AL78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B AL78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B A L78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B AL78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B AL78V Set IV 3-7 BTDC 33 BTDC B AL78V Set IV 3-7BTDC 33 BTDC B AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A 1976 BQL7J5 .050 IV 8 ATDC 24-26 BTDC c L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 B A L78V Set IV None 35BTDC B L78V Set IV None 30 BTDC B A AL78V Set IV 3-7 BTDC 33 BTDC B AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A carburetor identification, and timing notes called out in this table. MODEL BEGIN CYL HP CU IN WOT BORE STROKE SERIAL DISPL INCHES INCHES NO. 1977 1977 4000-5000 1.562 1.438 4.0 40M, 40L N/A 2 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 45M, 45L 4597262 1 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 75M, ML, E, EL 4691222 2 110M, ML, E, EL 4605112 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200M, ML, E, EL 4580036 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 402M, ML, E, EL 4564002 2 40 33.3 4800-5300 2.875 2.562 1978 1978 40M, ML 9172806 2 4.0 4300-4700 1.562 1.438 45M, ML 4869518 1 4.5 5.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 75M, ML, E, EL 4851693 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 110M, ML, E, EL 4839254 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 200M, ML, E, EL 4819249 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 5000-5500 2.875 2.562 400ML, E, EL 4860103 2 40 402M 4860103 2 40 33.3 5000-5500 2.875 2.562 1979 1979 4300-4700 1.562 1.438 4 9208226 2 4.0 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 4.5 527078'+ 1 4.5 5226935 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 5206550 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 9.8 20 5183393 2 20 21.9 4800-5500 2.562 2.125 40 5174089 2 40 5000-5500 2.875 2.562 1980 --1981 1980 --1981 4500-5000 2.000 1.750 3.6 5404657 1 3.6 5.5 4300-4700 1.562 1.437 4 5589202 2 4.0 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 5595532 1 7.5 5524660 2 10.9 5000-5800 2.000 1.750 10.9 5000-5800 2.000 1.750 9.8 551+1280 2 9.8 18 5860332 2 18 24.4 5000-5800 2.562 2.360 20 5606492 2 20 21.9 4800-5800 2.562 2.125 25 5705532 2 25 24.4 5400-6000 2.562 2.360 40 5556230 2 4800-5500 2.875 2.562 1982 1982 3.6 5910968 1 3.6 5.5 4500-5000 2.000 1.750 4.5 6025119 1 4.5 5.5 '+500-5500 2.000 1.750 5936301 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 5965263 2 9.8 5954911 2 18 24.4 5000-5500 2.562 2.360 18 2.360 591+20'+1 2 25 24.4 5400-6000 2.562 5991215 2 1+0 5000-5500 2.875 2.562 NOTE: TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS A-7 SPARK PLUG IGN PRIMARY MAX CARB POINT POWERHEAD PLUG GAP TYPE PICKUP TIMING TYPE GAP TYPE CHAMP 1977 QL7J5 .050 IV 8 ATDC 24-26 BTDC c L78V Set II 5ATDC .198BTDC A .020 B B L78V Set IV None 30 BTDC B A L78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B A L78V Set IV 3-7 BTDC 33 BTDC B A QL7J5 .050 IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A A 1978 QL7J5 .050 IV 8 ATDC 24-26 BTDC c B L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 B L78V Set IV None 30 BTDC B A L78V Set IV None 35 BTDC B A L78V Set IV 3-7 BTDC 33 BTDC B A QL7J5 .050 IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A A QL7J5 .050 IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A A 1979 QL7J5 .050 IV 8 ATDC 24-26 BTDC c B L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198BTDC A .020 B L77J4 .040 IV None 30 BTDC B A L77J4 .040 IV None .35 BTDC B A L78V Set IV 3-7 BTDC 33 BTDC B A AL76V Set IV 6 BTDC 27 BTDC A 1980 --1981 BL81Y .035 III At Idle N/ A D B L78V Set II 5ATDC .198 BTDCA A .020 B L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B L7J .050 IV 12 -16 ATDC 22-26 BTDC c A L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A B L78V Set IV Note 2 Note 3 B L77J4 .040 IV 12 ATDC 25 BTDC B A B L76V Set IV Note 5 Note 2 A L77J4 .040 IV Note 4 25 BTDC B A 1982 B L78V Set II 5ATDC .198 BTDC A .020 B L78V .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B L81Y .035 III At Idle None D A L78V .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L77J4 .040 IV 12ATDC 25BTDC B B 13 L77J4 .040 IV Note 4 25 BTDC B AL76V Set IV Note 5 Note 2 A carburetor identification, and timing notes called out in this table. A-8 APPENDIX ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS AND MODEL BEGIN SERIAL NO. CYL H.P. CU. IN. OPERATING DIS PL. RANGE RPM BORE INCHES STROKE INCHES 1983 1983 6202173 1 3.5 5.5 4500-5000 2.000 1.750 4.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 4-.5 6232381 1 6239857 2 7.5 10.9 4-500-5500 2.000 1.750 9.8 6263906 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 18 6171607 2 18 24.4-5000-5500 2.562 2.360 25 6185159 2 24.4 5400-6000 2.562 2.360 40 6228285 2 40 33.3 5000-5500 2.875 2.562 1984 1984 2.2 8075603 1 2.2 4.6 4200-5200 1.850 1.687 3.5 6434771 1 4000-4500 2.000 1.750 4.5 6428076 1 4.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 6430041 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 9.8 6438338 2 9.8 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 18XD 6443973 2 18 24.4 5000-5500 2.562 2.375 25XD 64-53343 2 25 24.4 5400-6000 2.562 2.375 35 644-5653 2 33.3 5400-6000 2.875 2.562 1985 1985 2.2 8087123 1 2.2 4.6 4200-5200 1.850 1.687 3.5 6594744 1 3.5 5.5 3500-4500 2.000 1.750 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 6608536 1 4.5 6611886 2 10.9 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 9.8 6620196 2 9.8 10.9 5000-6000 2.000 1.750 18XD 6617631 2 18 24.4 4500-5500 2.562 2.375 25XD 6593849 2 25 24.4 5000-6000 2.562 2.375 6626696 2 33.3 5400-6000 2.875 2.562 1986 1986 2.2 A800761 1 2.2 4.6 4200-5200 1.850 1.687 4-.0 A906702 1 4.0 5.5 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 6.0 A910596 2 6.0 12.8 4000-5000 2.125 1.812 8.0 A197112 2 8.0 12.8 4500-5500 2.125 1.812 A918999 2 9.9 12.8 5000-6000 2.125 1.812 20 A910971 2 20 24.4 4500-5500 2.562 2.375 A911346 2 25 24.4 5000-6000 2.562 2.375 33.3 5400-6000 2.875 2.562 35 A922171 2 210cc A918999 2 9.9 12.8 5000-6000 2.125 1.812 90cc A907702 1 4.0 4500-5500 2.000 1.750 NOTE: See Appendix Page A-12 for Special Notes, ignition system identification, TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS A-9 SPARK PLUG IGN. PRIMARY MAX. CARB. POINT POWERHEAD PLUG GAP TYPE PICKUP TIMING TYPE GAP TYPE CHAMP. AT IDLE 1983 L81Y .035 III At Idle D B L78V Set II 5 ATDC .198 BTDC A .020 B L78V .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L78V .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L77J4 .040 IV 12 ATDC 25 BTDC F B L77J4 .040 IV Note 4 25 BTDC F B L76V Set IV Note 5 Note 2 A A 1984 RL87YC .040 I At Idle Not Adj E .012-.016 c L87Y .035 III At Idle D B L78V Set II Note 6 .198BTDC A .020 B L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 F/G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 F/G B L76V Set IV 3 BTDC Note 10 A A 1985 RL87YC .040 I At Idle E .012-.016 c L87Y .035 III At Idle B L78V Set II Note 6 .198BTDC A .020 B L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B D A L77J4 .040 IV At Idle Note 2 B A L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV 3 BTDC Note 10 A A 1986 RL87YC .040 I At Idle E .012-.016 c L78V Set II Note 6 .198BTDC A B L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 A A B L78V Set II Note 6 .198TDC A L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B carburetor identification, and timing notes called out in this table. MODEL CYL. H.P. CU. IN. OPERATING BORE STROKE DISPL. RANGE INCHES INCHES RPM 1987 1987 4.6 6.2 12.8 2.2 1 2.2 4 Early 1 4.0 4200-.5200 1.8.50 1.693 4.500-.5.500 2.000 1.7.50 4.500-.5.500 2. 16.5 1.693 4000-.5000 2. 