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Workshop Manual Fuel and lubrication system B 2(0) 31, 32, 41, 42, 43, 44, 300-Series Group 22 Lubrication system Group 23 Fuel system Marine engines MD31A • TMD31B, D, L-A TAMD31B, D, S.O.L.A.S, L-A, M-A, P-A, S-A AD31B, D, L-A, P-A • KAD32P TMD41B, D, L-A TAMD41B, D, S.O.L.A.S, L-A, M-A, P-A, H-A, H-B D41B, D, L-A • AD41B, D, L-A, P-A TAMD42AWJ, BWJ, WJ KAMD42A, B, P • KAD42A, B, P KAMD43P • KAD43P KAMD44P-A, P-B, P-C • KAD44P-A, P-B, P-C KAMD300-A • KAD300-A Contents Safety information ............................................... 2 Group 23 Fuel system General information ............................................ 5 Design and function ............................................ 24 Repair instruction ............................................... 6 General .............................................................. 24 Special tools ....................................................... 9 EDC system ...................................................... 24 Other special equipment .................................... 9 Injection pump ................................................... 25 Group 22 Lubrication system Overflow valve ................................................... 25 Smoke limiter ..................................................... 26 Design and function ............................................ 10 Injector............................................................... 27 General .............................................................. 10 2-spring injector ................................................. 27 Control valves .................................................... 11 Safety valve....................................................... 11 2-spring injector with needle lift sensor............... 28 Relief valve........................................................ 11 Feed pump......................................................... 29 Piston cooling valve ........................................... 11 Fuel filter ............................................................ 29 Piston cooling .................................................... 12 Return fuel cooler ............................................... 29 Oil pump ............................................................ 12 Repair instructions .............................................. 30 Oil cooler ........................................................... 12 Removing fuel injection pump ............................ 30 Oil filter .............................................................. 13 Installing and setting up fuel injection pump ....... 32 Crankcase ventilation......................................... 13 Fault-tracing fuel valve....................................... 34 Repair Instructions .............................................. 14 Setting up idling speed ....................................... 35 General .............................................................. 14 Replacing feed pump ......................................... 36 Engine fixture attachment .................................. 15 Fuel feed pressure, check (31/32/41/42/43) ....... 36 Checking oil pressure ......................................... 16 Checking Fuel supply pressure (44/300) ............ 37 Replacing oil filter............................................... 16 Replacing injector (31/32/41/42/43) .................... 39 Replacing oil pan gasket.................................... 17 Replacing injector (44/300)................................. 40 Replacing lubrication pump ................................ 17 Needle lift sensor, checking ............................... 42 Reconditioning oil pump ..................................... 19 Reconditioning injectors ..................................... 43 Reconditioning oil cooler (early version) ............. 22 Cleaning copper sleeve ...................................... 43 Reconditioning oil cooler (late version) ............... 23 Recommendations when adjusting Oil cooler, test pressurization............................. 23 opening pressure, set pressure and replacing injectors .............................................. 44 Adjusting opening pressure ................................ 45 Replacing fuel filter ............................................ 46 Bleeding the fuel system.................................... 46 Safety Information Introduction This Workshop Manual contains technical data, descriptions and repair instructions for Volvo Penta products or product versions contained in the contents list. Ensure that the correct workshop literature is being used. Read the safety information and the Workshop Manual “General Information” and “Repair Instructions” carefully before starting work. Important In this book and on the engine you will find the following special warning symbols. WARNING! If these instructions are not followed there is a danger of personal injury, extensive damage to the product or serious mechanical malfunction. IMPORTANT! Used to draw your attention to something that can cause damage, product malfunction or damage to property. NOTE! Used to draw your attention to important information that will facilitate work or operations. Below is a summary of the risks and safety precautions you should always observe or carry out when operating or servicing the engine. Immobilize the engine by turning off the power supply to the engine at the main switch (switches) and lock it (them) in the OFF position before starting work. Set up a warning notice at the engine control point or helm. Generally, all servicing should be carried out with the engine switched off. However, some work, for example certain adjustments