12.5 1.812 4 Late 1 6.0 2 6.0 8.0 2 8.0 12.8 4.500-.5.500 2.12.5 1.812 2 12.8 .5000-6000 2.12.5 1.812 20 2 20 24.4 4.500-.5.500 2 .562 2.37.5 2.5 2 2.5 24.4 .5000-6000 2 .562 2.37.5 2 33.3 12.8 .5400-6000 2.87.5 2 .562 .5000-6000 2.12.5 1.812 4.500-.5.500 2.000 1.7 .50 210cc 2 90cc 1 1988 1988 2.2 1 2.2 4.6 4200-.5200 1.8.50 1.693 4 1 4.0 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 .5 1 .5.0 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 8 2 8.0 12.8 4.500-.5.500 2.12.5 1.812 2 12.8 .5000-6000 2.12.5 1.812 1.5 2 1.5.0 16.0 .5000-6000 2.362 1.811 20 2 20 24.4 4.500-.5.500 2 .562 2.37.5 2.5 2 2.5 24.4 .5000-6000 2 .562 2.37.5 3.5 2 3.5 33.3 .5400-6000 2.87.5 2 .562 1989 1989 2.2 1 2.2 4.6 4200-.5200 1.8.50 1.693 4 1 4.0 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 .5 1 .5.0 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 8 2 8.0 12.8 4.500-.5.500 2.12.5 1.812 2 12.8 .5000-6000 2.12.5 1.812 20 2 20 24.4 4.500-.5.500 2 .562 2.37.5 2.5 2 2.5 24.4 .5000-6000 2 .562 2.37.5 2 33.3 .5400-6000 2.87.5 2 .562 1990 & 1991 1990 & 1991 3 1 4.6 4200-.5200 1.8.50 1.693 4 1 4.0 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 .5 1 6.2 4.500-.5.500 2.16.5 1.693 8 2 8.0 12.8 4.500-.5.500 2.12.5 1.812 2 12.8 .5000-6000 2.12.5 1.812 1.5 2 1.5.0 16.0 .5000-6000 2.362 1.811 20 2 20 24.4 4.500-.5.500 2 .562 2.37.5 2.5 2 2.5 24.4 .5000-6000 2 .562 2.37.5 NOTE: See Appendix Page A-12 for Special Notes, ignition system identification, TUN E-UP ADJUSTMENTS TUNE-UP ADJUSTMENTS A-l l SPARK PLUG IGN. PRIMARY MAX. CARB. POINT PWRHD. PLUG GAP TYPE PICKUP TIMING TYPE GAP TYPE CHAMP AT IDLE 1987 1987 RL97YC 0.040 I At Idle E 0.012-0.016 c 1988 0.012-0.016 1989 0.012-0.016 BL78V Set II Note 6 .198 BTDC A L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30 BTDC H c BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 A A B L78V Set II Note 6 .198 BTDC A L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B 1988 RL97YC 0.040 I At Idle E c L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30 BTDC H c L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30BTDC H c BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36BTDC G BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G L82YC 0.040 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 A A 1989 RL97YC 0.040 I At Idle E c L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30 BTDC H c L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30 BTDC H c BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G L82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36 BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 A A 1990 &: 1991 1990 &: 1991 RL97YC 0.040 I At Idle E 0.012-0.016 c r L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30 BTDC H '-' L82YC 0.040 IV 5 BTDC 30BTDC H c BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36BTDC G BL82YC Note 9 IV 6 BTDC 36BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G L82YC 0.040 IV 6 BTDC 36BTDC G B L76V Set IV Note 7 Note 8 G B carburetor identification, and timing notes called out in this table. SPECIAL NOTES BTDC equals "Before Top Dead Center" ATDC equals "After Top Dead Center" Model 4 1986-Mid '87 has carburetor "A" Model 4 Mid'87 & On has carburetor "H" IGNITION TYPE IDENTIFICATION I Phelon --flywheel -Magneto with points. H Thunderbolt --flywheel --Phase maker --with points. HI Thunderbolt --flywheel -C.D. ignition --pointless. IV Thunderbolt--flywheel -C.D. ignition --pointless --coil per cylinder. TIMING NOTES 1-Up to serial number 2432535, the maximum spark advance should be set to 0.375" (Gauge No. 91-46707Al) and the full throttle advance should be set to 0.275". (Gauge No. 91-30292Al); after this number, Use Gauge No. C-91-3973Al (0.300") for the maximum spark advance and Gauge No. 91-26916Al (0.235") for the full throttle advance. 2-Align straight line on flywheel with timing pointer (or notch on flywheel housing). 3-Align three dots on flywheel with timing pointer ..or notch on flywheel housing). 4-Letters "BCIA" stamped on carburetor flange: 12 ATDC (two dots on flywheel). Letters "BCIB" or "BCIC" stamped on carburetor flange: 5 ATDC (four dots on flywheel). 5-Align two dots on flywheel with notch on flywheel housing. 6-5 ATDC except for models with WMD0-1 (Type G) carburetor, then primary pickup is 10 -12 ATDC. 7-2 ATDC, one mark to the right of the single dot. 8-25 BTDC at WOT (wide open throttle), three dots on flywheel. 9-0.040" for engines equipped with standard ignition coils, not equipped with high-energy coils. 10-29 BTDC at cranking speed. CARBURETOR IDENTIFICATION A-Side bowl and back drag carburetor. 8-Round bowl --single float carburetor with integral fuel pump. C-Center round bowl --single float side-draft carburetor. D-Mikuni rectangular bowl -double float carburetor. E-Mikuni round bowl -single float carburetor. adjustable for engines F-Tillotson rectangular bowl --double float carburetor with fuel pump. G-Walbro round bowl -single float carburetor with fuel pump. H-Round bowl --single float carburetor stamped "F" with "KEIKHIN" integral fuel pump. CARBURETOR JET SIZE I ELEVATION CHART MODEL YEAR CYLINDER H.P. ZERO TO 2.501 TO .5001 TO COMMENT 2.500FT .5000FT 7.500FT (0-765M) (766 to 1526 to 1.525M) 228.5M) 2.2 1984-89 1 2.2 1194 Note 1 Note 1 3.0 1990 & on 1 2.2 1194 Note 1 Note 1 3.5 1983-85 1 11150 11140 11130 3.6 1980-82 1 3.6 11150 11140 11130 39 1965-66 1 3.9 .043 .041 .039 1967-68 1 3.9 .036 .034 .032 40 1969-74 1 4.0 .036 .034 .032 40 1976-80 2 4.0 .041 .040 .039 4.0 1986-Mid'87 1 4.0 .040 .039 .041 Carb. Type "A" 4.0 Mid'87 & on 1 4.0 .031 .029 .027 Carb. Type "H" 5 1988 & on 1 5.0 .03 1 .029 .027 .040 .039 .03845 1975-78 1 1979-85 1 .040 .039 .038 60 1965-68 2 6.0 .045 .043 .041 6.0 1986-1987 2 6.0 .046 .044 .042 .035 .033 .031 75 1969-74 2 *4131609 & below.034 .033 .03275 1975* 2 1975-76* 2 7.5 .032 .031 .030 *4131610 to 4397536 *4397537 & up 1976-79* 2 .045 .043 .041 7.5 197 5-85 2 7.5 .040 .039 .038 8.0 1986 & on 2 8.0 .046 .044 .042 110 1965-70 2 9.8 .049 .047 .045 110 1971-73 2 9.8 .047 .045 .043 110 1974 2 9.8 .041 .039 .037 110 1975-79* 2 9.8 .041 .039 .036 *4079000 & up 9.8 1979-85 2 9.8 .039 .038 .037 9.9 1986 & on 2 15 1988 & on .056 .054 .052 2 15 .056 .054 .052 18 1981-83 2 18 .052 .050 .048 18XD 1984-85 2 18 .052 .050 .048 200 1965-66 2 20 .061 .059 .057 200 1967-68 2 20 .063 .061 .059 200 1969-70 2 20 .061 .059 .057 200 1971-72 2 20 .059 .057 .055 200 1973-74 2 20 .057 .055 .053 200 1975* 2 20 .055 .053 .051 *4351589 & below 200 1976-79* 2 20 .057 .055 .053 *4351590 & up 20 1979-80 2 20 .057 .055 .053 20 1986 & on 2 20 .080 .078 .076 25 1980-83 2 25 .067 .065 .063 25 1986 & on 2 25 .080 .078 .076 25XD 1984-85 2 25 .080 .078 .076 350 1965-66 2 .069 .067 .065 350 1967-79 2 35 .063 .061 .059 1984-89 2 .072 .070 .068 400 1970-7 1 2 40 .078 .076 .074 402 1972-78 2 40 .078 .076 .074 40 1979-80 2 40 .072 .070 .068 40 1981-83 2 40 .072 .070 .068 210cc 1986-87 2 9.9 .056 .054 .052 90cc 1986-87 1 4.0 .041 .040 .039 Note: 1 "E" clip on needle: normal position is second groove. Move clip upward (toward end) one groove for each 2500ft (765M} elevation. PISTON AND CYLINDER SPECIFICATIONS Model Year Cyl. H.P. Piston Taper Cyl. Block Oversize Skirt Above Rings Hone Finish Hone Finish Inches mm Inches mm Inches mm Inches mm 2.2 1984-89 2.2 1.846 46.89 1.844 46.84 1.850 46.99 1.869 47.47 3.0 1990 & on 2.2 1.846 46.89 1.844 46.84 1.850 46.99 1.869 47.47 3.5 1983-85 3.5 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 1980-82 3.6 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 39 1965-68 3.9 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 40 1969-74 1 4.0 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 1976-80 2 4.0 1.558 39.57 1.552 39.42 1.563 37.70 N/A N/A 4.0 1986-Mid'87 4.0 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 4.0 Mid'87 & on 4.0 2.164 54.96 2.158 54.61 2.165 55.00 2.180 55.37 197 5-78 4.5 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 1979-85 4.5 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 5.0 1988 & on 4.0 2.164 54.96 2.158 54.61 2.165 55.00 2.180 55.37 60 1968-68 2 6.0 1.756 44.60 1.750 44.45 1.753 44.53 1.768 44.91 6.0 1986-87 2 6.0 2.118 53.80 2.114 53.70 2.125 53.80 2.140 54.36 1969-78 2 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 1979-85 2 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 8.0 1986 & on 2 8.0 2.118 53.80 2.114 53.70 2.125 53.80 2.140 54.36 110 1965-78 2 9.8 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 9.8 1979-85 2 1986 & on 2.125 53.80 2.140 54.36 9.9 2 2.118 53.80 2.114 53.70 1988 & on 2.362 60.00 2.377 60.372 2.358 59.89 2.352 59.74 18 1981-83 2 18 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 18XD 1984-85 2 18 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 200 1968-72* 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.563 65.10 2.578 65.48 200 1968-72 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.565 65.15 2.580 65.53 200 1973-74 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.566 65.1 8 2.58 1 65.56 N/A N/A 200 1975-79 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.565 65.1 5 2.581 65.56 20 1979-80 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 20 1986 & on 2 20 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.3625 1980-83 2 25 1986 & on 2 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 2.558 64.98 2.551 64.80 2.562 65.07 2.577 54.36 25XD 1984-85 2 350 1965 2 350 1966-69 2 2.992 76.00 2.857 72.57 2.872 72.95 2.887 73.33 2.992 76.00 2.986 75.84 3.000 76.20 3.015 76.58 35 1984-89 2 35 2.872 72.95 2.863 72.72 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41 400 1970-71 2 40 2.865 72.95 2.857 72.57 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41 2.871 72.92 2.859 72.62 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41402 1971-74 2 2.872 72.95 2.863 72.72 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41402 197 5-79 2 40 1979-80 2 40 2. 872 72.95 2.863 72.72 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41 40 1981-83 2 2.872 72.95 2.863 72.72 2.875 73.02 2.890 73.41 210cc 1986-87 2 9.9 2.118 53.80 2.114 53.70 2.125 53.80 2.140 54.36 90cc 1986-87 * Model 200 with shift. 1.996 50.70 1.990 50.55 2.000 50.80 2.015 51.18 REED STOP OPENING REED STOP MODEL YEAR CYL. H.P. OPENING POWERHEAD INCHES mm TYPE 2.2 1984-89 1 2.2 .240 6.096 c 3.0 1990 &: on 1 2.2 .240 6.096 c 3.5 1983 &: on 1 3.5 .007* .178 B 3.6 1980-82 1 3.6 .007* .178 B 1965-68 1 3.9 .007* .178 B 40 1969-74 1 4.0 .154 3.912 A 40 1976-80 2 4.0 .007* .178 B 4.0 1986-Mid'87 1 4.0 .007* .178 B 4.0 Mid'87 &: on 1 4.0 .240 6.096 c 45 1975-78 1 4.5 .007* .178 B 4.5 1979-85 1 4.5 .007* .178 B 5.0 1988 &: on 1 5.0 .240 6.096 c 60 1965-68 2 6.0 .109 2.769 A 6.0 1986-87 2 6.0 .007* .178 B 1969-78 2 7.5 .156 3.962 A 1979-85 2 .156 3.962 A 8.0 1986 &: on 2 8.0 .007* .178 B 110 1965-78 2 9.8 .156 3.962 A 9.8 1979-85 2 9.8 .156 3.962 A 1986 &: on 9.9 15 1988 &: on 2 .007* .178 B 2 15 .007* .178 B 18 1981-83 2 18 .007* .178 B 18XD 1984-85 2 18 .007* .178 B 200 1965-78 2 20 .187 4.750 A 20 1986 &: on 2 20 .007* .178 B 20 1979-80 2 20 .191 4.851 A 25 1980-83 2 25 .007* .178 B 25 1986 &: on 2 25 .007* .178 B 25XD 1984-85 2 25 .007* .178 B 350 1965-69 2 35 .187 4.750 A 35 1984-89 2 .162 4.1 15 A 400 1970-7 1 2 40 .156 3.962 A 402 1972-74 2 40 .156 3.962 A 402 1975-79 2 40 .162 4.1 15 A 40 1979-80 2 40 .162 4.1 15 A 40 1981-83 2 40 .162 4.115 A 210cc 1986-87 2 9.9 .007* .178 B 90cc 1986-87 1 4.0 .007* .178 B * The manufacturer recommends the reeds stand open, but are not more than .007" (.178 mm) off reed block surface. N/ A equals "Not Applicable". Powerhead Type A Split block without head --internal reed box around crankshaft. Powerhead Type B Split block without head --external reed block. Powerhead Type C Split block with head --reed valves beneath crankshaft. LOWER UNIT OIL CAPACITY AND GEAR CHART MODEL YEAR CYLINDER H.P. CAPACITY NO. TEETH NO. TEETH GEARFLUID OZ. FORWARD PINION RATIO 2.2 1984-89 2.2 90cc 27 13 1.85:1 3.0 3.6 1990 & on 1983-85 1980-82 3.0 3.6 Info. not available. 2.18:1 2.75 27 13 2.08:1 2.75 27 13 2.08:1 39 1965-68 1 3.9 3.00 26 13 2:1 40 1969-74 1 4 2.00 26 13 2:1 4 1976-80 2 4 2.75 27 13 2.08:1 4 1986-Mid'87 1 4 3.75 26 13 2:1 4 Mid'87 & on 4 6.60 28 13 2:151 3.75 26 13 2:145 1975-78 4.5 1979-85 5 3.75 26 13 2:1 6.60 28 13 2:151 5 1988 & on 60 1965-68 2 6 3.75 26 13 2:1 1986-1 987 2 6 6.50 27 13 2.08:16 7.5 8.0 3.75 26 13 2:1 3.75 26 13 2:1 6.50 27 13 2.08:1 1969-78 2 21979-85 1986 & on 2 8 110 1965-78 2 9.8 3.75 26 13 2:1 1979-85 2 9.8 3.75 26 13 2:1 1986 & on 2 9.9 6.50 27 13 2.08:1 1988 & on 2 15 6.50 27 13 2.08:1 1981-83 2 18 5.50 27 12 2.25:1 9.8 18 18XD 1984-85 2 18 7.60 27 12 2.25:1 200 1965-72 2 20 6.00 24 13 1.85:1 200 1973 2 20 6.00 24 14 1.71:1 200 1974 2 20 6.50 24 13 1.85:1 20 1979-80 2 20 6.50 24 13 1.85:1 20 1986 & on 2 20 7.60 27 12 2.25:1 25 1980-83 2 25 5.50 27 12 2.25:1 25 1986 & on 2 25 7.60 27 12 2.25:1 25XD 1984-85 2 25 7.60 27 12 2.25:1 9.00 24 13 1.85:1 12.50 26 13 2:1 9.00 26 13 2:1 350 1965-69 2 40 35 1984-89 2 400 1970-71 2 13 13 2:1402 1972-78 2 40 12.50 26 40 1979-80 2 40 12.50 26 2:1 12.50 26 2:1 40 1981-83 2 40 4.0 6.50 27 13 2.08:1 210cc 1986-87 2 3.75 26 13 2:1 90cc 1986-87 LOWER UNIT GEAR BACKLASH TABLE MODEL YEAR CYL. H.P. LOWER FORWARD GEAR REVERSE GEAR UNIT Inches mm Inches mm TYPE 2.2 1984-89 1 2.2 D Note 1 Note 1 3.0 1990 & on l 2.2 D Note 1 Note 1 3.5 1983 & on 1 3.5 A Note 2 N/A 3.6 1980-82 1 3.6 A Note 2 N/A 1965-68 1 3.9 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 40 1969-74 1 4.0 A Note 2 N/A 40 1976-80 2 4.0 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 4 1986-Mid'87 1 4.0 A Note 1 Note 1 4 Mid'87 & on 1 4.0 c Note 1 Note 1 1975-78 1 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 4.5 1979-85 1 4.5 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 5 1988 & on 1 5.0 c Note l Note 1 60 1965-68 2 6.0 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 6 1986-1987 2 6.0 B Note 1 Note 1 1969-78 2 7.5 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 1979-85 2 7.5 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 1986 & on 2 8.0 B 8 Note 1 Note 1 110 1965-78 2 9.8 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 9.8 1979-85 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 1986 & on 2 9.8 9.9 15 1988 & on 2 B Note 1 Note 1 2 15 B Note 1 Note 1 18 1981-83 2 18 c .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 18XD 1984-85 2 18 c .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 200 1965-78 2 20 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 20 1986 & on 2 20 B Note 1 Note 1 20 1979-80 2 20 B .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 25 1980-83 2 25 c .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 25 1986 & on 2 25 c Note 1 Note 1 25XD 1984-85 .003-.005 .076-.127 2 c .003-.005 .076-.127 350 .003-.005 .076-.127 1965-69 2 c .003-.005 .076-.127 35 1984-89 2 c .007-.010 .178-.254 Note 3 400 1970-71 2 40 c .