require that the engine is running when they are carried out. Approaching a running engine is dangerous. Loose clothing or long hair can fasten in rotating parts and cause serious personal injury. If working in proximity to a running engine, careless movements or a dropped tool can result in personal injury. Avoid burns. Take precautions to avoid hot surfaces (exhausts, turbochargers, charge air pipes and starter elements etc.) and liquids in supply lines and hoses when the engine is running or has been turned off immediately prior to starting work on it. Reinstall all protective parts removed during service operations before starting the engine. Check that the warning or information decals on the product are always clearly visible. Replace decals that have been damaged or painted over. Never start the engine without installing the air cleaner (ACL). The rotating compressor in the turbocharger can cause serious personal injury. Foreign objects entering the intake ducts can also cause mechanical damage. Never use start spray or similar to start the engine. The starter element may cause an explosion in the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury. Avoid opening the coolant filling cap when the engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant can spray out at the same time as the pressure which has built up is lost. Open the filler cap slowly, and release the pressure in the cooling system if the filling cap or tap has to be opened, or if a plug or coolant hose has to be removed when the engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant can stream out in an unexpected direction. Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid skin contact with hot oil. Ensure that the lubrication system is not under pressure before commencing work on it. Never start or operate the engine with the oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be ejected. Stop the engine and close the sea cock before carrying out operations on the engine cooling system. Start the engine only in a well-ventilated area. If operating the engine in an enclosed space, ensure that exhaust gases and crankcase ventilation emissions are ventilated out of the working area. Always use protective goggles where there is a danger of pieces of metal, sparks from grinding, acid or other chemicals being thrown into your eyes. Your eyes are very sensitive, injury can lead to loss of sight! Avoid skin contact with oil. Long-term or repeated contact with oil can remove the natural oils from your skin. The result can be irritation, dry skin, eczema and other skin problems. Used oil is more dangerous to health than new oil. Use protective gloves and avoid using oil- soaked clothes and rags. Wash regularly, especially before meals. Use the correct barrier cream to prevent dry skin and to make cleaning your skin easier. Most chemicals used in products (engine and transmission oils, glycol, petrol and diesel oil) and workshop chemicals (solvents and paints) are hazardous to health Read the instructions on the product packaging carefully! Always follow safety instructions (using breathing apparatus, protective goggles and gloves for example). Ensure that other personnel are not unwittingly exposed to hazardous substances (by breathing them in for example). Ensure that ventilation is good. Handle used and excess chemicals according to instructions. Be extremely careful when tracing leaks in the fuel system and testing fuel injection nozzles. Use protective goggles! The jet ejected from a fuel injection nozzle is under very high pressure, it can penetrate body tissue and cause serious injury There is a danger of blood poisoning. All fuels and many chemicals are inflammable. Ensure that a naked flame or sparks cannot ignite fuel or chemicals. Combined with air in certain ratios, petrol, some solvents and hydrogen from batteries are easily inflammable and explosive. Smoking is prohibited! Ensure that ventilation is good and that the necessary safety precautions have been taken before carrying out welding or grinding work. Always have a fire extinguisher to hand in the workplace. Store oil and fuel-soaked rags and fuel and oil filters safely. In certain conditions oil-soaked rags can spontaneously ignite. Used fuel and oil filters are environmentally dangerous waste and must be deposited at an approved site for destruction together with used lubricating oil, contaminated fuel, paint remnants, solvent, de- greasing agents and waste from washing parts. Never allow a naked flame or electric sparks near the batteries. Never smoke in proximity to the batteries. The batteries give off hydrogen gas during charging which when mixed with air can form an explosive gas - oxyhydrogen. This gas is easily ignited and highly volatile. Incorrect connection of the battery can cause a spark which is sufficient to cause an explosion with resulting damage. Do not disturb battery connections when starting the engine (spark risk) and do not lean over batteries. Never mix up the positive and negative battery terminals when installing. Incorrect installation can result in serious damage to electrical equipment. Refer to wiring diagrams. Always use protective goggles when charging and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte contains extremely corrosive sulfuric acid. If this comes into contact with the skin, wash immediately with soap and plenty of water. If battery acid comes into contact with the eyes, immediately flush with copious amounts of water and obtain medical assistance. Turn off the engine and turn off power at main switch(es) before carrying out work on the electrical system. The clutch must be adjusted with the engine shut off. Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine/reverse gear when lifting the drive unit. Always check that lifting equipment is in good condition and has sufficient load capacity to lift the engine (engine weight including reverse gear and any extra equipment installed). Use an adjustable lifting beam or lifting beam specifically for the engine to raise the engine to ensure safe handling and to avoid damaging engine parts installed on the top of the engine. All chains and cables should run parallel to each other and as perpendicular as possible in relation to the top of the engine. If extra equipment is installed on the engine altering its center of gravity, a special lifting device is required to achieve the correct balance for safe handling. Never carry out work on an engine suspended on a hoist. Never remove heavy components alone, even where secure lifting equipment such as secured blocks are being used. Even where lifting equipment is being used it is best to carry out the work with two people; one to operate the lifting equipment and the other to ensure that components are not trapped and damaged when being lifted. When working on-board ensure that there is sufficient space to remove components without danger of injury or damage. Components in the electrical system and fuel system on Volvo Penta products are designed and constructed to minimize the risk of fire and explosion. The engine must not be run in areas where there are explosive materials. Fuel delivery pipes must not be bent or straightened under any circumstances. Damaged pipes must be replaced. Remember the following when washing with a high pressure washer: Never aim the water jet at seals, rubber hoses or electrical components. Never use a high pressure washer for engine cleaning. Always use fuels recommended by Volvo Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. The use of other grades of fuel can damage the engine. On a diesel engine poor quality fuel can cause the control rod to seize and the engine to overrev with the resulting risk of damage to the engine and personal injury. Poor fuel quality can also lead to higher maintenance costs. © 2001 AB VOLVO PENTA We reserve the right to make design changes and amendments without prior notice. Printed on environmentally compatible paper. General Information About the workshop manual This workshop manual contains technical data, descriptions and repair instructions for standard versions of the engine units in the 31/32/41/42/43/44/300 series. The workshop manual displays the operations carried out on any of the engines above. As a result, the illustrations and pictures in the manual that show certain parts on the engines, do not in some cases apply to all the engines listed above. However, the repair and service operations described are the same in all essential details. Where they are not the same, this is stated in the manual. Where the difference is considerable, the operations are described separately. The engine designation and number is indicted on the engine identification plate. The engine designation and number should be given in all correspondence about the engine. This Workshop Manual has been developed primarily for Volvo Penta service workshops and qualified personnel. Persons using this book are assumed to have a grounding in marine drive systems and be able to carry out related mechanical and electrical work. Volvo Penta is continuously developing their products. We therefore reserve the right to make changes. All the information contained in this book is based on product data available at the time of going to print. Any essential changes or modifications introduced into production or updated or revised service methods introduced after the date of publication will be provided in the form of Service Bulletins. Replacement parts Replacement parts for the electrical and fuel systems are subject to statutory requirements (US Coast Guard Safety Regulations for example). Volvo Penta Genuine parts meet these requirements. Any type of damage which results from the use of non- original Volvo Penta replacement parts for the product will not be covered under any warranty provided by Volvo Penta. Certificated engines When service or repairs are done to an emission certified engine, it is important to be aware of the following: Certification means that an engine type has been checked and approved by the relevant authority. The engine manufacturer guarantees that all engines made of the same type are equivalent to the certified engine. This put special demands on service and repair work, as follows: • Maintenance and service intervals recommended by Volvo Penta must be complied with. • Only Volvo Penta original spares may be used. • Service to injection pumps, pump settings and injectors must always be done by an authorized Volvo Penta workshop. • The engine must not be converted or modified, except for the accessories and service kits which Volvo Penta has approved for the engine. • No installation changes to the exhaust pipe and engine air inlet ducts may be done. • No seals may be broken by unauthorized personnel. The general advice in the instruction book about operation, care and maintenance apply. IMPORTANT! Delayed or inferior care/maintenance, and the use of non-original spares, mean that AB Volvo Penta can no longer be responsible for guaranteeing that the engine complies with the certified version. Damage, injury and/or costs which arise from this will not be compensated by Volvo Penta. Repair Instructions The working methods described in the Service Manual Joint responsibility apply to work carried out in a workshop. The engine has been removed from the boat and is installed in an engine fixture. Unless otherwise stated reconditioning