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 402 1972-78 2 40 c .003-.005 .076-.127 .003-.005 .076-.127 40 1979-80 2 40 B .007-.010 .178-.254 Note 3 40 1981-83 2 40 B .007-.010 .178-.254 Note 3 210cc 1986-87 2 9.9 B Note 1 Note 1 90cc 1986-87 1 4.0 A Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 No numerical specification is given by the manufacturer who states: "The amount of play between the gears is not critical, but NO play is unacceptable." Note 2 Gnat lower unit, follow shimming procedure in Section 9-4 Note 3 Obtain .250 (.64 mm) clearance between shimming tool and pinion gear. A-18 APPENDIX THUNDERBOLT IGNITION STATOR ASSEMBLY AND STATOR COIL CHECKS Stator leads MUST be disconnected before testing stator assembly. Stator coil wires MUST be disconnected before testing. MODEL YEAR TESTER LEADS TO: OHM SCALE SCALE READING 3.5 40 1970-71 40 1972-74 4.0 1986-Mid'87 45 1975-78 4.5 1979-85 1986-87 4.0 Mid'87 & On 5.0 1988 & On Note 3 ------- 40 1970-71 75 1970-71 1970-71 200 1970-71 75 1972-73 -110 1972-73 200 1972 -200 1973-74 200 1975-76 Note 1 40 1976-80 75 1974-78 & 7.5 1979-85 1974-78 9.8 1979-85 200 1976-78 Note 2 20 1979-80 Positive lead to Green stator lead, lead to Reverse connections (High speed) between Yellow and Blue coil leads. (Low speed} between Yellow and Red coil leads. Positive lead to Black/Red lead, negative lead to White lead. Positive lead to Green stator lead, lead to Salmon stator lead. -Reverse connections. Positive lead to Green stator lead, lead to Reverse connections. (High speed) between Yellow and Blue coil leads. (Low speed) between Yellow and Red coil leads. Between Red and Blue coil 1eads. Between White and Blue coil leads. Between Red and Blue coil wires. Between White and Blue coil wires. Between Yellow stator wire and Between YelJow and White coil wires. Rx1000 No Rx1000 Rx100 6-8 Rx1000 5.3-6.1 Rx10 9.3-14.2 Rx1000 No Rx1000 Rx1000 No Rx1000 No Continuity RxlO 18.5-20.5 Rx1000 Rx10 Rx1 000 Rx1 180-340 Rx1000 5.2-7.0 Rx100 15-20 Rx100 7.5-10 I I 1983-85 The stator module cannot be tested. I If it is suspected of being faulty, I 1980-82 proceed to ignition coil tests. If the 3.6 ignition coil checks OK, replace the stator module. 90cc 110 .. 3.95-4.30 18.5-20.5 6.7 110 THUNDERBOLT IGNITION STATOR ASSEMBLY AND STATOR COIL CHECKS Stator leads MUST be disconnected before testing stator assembly. Stator coil wires MUST be disconnected before testing. MODEL YEAR TESTER LEADS TO: OHM SCALE SCALE READING Rx10 6.0 1986-87 Between Black/White stator leads 12-18 Rx1000 15.0 1988 & on Between Black/Yellow stator leads 3.2-3.8 210cc 1986-87 and ground. 18 1981-83 18XD 1984-85 Between Black/Yellow and Black/White Rx1000 3.1-3.7 20 1986 & on stator leads. i 8.0 1986 & on and ground. 1986 & on 1980-83 25 1986 & on 25XD 1984-85 400 1970-71 Between Blue coil wire and ground. Rx1 000 21-25 (Man.) 400 1970-71 Between White coil wire and ground. Rx10 11.5-13. 5 (Elec.) 402 Rx100 50-64 40 1972-78 Between Red and Blue coil wires. 1979-83 35 1984-89 (Man.) 402 Rx1 45-60 40 1972-78 Between Red coil wire and ground. 1979-83 I 35 1984-89 (Elec. ) I Note 1 Model 200 Serial No. 4377556 and below. Note 2 Model 200 Serial No. 4403787 and above. Note 3 Manufacturer terms this coil "Capacitor Charging Coil". THUNDERBOLT TRIGGER TEST Trigger leads MUST be disconnected before testing. MODEL YEAR TESTER LEADS TO: OHM SCALE SCALE READING 200 1973-74 75 1974 110 1974 40 1976-80 75 197 5-78 7.5 1979-85 110 1975-78 9.8 1979-85 200 1976-78 Note 1 20 1979-80 200 1975-76 Note 2 4.0 1986-Mid'87 6.0 1986-87 8.0 1986 & on 9.9 1986 & on 15.0 1988 & on 90cc 1986-87 210cc 1986-87 18 1981-83 18XD 1984-85 20 1986 & on 25 1980-83 25 1986 & on 25XD 1984-85 4.0 Mid'87 & On 5.0 1988 & On 400 1970-71 Note 3 402 1972-78 40 1979-83 35 Between trigger leads. To each Brown trigger lead. Between trigger leads. Between trigger leads. Between trigger leads. Postive tester lead to Black lead, Negative tester lead to Red/White lead. Between trigger leads. Between trigger leads. Rx 100 8-10 RxlO 10.8-16 Rx lO 14-16 Rx 100 8-10 Rx lOO 6.5-8.5 RxlO 8-11 .5 Rxl 27-41 Rx100 8-10 1984-89 NOTE 1 Model 200 Serial No. 4403787 and above. NOTE 2 Model 200 Serial No. 4377556 and below. NOTE 3 Trigger Part No. A332-4608A2 cannot be tested with an ohmmeter. MODEL YEAR 2.2 1984-89 3.0 1990 & on MODEL YEAR 2.2 1984-89 3.0 1990 & on MODEL YEAR All 1970-71 Type II Ignition System IGNITION COIL TESTS -TYPE I IGNITION SYSTEM Breaker Points MUST be OPEN when checking coil PRIMARY IGNITION COIL TEST TESTER LEADS TO: Postive test lead to Black/White coil lead. Negative test lead to coil ground SECONDARY IGNITION COIL TEST TESTER LEADS TO: PRIMARY WINDING TEST Postive test lead to Black/White coil lead. Negative test lead to coil ground. SECONDARY WINDING TEST Postive test lead to Spark Plug lead terminal. Negative test lead to coil ground. MODULE TESTS FOR TYPE II IGNITION SYSTEM 1970-85 TESTER LEADS TO: Part of stator (See Stator Checks) OHM SCALE Rx1 OHM SCALE Rx1 Rx100 OHM SCALE SCALE READING 1 .5 SCALE READING .81 -1.09 4.25 -5.75 SCALE READING All 1972-85 Red test lead to Red terminal and Rx1000 Continuity Type II Black test lead to Capacitor terminal Ignition System Red test lead to Capacitor terminal and RxlOOO No Black test lead to Red terminal Continuity Red test lead to Blue terminal and Black test lead to Capacitor terminal Rxl OOO Continuity Red test lead to Capacitor terminal and Black test lead to Blue terminal RxlOOO No THUNDERBOLT IGNITION COIL CHECKS IGNITION TYPE ll, m, AND IV Disconnect Coil (+) and (-) Leads and Secondary Wire Prior To Testing Remove High-Tension Leads from Coil Towers MODEL YEAR TEST TESTER LEADS TO: OHM SCALE SCALE READING 3.5 1983-85 Coil Power Note 1 and 3.6 1980-82 Coil Continuity Note 2 40 1972-75 Primary ( +) and (-) coil terminals. Rxl .01-.02 4.0 1986-Mid'87 1975-79 Secondary Ground (or pigtail if not mounted) RxlOO 1980-85 and coil tower. 90cc 1986-87 Primary (+) and (-) coil terminals Rx1 .02-.38 4.0 Mid'87 & on 5.0 1988 & on Secondary Positive tester lead to either Rx1000 (+) or (-) coil terminals, negative lead to high-tension lead 40 1970-71 Primary (+) and (-) coil terminals. Rxl .3-.35 1970-73 1970-73 Secondary Ground (or pigtail if not mounted) RxlOO 5-6110 200 1970-71 and coil tower. 4 0 (4.0 hp) 1976-80 6.0 1986-87 75 1979-85 Primary (+) and (-) coil terminals. Rxl .02-.04 7.5 1979-85 8.0 1986 & on 110 1974-78 9.8 1979-85 9.9 1986 & on 15 1988 & on 200 1972-78 20 1979-80 Secondary Ground (or pigtail if not mounted) Rx100 9-12 35 1986-89 and coil tower. 402 1972-78 40 (40 hp) 1979-80 210 cc 1986-87 18 1981-83 Primary (+) and (-) coil terminals. Rx1 0 18XD 1984-85 20 1986 & on 25 1980-83 Secondary Between coil tower and either Rx100 8.5-12.0 25 XD 1984-85 (+) or (-) terminal. 25 1986 & on Primary (+) Green wire and ground. RxlOOO 0 400 1970-71 Note 3 Secondary Ground and coil tower. RxlOOO 24-30 Primary (+) Green wire and ground Rxl .01-.015 400 1970-71 Note 4 Secondary Ground and coil tower. RxlOOO 9-10.5 NOTE: See Appendix Page A-23 for special notes called out in this table. SPECIAL NOTE Ignition Coil Test Ohmmeter tests can detect only certain faults in the ignition coils. Replace ignition coil, if ohmmeter readings {listed in the chart) are not as specified. If coil test OK, and coil is still suspected of being faulty, use a Quicksilver MultiMeter/DVA Tester (Part No. 91-99750), or a voltmeter (capable of measuring 400 vbolts DC, or higher), and Quicksilver Direct Voltage Adaptor (91-89045) to thoroughly check the coil. GENERAL NOTES NOTE 1 Obtain a Merc-0-Tronic Magneto Analyser (Model No. 9800). Connect the small Black test lead to the primary coil Black ground wire. Connect the small Red test lead to the primary coil termnal (the stator wire terminal). Connect the single red test lead to the spark plug lead. Turn the Magneto Analyser current control knob to the extreme left beyond the "LO" position. Turn the selector switch to the No . 1 position (Coil Power Test). Turn the second selector switch to "C.D.l. Now, slowly turn the current control knob clockwise until 2.4 amps is reached. Hold the spark plug lead about 1/4" (6 mm) from the ground wire. A steady spark should occur. If the spark is weak, intermittent or no spark occurs at this reading, the coil is defective and MUST be replaced. NOTE 2 Disconnect the Black (stator module) wire from the coil and the high tension lead from the spark plug. Remove the two screws and lift the coil free. Obtain a Mer-0-tronic Magneto Analyser (Model No. 9800). Turn the Magneto Analyser selector switch to the No. 3 position (Coil Continuity). Clip the small Red and Black test leads together. Calibrate the meter to "Set" position. Connect the small black test lead to the Black ground wire of the ignition coil. Connect the small Red test lead to the high tension lead. A reading between 29 and 39 is acceptable. A reading lower than 29 indicates the secondary wiring is shorted. A reading higher than 39 indicates the secondary winding is open. In either case the coil is defective and MUST be replaced. NOTE 3 For coil Part No. A332-407 5A 1 NOTE 4 For coil Part No. A336-4592A2 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS I Cyl. I Cyl. I Cyl. I Cyl. I Cyl. 2 Cyl. I Cyl. 2.2 3.5 3.6 39 IJO IJO 4.0 I984-89 I983-85 1980-82 1969-74 I965-68 197 6-80 1986-Mid'87 3.0 Fastener Loca tion 1990 &: On 4.0 Mid'87 &: On ...0 1988 &: On Bearing carrier nu t N/A 40 ft lbs 40 ft lbs 60ft lbs 60ft lbs 60 It lbs 60 ft lbs 54.3 Nm 54.3 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm Carburetor adaptor plate bolts N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Carburetor mounting locknut N/A 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm Center main bearing lockscrew (3) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Center main bearing reed stop screw N/A 10 in lbs 10 in lbs IOinlbs IOinlbs 10 lbs N/A 1.1 Nm l.I Nm l.I Nm l.I Nm 1.1 Nm Coil terminal nuts N/A N/A N/A 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm Connecting rod nuts N/A 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 6.3 ft lbs 6.3 ft lbs 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 8.5 Nm 8.5 Nm Crankcase to cylinder block 50 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 90 in lbs 99 in lbs 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 6 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 10.1 Nm 11.2 Nm 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm Cylinder block cover 85 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 99 in lbs 99 in lbs 30 in lbs 10 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 11.2 Nm 11.2 Nm 3.4 Nm Exhaust outer cover N/A 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 70 in lbs 88 in lbs 88 in lbs 30 in lbs 9 Nm 9 Nm 7.9 Nm 9.9 Nm 9.9 Nm 3.4 Nm Flywheel to crankshaft 30 ft lbs 35 ft lbs 35 Ft lbs 35 ft lbs 34 ft lbs 19 ft lbs 19 ft lbs 41 Nm 47.6 Nm 47.6 Nm 47.6 Nm 46.2 Nm 25.9 Nm 25.9 Nm Gear housing to driveshaft housing 25 in lbs N/A N/A Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 140 in lbs 3 Nm 15.8 Nm Ignition trigger cover N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Pinion gear nut N/A 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 88 in lbs 88 in lbs 88 in lbs N/A 9 Nm 9 Nm 9.9 Nm 9.9 Nm 9.9 Nm N/A Powerhead to driveshaft housing 50 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 6 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm Propeller nut N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 60 in 1bs 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm Reed block clamping screws N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Spark plugs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 17 It lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 27 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 23 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm Starter motor to crankcase N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Stator mounting screws N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 1 Cyl. 2.2 I Cyl. 1983-8.5 1984-89 I Cyl. 1 Cyl. 1 Cyl. 2 Cyl. I Cyl. 3.6 39 40 40 4.0 I980-82 196.5-68 1969-74 1976-80 1986-Mid'87 3.0 I990 &: On Fastener Location 4.0 Mid'87 &: On .5.0 1988 &: On Support stud nuts N/A 35 in lbs 35 in Jbs N/A N/A N/A N/A lfNm lfNm Swivel bracket to driveshaft 50 in Jbs 60 in Jbs 60 in llbs 60 in Jbs 60 in Jbs 60 in Jbs N/A housing bolts 5.6 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm Transfer port cover screws N/A 25 in lbs 25 in lbs lf5 in Jbs 25 in Jbs 25 in Jbs N/A 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 5 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm Trim tab bolt N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Upper & lower end caps 50 in Jbs 35 in Jbs 35 in Jbs lfO in Jbs 41 in Jbs 41 in Jbs N/A 6 Nm lf Nm If Nm 4.5 Nm lf.6 Nm 4.6 Nm Water pump (plastic) 25 in Jbs 20 in lbs 20 in Jbs 30 in lbs 3-in Jbs 30 in Jbs 20 in Jbs 2.8 Nm 2.3 Nm 2.3 Nm 3.lf Nm 3.lf Nm 3.lf Nm 2.3 Nm Water pump base screws N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20 in lbs N/A 2.3 Nm NOTE I With 5/16" nut, 30 ft Jbs (lfO.J Nm); with 3/8" nut, 55 ft Jbs (74.8 Nm). NOTE 2 With 5/ I 6" nut, 35 ft Jbs (lf7 .6 Nm ); with 3/8" nut, 30 ft Jbs (lfO.J Nm ). NOTE 3 65 in Jbs (7.3 Nm) for Model 6J. NOTE 4 With 5/16-24 screw, 140 in Jbs (15.8 Nm); with 1/lf-20 screw, 100 in lbs (1!.3 Nm); with 5/16-18 screw, 200 in Jbs (22.6 Nm). NOTE .5 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft Jbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 65 ft Jbs (88.4 Nm). NOTE 6 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft Jbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 98 ft Jbs (133.3 Nm). NOTE 7 Upper end cap I 2.5 ft 1bs (17 Nm ); lower end cap 8.3 ft Jbs (11.3 Nm). OTHER TORQUE VALUES The following torque values are for sizes not listed elsewhere. Size Torque Torque Torque Value Value Value Ft Lbs In Lbs Nm 1!6 7 -10 .8 1110 2-3 25 -35 3-4 1112 3-4 35 -45 4-5 1/4" 5-7 60 -80 7-10 5/ 16" 10 -12 120 -140 14 -19 3/8" 18 -20 220 -240 25 -27 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS I Cyi. I Cy1. 2 Cyi. 2 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 45 5 60 6.0 75 7.5 8.0Fastener Location 1975-78 1979-85 1965-68 1986-87 1969-78 1979-85 1986 & On Bearing carrier nut 60 ft Jbs 60 ft Jbs 60 ft lbs 60 ft lbs 60 ft Jbs 60 ft lbs 60 ft lbs 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm Carburetor adaptor plate bolts N/A N/A N/A 60 in lbs N/A N/A 60 in Jbs 6.8 Nm N/A N/A 6.8 Nm Carburetor mounting locknut 80 in lbs 80 in Jbs 80 in Jbs 125 in lbs 80 in lbs 80 in Jbs 125 in lbs 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 14.1 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 14.1 Nm Center main bearing lockscrew (3) N/A N/A 33 in Jbs N/A 42 in lbs 15 ft lbs N/A 3.7 Nm 4.7 Nm 20.4 Nm Center main bearing reed stop screw 10 in lbs 10 in Jbs 22 in Jbs N/A 24 in lbs 24 in lbs N/A l.l Nm l.l Nm 2.5 Nm 2.7 Nm 2.7 Nm Coil terminal nuts 30 in Jbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 35 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in Jbs 35 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.9 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.9 Nm Connecting rod nuts 15 ft Jbs 15 ft Jbs 15 ft Jbs 8.3 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 8.3 ft Jbs 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 11.3 Nm Crankcase to cylinder block 100 in Jbs 100 in lbs 90 in lbs 16.3 ft bs 95 in Jbs 100 in Jbs 16.3 ft lbs 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 10.1 Nm 22.6 Nm 10.7 Nm 11.3 Nm 22.6 Nm Cylinder block cover 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 70 in lbs 60 in lbs 90 in lbs 100 in lbs 60 in lbs 11.3 Nm 11.3Nm 7.9 Nm 6.8 Nm 10.1 Nm 11.3 Nm 6.8 Nm Exhaust outer cover 90 in Jbs 90 in lbs 70 in lbs 60 inlbs 70 in lbs 90 in lbs 60 inlbs 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 7.9 Nm 6.8 Nm 7.9 Nm 10.1 Nm 6.8 Nm Flywheel to crankshaft 35 ft lbs 35 ft lbs 35 ft lbs 50 ft lbs 35 ft lbs 35 ft lb 50 ft lbs 47.5 Nm 47.5 Nm 47.5 Nm 68 Nm 47.5 Nm 47.5 Nm 68 Nm Gear housing to driveshaft housing Note 2 Note 2 Note 2 15 ft Jbs Note 2 Note 2 15 ft lbs 20.4 Nm 20.4 Nm Ignition trigger cover 15 in lbs 15 in lbs N/A 30 in Jbs 15 in lbs 15 in lbs 30 in lbs 1.7 Nm 1.7 Nm 3.4 Nm 1.7 Nm l.7 Nm 3.4 Nm Pinion gear nut 90 in lbs 90 in lbs N/A N/A 90 in lbs 90 in lbs N/A 10.2 Nm 10.2 Nm 10.2 Nm 10.2 Nm Powerhead to driveshaft housing 80 in Jbs 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 10 ft Jbs 80 in Jbs 80 in Jbs lO ft lbs 9 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm 13.6 Nm 9 Nm 9Nm 13.6 Nm Propeller nut N/A N/A N/A 70 in lbs N/A N/A 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 7.9 Nm Reed block clamping screws N/A N/A 30 in lbs 20 in Jbs 45 in lbs 45 in lbs 20 in lbs 3.4 Nm 2.3 Nm 5.1 Nm 5 Nm 2.3 Nm Spark plugs 17 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 23 Nm 23 Nm 23 Nm 27 Nm 23 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm Starter motor to crankcase N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Stator mounting screws N/A 30 in lbs N/A 30 in lbs 30 in Jbs 30 in Jbs 30 in lbs N/A 3.4 Nm N/A 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 2 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 2 Cyl. 1 Cy1. 2 Cy1. 7.5 1 Cy1. 1979-8.5 60 6.0 1.0 1965-68 1986-87 1969-78 1979-8.5 1986 &: On 4.5 Fastener Location 197.5-78 Support stud nuts 40 in lbs 40 in lbs 40 in lbs 60 in lbs 40 in lbs 40 in lbs 60 in !bs 4.5 Nm 4.5 Nm 4.5 nm 6.8 Nm 4.5 Nm 4.5 Nm 6.8 Nm Swivel bracket to driveshaft 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs housing bolts 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 3.9 Nm 3.9 Nm 3.9 Nm 3.9 Nm 3.9 Nm Transfer port cover screws 25 in lbs 25 in lbs Note 3 60 in lbs 45 in lbs 45 in lbs 60 in lbs 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 5.0 Nm 5.0 Nm 6.8 Nm Trim tab bolt N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Upper & lower end caps 41 in lbs 41 in lbs 41 in lbs N/A 41 in lbs 41 in lbs N/A 4.6 Nm 4.6 Nm 4.6 Nm 4.6 Nm 4.6 Nm Water pump (plastic) 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs N/A 30 in lbs 30 in lbs N/A 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm Water pump base screws N/A N/A N/A 40 in lbs N/A N/A 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm 4.5 Nm NOTE 1 With 5/16" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm). NOTE 2 With 5/16" nut, 35 ft lbs (47.6 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm). NOTE 3 65 in lbs (7 .3 Nm) for Model 6J. NOTE 4 With 5/16-24 screw, 140 in lbs (15.8 Nm); with 1/4-20 screw, 100 in lbs (11.3 Nm); with 5/16-18 screw, 200 in lbs (22.6 Nm). NOTE .5 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 65 ft lbs (88.4 Nm). NOTE 6 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 98 ft lbs (133.3 Nm). NOTE 7 Upper end cap 12.5 ft lbs (17 Nm); lower end cap 8.3 ft lbs (1 1.3 Nm). OTHER TORQUE VALUES The following torque values are for sizes not listed elsewhere. Size Torque Torque Torque Value Value Value Ft Lbs In Lbs Nm 116 7-10 .8 11 10 25-35 3-4 1112 35 -'+5 4-5 1/4" 60-80 7-10 5/16" 10-12 120-140 14-19 3/8" 18-20 220-240 25-27 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS Z Cyl. 2 Cyl. IIO 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. Fastener Location 9.8 18 18XD 200 20 1965-78 1979-85 1986 &: On 198 1-83 1984-85 1965-72 1973-80 15.0 1988 &: On 60ft lbs 60 ft lbs 60ft lbs 80ft lbs 80ft lbs 60 ft lbs Bearing carrier nut 100 ft lbs 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm 108.8 Nm 108.8 Nm 81.6 Nm 136 Nm Carburetor adaptor plate bolts N/A N/A 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm N/A N/A Carburetor mounting locknut 80 in lbs 9 Nm 80 in lbs 9 Nm 125 in lbs 180 in lbs 180 in lbs 14.1 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 80 in 1bs 9 Nm 80 in lbs 9 Nm Center main bearing lockscrew (3) 42 in lbs 4.7 Nm 42 in lbs 4.7 Nm N/A N/A N/A 12.5 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 16.9 Nm 20.4 Nm Center main bearing reed stop screw 22 in lbs 2.5 Nm 22 in lbs 2.5 Nm N/A 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm 37 in lbs 4.2 Nm 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm Coil terminal nuts 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 35 in lbs 3.9 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm Connecting rod nuts 15 ft lbs 20.3 Nm 15 ft lbs 20.3 Nm 8.5 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 11.3 Nm 18 Nm 18 Nm 20.3 Nm 15 ft lbs 20.3 Nm Crankcase to cylinder block 95 in lbs 10.7 Nm 95 in lbs 10.7 Nm 16.3 ft lbs 29 ft lbs 22.6 Nm 39.4 Nm 29 ft lbs 39.4 Nm 15.4 ft lbs 20.9 Nm Note 4 Cylinder block cover 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 100 in lbs 11.3 Nm Exhaust outer cover 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 90 in lbs 10.1 Nm 12.5 ft lbs 95 in lbs 16.9 Nm 10.7 Nm Flywheel to crankshaft 35 ft 1bs 47.5 Nm 35 ft lbs 47.5 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 65 ft lbs 88.4 Nm 35 ft lbs 47.5 Nm Gear housing to driveshaft housing Note 2 Note 2 15 ft 1bs 20.4 Nm 25 ft lbs 34 Nm 25 ft lbs 34 Nm Note 1 Note 1 Ignition trigger cover 15 in lbs 1.7 Nm 15 in lbs 1.7 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm N/A N/A N/A N/A Pinion gear nut 90 in lbs 10.2 Nm 90 in lbs 10.2 Nm N/A 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm N/A 9.7 ft lbs 13.2 Nm Powerhead to driveshaft housing 80 in lbs 9 Nm 80 in 1bs 9 Nm 10 ft 1bs 16.7 ft lbs 16.7 ft lbs 12.5 ft lbs 80 in lbs 13.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 16.9 Nm 9 Nm Propeller nut 10 ft lbs 13.6 Nm 10 ft lbs 13.6 Nm 5.8 ft lbs 7.9 Nm 10 ft 1bs 13.6 Nm 10 ft lbs 13.6 Nm 10 ft lbs 13.6 Nm N/A Reed block clamping screws 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm 20 in lbs 2.3 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm N/A N/A Spark plugs 20 ft 1bs 27 Nm 20 ft lbs 27 Nm 20 ft lbs 27 Nm 20 ft lbs 27 Nm 20 ft lbs 27 Nm 17 ft lbs 23 Nm 20 ft lbs 27 Nm Starter motor to crankcase N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Stator mounting screws 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 110 9.8 9.9 18 18XD 200 20Fastener Location 1965-78 1979-85 1986 & On 1981-83 1984-85 1965-72 1973-80 15.0 1988 & On Support stud nuts 40 in lbs 40 in lbs 60 in lbs N/A N/A 80 in lbs 80 in lbs 4.5 Nm 4.5 Nm 6.8 Nm 9 Nm 9 Nm Swivel bracket to driveshaft 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 200 in lbs 200 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs housing bolts 4.0 Nm 4.0 Nm 4.0 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 4.0 Nm 4.0 Nm Transfer port cover screws 45 in lbs 45 in lbs 60 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 5 Nm 5 Nm 6.8 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm Trim tab bolt N/A N/A N/A 100 in lbs lOO in lbs N/A N/A 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm Upper & lower end caps 41 in lbs 41 in lbs N/A N/A N/A 12.5 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 4.6 Nm 4.6 Nm 16.9 Nm 18 Nm Water pump (plastic) 30 in lbs 30 in lbs N/A N/A N/A 40 in lbs 40 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 4.5 Nm 4.5 Nm Water pump base screws N/A N/A 40 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in 1bs N/A 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 4.5 Nm NOTE 1 With 5/16" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm). NOTE 2 With 5/16" nut, 35 ft 1bs (47.6 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm). NOTE 3 65 in lbs (7 .3 Nm) for Model 6J. NOTE 4 With 5/16-24 screw, 140 in 1bs (15.8 Nm); with 1/4-20 screw, 100 in lbs (11.3 Nm); with 5/16-18 screw, 200 in lbs (22.6 Nm). NOTE 5 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/ 16" nut, 65 ft lbs (88.4 Nm). NOTE 6 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 98 ft lbs (133.3 Nm). NOTE 7 Upper end cap 12.5 ft lbs (17 Nm); lower end cap 8.3 ft lbs (1 1.3 Nm). OTHER TORQUE VALUES The following torque values are for sizes not listed elsewhere. Size Torque Torque Torque Value Value Value Ft Lbs In Lbs Nm 7 -10 116 11 10 25-35 11 12 35-45 4- 5 1/4" 60-80 7-10 5/16" 10-12 120-140 14-19 3/8" 18-20 220-240 25-27 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 2 Cyl. 2 Cy1. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cy1. 2 Cyl. 2 Cy1. IJOO 20 25 25 25XD 350 Fastener Location 1986 &: On 1980-83 1986 &: On 1984-85 1965-69 1984-89 1970-71 Bearing carrier nut 80 ft lbs 80 ft lbs 80 ft lbs 80 ft lbs ll 0 ft lbs 100 f t lbs 110 ft 108.8 Nm 108.8 Nm 108.8 Nm 108.8 Nm 150 Nm l36 Nm 150 Nm Carburetor adaptor plate bolts 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs N/A N/A N/A 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm Carburetor mounting locknut 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 12 ft lbs 12 ft lbs 12 ft lbs 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 16.3 Nm 16.3 Nm 16.3 Nm Center main bearing lockscrew (3) N/A N/A N/A N/A 12.5 ft lbs N/A 12.5 ft lbs 16.9 Nm 16.9 Nm Center main bearing reed stop screw 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 37 in lbs 35 in lbs 22 in lbs 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 4.2 Nm 4.0 Nm 2.5 Nm Coil terminal nuts 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm Connecting rod nuts 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 18 Nm 18 Nm 18 Nm 18 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm Crankcase to cylinder block 29 ft lbs 29 ft lbs 29 ft lbs 29 ft lbs 12.5 ft lbs l6.6 ft lbs l7.5 ft lbs 39.4 Nm 39.4 Nm 39.4 Nm 39.4 Nm 16.9 Nm 22.6 Nm 23.7 Nm Cylinder block cover 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 70 in lbs 8.3 ft lbs 70 in lbs 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 7.9 Nm 11.3 Nm 7.9 Nm Exhaust outer cover 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 90 in lbs 12.5 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 12.5 ft lbs 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 10.1 Nm 16.9 Nm 22.6 Nm 16.9 Nm Flywheel to crankshaft 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 50 ft lbs 68 Nm 65 ft lbs 88.4 Nm 70 ft lbs 95 Nm 65 ft lbs 88.4 Nm Gear housing to driveshaft housing 25 ft lbs 25 ft lbs 25 ft lbs 25 ft lbs 65 ft lbs 55 ft lbs Note 5 34 Nm 34 Nm 34 Nm 34 Nm 88.4 Nm 74.6 Nm Ignition trigger cover N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Pinion gear nut 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 11 5 in lbs 115 in lbs 45 ft lbs 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 13 Nm 13 Nm 61.2 Nm Powerhead to driveshaft housing 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 12.5 ft lbs 12.5 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 16.9 Nm 16.9 Nm 20.3 Nm Propeller nut 10 ft lbs 10 ft lbs 10 ft lbs 10 ft lbs N/A N/A N/A ll.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm Reed block clamping screws 30 in lbs 25 in lbs 30 in lbs 25 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 2.8 Nm 3.4 Nm 2.8 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm Spark plugs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 27 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 23 Nm 23 Nm 23 Nm Starter motor to crankcase N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.4 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 85 in lbs 14.1 Nm 18 Nm 9.6 Nm Stator mounting screws 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs N/A 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm N/A 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 20 25 25XD 350 400 1984-85 1965-69 1984-89 1970-7 1 Fastener Location 1986 &: On 1980-83 1986 &: On Support stud nuts N/A N/A N/A N/A 70 in lbs 70 in lbs 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 7.9 Nm 7.9 Nm Swivel bracket to driveshaft N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A housing bolts Transfer port cover screws 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 3.1f Nm 3.1f Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm Trim tab bolt 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 100 in lbs 25 ft lbs 25 ft lbs 25 ft lbs 11.3 Nm 11.3 Nm 11.3Nm 11.3 Nm 33.9 Nm 33.9 Nm 33.9 Nm Upper & lower end caps N/A N/A N/A N/A 12.5 ft lbs Note 7 12.5 ft lbs 16.9 Nm 16.9 Nm Water pump (plastic) N/A N/A N/A N/A 30 in lbs 35 in lbs 35 in lbs 3.4 Nm 4 Nm 4 Nm Water pump base screws 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in lbs N/A N/A N/A 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm NOTE 1 With 5/16" nut, 30 ft lbs (lf0.1 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (71f.8 Nm). NOTE 2 With 5/16" nut, 35 ft lbs (47.6 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm). NOTE 3 65 in lbs (7.3 Nm) for Model 6J. NOTE 4 With 5/16-21f screw, 140 in lbs (15.8 Nm); with 1/4-20 screw, 100 in lbs (11.3 Nm); with 5/16-18 screw, 200 in lbs (22.6 Nm). NOTE 5 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (71f.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 65 ft lbs (88.4 Nm). NOTE 6 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (71f.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 98 ft lbs (133.3 Nm). NOTE 7 Upper end cap 12.5 ft lbs (17 Nm); lower end cap 8.3 ft lbs (11.3 Nm). OTHER TORQUE VALUES The following torque values are for sizes not listed elsewhere. Size Torque Torque Torque Value Value Value Ft Lbs In Lbs Nm 116 7-10 /110 2-3 25 -35 1112 3-4 35 -45 1/4" 5-7 60-80 7-10 5/ 16" 10-12 120-140 14-19 3/8" 18-20 220-240 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 2 Cyl. 1 Cyl. 402 40 40 210cc 90cc Fastener Location 1972-78 1978-80 1981-83 1986-87 1986-87 Bearing carrier nut 110 ft lbs 100 ft lbs 100 ft lbs 60 ft lbs 60 ft lbs 150 Nm 136 Nm 136 Nm 81.6 Nm 81.6 Nm Carburetor adaptor plate bolts M/A N/A N/A 60 in lbs N/A 6.8 Nm Carburetor mounting locknut 11.6 ft lbs 11 .6 ft lbs 11.7 ft lbs 10.4 ft lbs 80 in lbs 15.7 Nm 15.7 Nm 15.9 Nm 14.1 Nm 9 Nm Center main bearing lockscrew (3) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Center main bearing reed stop screw 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 25 in lbs N/A N/A 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm Coil terminal nuts 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 35 in lbs 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm 4 Nm 3.4 Nm Connecting rod nuts 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 8.3 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 11 .3 Nm 20.3 Nm Crankcase to cylinder block 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 100 in lbs 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 11.3 Nm Cylinder block cover 70 in lbs 70 in lbs 8.3 ft lbs 60 in lbs 100 in lbs 7.9 Nm 7.9 Nm 11.3 Nm 6.8 Nm 11.3 Nm Exhaust outer cover 16.6 ft lbs 16.7 ft lbs 16.6 ft lbs 90 in lbs 30 in lbs 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 22.6 Nm 6.8 Nm 10.1 Nm Flywheel to crankshaft 75 ft lbs 75 ft lbs 75 ft lbs 50 ft lbs 35 ft lbs 102 Nm 102 Nm 102 Nm 68 Nm 47.5 Nm Gear housing to driveshaft housing Note 6 55 ft lbs 55 ft lbs 15 ft lbs Note 2 74.6 Nm 74.6 Nm 20.4 Nm Ignition trigger cover N/A N/A N/A 30 in lbs N/A 3.4 Nm Pinion gear nut 70 ft lbs 45 ft lbs 45 ft lbs N/A 90 in lbs 95.2 Nm 61 Nm 61 Nm 10.2 Nm Powerhead to driveshaft housing 15 ft lbs 15 ft lbs 12 ft lbs 10 ft lbs 80 in lbs 20.3 Nm 20.3 Nm 16.9 Nm 13.6 Nm 9 Nm Propeller nut N/A N/A N/A 70 in lbs 60 in lbs 7.9 Nm 6.8 Nm Reed block clamping screws 25 in lbs 25 in lbs 30 in lbs 20 in lbs N/A 2.8 Nm 2.8 Nm 3.4 Nm 2.2 Nm Spark plugs 17 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 20 ft lbs 17 ft lbs 23 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 27 Nm 23 Nm Starter motor to crankcase 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs 13.3 ft lbs N/A N/A 18.1 Nm 18.1 Nm 18.1 Nm Stator mounting screws 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 60 in lbs 30 in lbs 30 in lbs 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 6.8 Nm 3.4 Nm 3.4 Nm TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS Fastener Loca tion 2 Cyl. 402 1972-78 2 Cyl. lfO 1978-80 2 Cyl. lfO 1981-83 2 Cyl. 21 0cc 1986-87 I Cyl. 90cc 1986-87 Support stud nuts 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 70 in lbs 7.9 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm Swivel bracket to driveshaft housing bolts N/A N/A N/A 35 in lbs 3.9 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm Transfer port cover screws 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 60 in lbs 6.8 Nm 25 in lbs 2.8 Nm Trim tab bolt Upper & lower end caps 25 ft lbs 34 Nm 13.3 ft lbs 18 Nm 25 ft lbs 34 Nm Note 7 25 ft lbs 34 Nm Note 7 N/A N/A N/A 41 in lbs 4.6 Nm Water pump (plastic) 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm N/A 30 in lbs 3.4 Nm Water pump base screws 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm 40 in lbs 4.5 Nm N/A NOTE 1 With 5/16" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 55 ft 1bs (74.8 Nm). NOTE 2 With 5/16" nut, 35 ft lbs (47.6 Nm); with 3/8" nut, 30 ft lbs (40.1 Nm). NOTE 3 65 in lbs (7.3 Nm) for Model 6J. NOTE 4 With 5/16-24 screw, 140 in lbs (15.8 Nm); with 1/4-20 screw, 100 in lbs (11.3 Nm); with 5/16-18 screw, 200 in lbs (22.6 Nm). NOTE 5 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 65 ft lbs (88.4 Nm). NOTE 6 With 3/8" nut, 55 ft lbs (74.8 Nm); with 7/16" nut, 98 ft lbs (133.3 Nm). NOTE 7 Upper end cap 12.5 ft lbs (17 Nm); lower end cap 8.3 ft lbs (11.3 Nm). OTHER TORQUE VALUES The following torque values are for sizes not listed elsewhere. Size Torque Torque Torque Value Value Value Ft Lbs In Lbs Nm 7-10 .8 1110 2-3 25-35 3-4 /112 3 -q. 35 -4-5 4-5 1/ 4-" 5-7 60-80 7-10 5/ 16" 10-12 120-14-0 14-19 3/8" 18-20 220 -24-0 25-27 116 STARTER SOLENOID Yellow __:_I:_:_NT-'-=ER'-'-N'-'-A:....:=L_.:..:H:.:_A.:.:_R.:.:_N:c:E::.=S=-S._ Gray MAGNETO CHOKE SOLENOID Gray Model 350 Electric Start 1965-1969. > .. ..0 CHOKE SWITCH "' '= "0"' ....,?i ..VI > w.. CHOKE SOLENOID TRIGGER MAGNETS i ., PLUGS z. m 0.. 0..I ..'01 -.; S2z X STARTING MOTOR 0.. ('i)Q.. .. -0 I L " _ MERCURY 0 _ 0 SWITCH t_):j ...... ro n .-;. "':I <=_; REMOTE CONTROL .-;.(/) .-;."':I Q ...... .. 0.. I .... .. c ...... 0.. -" ' 0E . TACH CONN ECTOR EXTERNAL HARNESS VIEW OF TERMINALS ENGINE HARNESS THROUGH BACK OF PLUG [g..[Q]a Terminal "A" Red "E" Salmon "B" -Yellow "F" -White "C" .. Gray "G" .. Brown 12-VOL T BATTERY "D" Black c: c: c: 0., ., E ., .,_... ... co(!)(.?(1) STARTER MOTOR STARTER SOLENOID Black ------------- ,g -BfOWl\3 --=---..mon !Q :::::::--STATOR ASSEMBLY / --::::::-See "NOTE" White Green Brown Green Ground at Crankcase CHOKE SOLENOID Black Red 12-VOLT BATTERY o.. ....[Q] o Gray Black ' , Yellow Red male (Back View) CONNEC AS EXTERNAL HARNESS STOP SWITCH KEY SWITCH Position 1 : "Off" Position 2: "Run" G-M Position 3: "Start" B-5 NOTE: When Electric Start Kit Is Installed, Cut Salmon Lood (Stop Switch End) Sufficient Length to Rooch Terminal Block Screw. Install Neoprene Sleeve, Crimp and Solder No. 10 Terminal to Cut End and Pull. Sleeve over Crimped Portion of Terminal. Terminal, Sleeve, Terminal Block and Screws Are Provided in Parts Bag. Remove Remaining Components of Stop Switch. C) z =i0 z - C)z )> w ...., CHOKE BUTTON (G-M) s:: Q.0 .. ...... cc I"+ .,..... .(")C/l I"+ Q ., I"+ ...... N0. 1 COIL (X)w (!) E Q.0 .. .. ..0 .. tt::1 ...... (') ,..,. :.:!.(') Cll ,..,. Q , ,..,. I I ...... 'I.. ..I ...... 'I.. CHOKE SOLENOID Red Red Black EXTERNAL HARNESS View of Terminals thru Back of Plug: "A" -Red/Red "B" Yellow "C" -Gray "D" -Black/Black "E" -Salmon "F" -White "G" -Brown .='NGINE HARNESS zgX TILT STC > SWITCH TRIGGER ' PLATE "J" Clip (Under REMOTE Rubber Mount Nut) CONTROL KEY SWITCH "Off" -D-E "Run" -A-F "Start" -A-F-B NEUTRAL START INTERLOCK SWITCH TACHOMETER CONNECTOR 12-VOLT BATTE RY IGNITION WIRING A-39 REMOTE CONTROL with SHIFT and THROTTLE FLYWHEEL NO TE: When Electric Starter Kit Is Installed, Disconnect Stop Switch Orange Lead from Terminal Block. Install Neoprene Sleeve over End of Lead and Connect Lead to Short Orange Lead in Engine Harness, Using Screw and Nut Provided. Slide Neoprene Sleeve over Connection. Remove Boot from Orange Lead in Harness and Connect to Terminal Block. SWITCH SWITCH Model 200 Electric Start --197 3-197 5. TENSION STATOR (IGNITION) SPARK PLUG CABLE TRIGGER TENSION PLUG CABLE CYL. N0. 2 IGNITIONCYL. NO. 1 c:"' COI L o.c: SWITCH BOX Alternator Wiring Orange STATOR (LIGHTING) Black.. STOP SWITCH I --'7 VOLTAGE Yellow-Red.. LIGHTING HARNESS I Model 200 with Alternator --1973-1978. STATOR .. STARTER MOTOR CHOKE STARTER SOLENOID m SOLENOID Yellow Yellow- 12-VOLT BATTERY c -RedQ..(t)....1:\.:) cc RECTI FIER >o(";)(t) .. CABLE CJl! .-;. ""i....... / / Red White CABLE (";) / .-;. .-;. {/) ""i Q / / / l l NEUTRAL START SWITCH ALTERNATE KEY 1-.1.(0 ""' SWITCH SWITCH EXTERNAL SHIFT andTHROTTLE 0,)..l IGNITION STATOR ; STATOR a:: REMOTE CONTROL with " " c Q..(t)....1:\.:) c ....._ 1:\.:) c .g 1-.1.(0 ""' (0 I 1-.1. 00.. c . '\. 12-VOL T BATTERY HIGH TENSION CABLE " -u rl'lllllilll.i " " CYL. N0. 2.. ..!!:! a: ..... "\ m o.c HIGH TENSION CABLE , ass:11 ' 0 c.. m3: c..j!:le:.c YY IGNITION COIL (2 Require) EXTERNAL WIRING HARNESS d (0 0 REMOTE CONTROL with KEY CHOKE SWITCH andCHOKE PANEL SWITCH SWITCH SWITCH BOX IGNITION WIRING A-41 STATOR TRIGGER CYL. NO. 1 CYL. NO. 2 HIGH TENSION CABLE HIGH TENSION CABLE IGNITION IGNITION COIL Brown Biack.. ON MODEL 40 (2-CYL.) 1978-80 THIS WIRE IS WHITE SWITCH BOX STOP Model 75 and Model 110 Manual Start --1975; Model 40 Manual Start --1976-1980. HIGH TENSION l Yellow TRIGGER f] f] + COIL 0 (.) <.!) COIL .. <.!) HIGH TENSION 0: LEAD i IGNITION < J: (.) CYL. Yellow COIL I STATOR (LIGHTING) I.. I J "0"0 ., ., 11 Alternator .. .. Wiring VOLTAGE Red--< l f I I _r< Green-White c: 5 '-l .. r. Black--:J,. -r STOP SWITCH Model 75 and Model 110 Manual Start with Alternator --1976-1978; Model 7.5 and Model 9.8 with Alternator --1979-1985. + HIGH TENSION . LIGHTING WINDING CYLCOIL -=--I (,) (!;)2 (!;) a: -g-g 3: 3: LEAD <( J: (,) 0 .2.2a; a; >> NO. 1 a:0(,) a. Yellow RECTIFIER COIL a: (,)<( ...1 J_ J_ Ill il:,.. STARTER STARTE R SWITCH Brown---((:--Brown Brown--"'oo,.., "o I r.. a: IGNITION WIRING A-47 ci2 ..J0(.) M0113A-N33ti.. 0::0 ....<(....(/)0::0 ....<(20:: w......J<( 0::0 ....<(....(/)20;:: Q..\"' 0::w<.:)<.:) M0113AM0113A AlfijG >0:: w .... ....<( al Model 18 Electric Start 1981-1983; Model 18XD Electric -1984-1985; Model 25 Electric -1980-1983; Model 25XD Electric --1984-1985; Model 6.0, 8.0, 9.9, 15, 20, 25, 210cc, Electric --1986 and On. All models listed equipped with tiller handle, ignition key/choke panel and remote control. IGNITION STATOR SWITCH BOX UJ >..I SPARK PLUG #2 SPARK PLUG IGNITION COILS SHUT-OFF. STOP SWITCH MAY BE L-------------, LEFT IN PLACE CONNECT AT SWITCH BOX FOR REMOTE /-<<':--BLK-YEL .j__v_,'v ' ', ,, e---. :.:...JIIlrh BLK REMOTE STOP SWITCH MERCURY SWITCH BLK -Black BRN -Brown is::8.(C ...... <:J1w is:: ..Q ...... ...... Q:). .t.. I Q:). is:: Q.c (C ...... .t.. <::::> is::Q ...... ...... Q:) 00 .. .. w . cot m S2z X YEL -Yellow REMOTE CONTROL WHT -White GRN -Green 12 V. BATTERY ALTERNATOR TRIGGER is: START !::.. <:oOo I 5. Q s: Q. . RED -Red PPL -Purple .1:-\.0 > GRY -Gray FLYWHEEL ROTATION IGNITION COIL KILL TERMINAL J 1 for the Model 3.5 -1983-85 and the Model 3.6 --1980-82. Black Simplified diagram of the Type III ignition system ... Blue BREAKER PRIMARY COIL POINTS STOP SWITCH CONDENSER Black SECONDARY COIL Black/White Model 3.0 -1990 and on. REMOTE CONTROL WIRING A-5 1 w--' 02" J:--' 0a: ....20u // "o ' / !tlJ"..\ / T_, . Commander Remote Control.