work which can be carried out with the engine in place follows the same working method. Warning symbols occurring in the Workshop Manual (for their meaning see Safety information) WARNING! IMPORTANT! NOTE! are not in any way comprehensive since it is impossible to predict every circumstance under which service work or repairs may be carried out. For this reason we can only highlight the risks that can arise when work is carried out incorrectly in a well-equipped workshop using working methods and tools developed by us. All procedures for which there are Volvo Penta special tools in this Workshop Manual are carried out using these. Special tools are developed to rationalize working methods and make procedures as safe as possible. It is therefore the responsibility of any person using tools or working methods other than the ones recommended by us to ensure that there is no danger of injury, damage or malfunction resulting from these. In some cases there may be special safety precautions and instructions for the use of tools and chemicals contained in this Workshop Manual. These special instructions should always be followed if there are no separate instructions in the Workshop Manual. Certain elementary precautions and common sense can prevent most risks arising. A clean workplace and engine eliminates much of the danger of injury and malfunction. It is of the greatest importance that no dirt or foreign particles get into the fuel system, lubrication system, intake system, turbocharger, bearings and seals when they are being worked on. The result can be malfunction or a shorter operational life. Each engine consists of many connected systems and components. If a component deviates from its technical specification the environmental impact of an otherwise good engine may be increased significantly. It is therefore vital that wear tolerances are maintained, that systems that can be adjusted are adjusted properly and that Volvo Penta Genuine Parts as used. The engine Maintenance Schedule must be followed. Some systems, such as the components in the fuel system, require special expertise and special testing equipment for service and maintenance. Some components are sealed at the factory for environmental reasons. No work should be carried out on sealed components except by authorized personnel. Bear in mind that most chemicals used on boats are harmful to the environment if used incorrectly. Volvo Penta recommends the use of biodegradable degreasing agents for cleaning engine components, unless otherwise stated in a workshop manual. Take special care when working on-board, that oil and waste is taken for destruction and is not accidentally pumped into the environment with bilge water. Tightening Torques Tightening torques for vital joints that must be tightened with a torque wrench are listed in “Specifications”: “Tightening torques” and contained in the work descriptions in the Manual. All torques apply for cleaned threads, screw heads and mating surfaces. Torques apply for lightly oiled or dry threads. If lubricants, locking fluid or sealing compound are required for a screwed joint this information will be contained in the work description and in “Tightening Torques” Where no tightening torque is stated for a joint use the general tightening torques according to the tables below. The tightening torques stated are a guide and the joint does not have to be tightened using a torque wrench. Dimension Tightening Torques Nm lbt.ft M5 64,4 M6 10 7,4 M8 25 18,4 M10 50 36,9 M12 80 59,0 M14 140 103,3 Tightening torque with Protractor tightening (angle tightening) Tightening using both a torque setting and a protractor angle requires that first the recommended torque is applied using a torque wrench and then the recommended angle is added according to the protractor scale. Example: a 90° protractor tightening means that the joint is tightened a further 1/4 turn in one operation after the stated tightening torque has been applied. Lock nuts Do not re-use lock nuts that have been removed during dismantling as they have reduced service life when re-used - use new nuts when assembling or reinstalling. For lock nuts with a plastic insert such as Nylock ® the tightening torque stated in the table is reduced if the Nylock® nut has the same head height as a standard hexagonal nut without plastic insert. Reduce the tightening torque by 25% for bolt size 8 mm or larger. Where Nylock® nuts are higher, or of the same height as a standard hexagonal nut, the tightening torques given in the table apply. Strength classes Screws and nuts are divided into different strength classes, the class is indicated by the number on the bolt head. A high number indicates stronger material, for example a bolt marked 10-9 indicates a higher strength than one marked 8-8. It is therefore important that bolts removed during the disassembly of a bolted joint must be reinstalled in their original position when assembling the joint. If a bolt must be replaced check in the replacement parts catalogue to make sure the correct bolt is used. Sealant A number of sealants and locking liquids are used on the engines. The agents have varying properties and are used for different types of jointing strengths, operating temperature ranges, resistance to oil and other chemicals and for the different materials and gap sizes in the engines. To ensure service work is correctly carried out it is important that the correct sealant and locking fluid type is used on the joint where the agents are required. In this Volvo Penta Service Manual the user will find that each section where these agents are applied in production states which type was used on the engine. During service operations use the same agent or an alternative from a different manufacturer. Make sure that mating surfaces are dry and free from oil, grease, paint and anti-corrosion agent before applying sealant or locking fluid. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use regarding; temperature range, curing time and any other instructions for the product. Tow different basic types of agent are used on the engine and these are: RTV agent (Room temperature vulcanizing). Use for gaskets, sealing gasket joints or coating gaskets. RTV agent is clearly visible when a component has been dismantled; old RTV must be removed before the joint is resealed. The following RTV agents are mentioned in the Service Manual: Loctite® 574, Volvo Penta 840879-1, Permatex ® No. 3, Volvo Penta P/N 1161099-5, Permatex® No. 77. Old sealant can be removed using denatured alcohol in all cases. Anaerobic agents. These agents cure in an absence of air. They are used when two solid parts, for example cast components, are installed face-to-face without a gasket. They are also commonly used to secure plugs, threads in stud bolts, cocks, oil pressure switches and so on. The cured material is glass-like and it is therefore colored to make it visible. Cured anaerobic agents are extremely resistant to solvents and the old agent cannot be removed. When reinstalling the part is carefully degreased and then new sealant is applied. The following anaerobic agents are mentioned in the Service Manual: Loctite® 572 (white), Loctite® 241 (blue). NOTE! Loctite® is the registered trademark of Loctite Corporation, Permatex® is the registered trademark of the Permatex Corporation. Safety precautions for Fluorine rubber Fluorine rubber is a common material in sealing rings for shafts and O rings. When fluorine rubber is exposed to high temperatures (over 300°C) it can release highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Exposing the skin to this chemical can cause serious burns. If splashed in the eyes it can cause malignant ulcers. Breathing the fumes can damage the respiratory tract. WARNING! Take the greatest care when working on engines that have been operating at high temperatures, for example an overheated engine that has seized or an engine involved in a fire. The seals must never be burned off when disassembling or be burnt afterwards in anything other than a special disposal site. • Always used chloroprene rubber gloves (gloves for handling chemicals) and protective goggles. • Treat removed seals in the same way as corrosive acid. All remains, even the ash can be extremely corrosive. Never use compressed air jets for blowing clean. • Put old seal remnants in a plastic container, close it and stick a warning label on it. Wash gloves under running water before removal. The following seals may contain fluorine rubber: Crankshaft, camshaft and intermediate shaft seals O rings, wherever used. O rings for cylinder liner sealing are almost always fluorine rubber. Note that seals not exposed to high temperatures can be handled normally. Special tools In all cases where it is practical the tool number, except for the final digit, has been stamped on the tool, The final digit (after the hyphen) is a control number. 884 635 884 895 885 131 885 139 885 199 999 6860885 263 885 289 885 301 999 6033 884 635-4 Removal punch for oil cooler insert 885 263-4 Injector sleeve extractor (44, 300) 884 895-4 885 131-3 885 139-6 885 199-0 Lock pin for flywheel, pump setting Puller for dismantling injector nozzle (31, 32, 41, 42, 43) Holder for injector angle dial gauge (41, 42, 43, 44, 300) Holder for dial gauge (31, 32) 885 289-9 885 301-2 999 6033-8 Brush for cleaning bottom of copper sleeve and for sealing sleeve between copper sleeve and cylinder head Tool for pressing in Alfa reset piston (44P-A) Bracket for test pressurization of oil cooler (2) Other special equipment 999 6662 884 954 998 6485 999 6065 999 6398 999 6591 999 6666 999 9179 999 9946 884 954-9 Dial indicator 998 6485-2 Unit stand 999 6065-0 Manometer, for checking fuel supply pressure and boost pressure 999 6398-5 Manometer, for checking oil pressure 999 6591-5 Nipple for checking oil pressure 999 6662-4 999 6666-5 999 6860-4 999 9179-6 999 9946-8 Test pressurization equipment Nipple for checking fuel supply pressure Puller for oil pump drive Tool for removing fuel and oil filter. Cylinder block fixture Group 22 Lubrication system Design and function General The engines are equipped with a pressurized lubrication system with a full flow oil filter, oil cooler and piston cooling (not MD31A). On engines with the early version of the oil distribution housing the oil for piston cooling does not flow through the filter. Late versions of the oil distribution housing can be found on engines from the following engine numbers inclusive: 31: 22031 28265, 32: 22032 01697, 41: 22041 56849, 42: 22042 16337, 43: 22043 02142, 44: 22044 02895, 300: from start of production. The oil pump is located at the front end of the oil sump and driven via an intermediate gear by the crankshaft. The oil pump sucks up oil from the oil sump through the oil screen (1). All oil flows from the from the oil pump pressure side via oil filter (10) through oil cooler (4) and out into the main lubrication channel. All bearings and gudgeon pins as well as the valve mechanism and timing gear bearings are pressure lubricated. The turbocharger is also connected into the pressure lubrication system. Timing gears are lubricated from the intermediate gear bearing journal which is connected to the main lubrication channel via lubrication channels. Basic diagram, lubrication system (oil distribution housing, Basic diagram, lubrication system (oil distribution housing, early version) late version) 1. Oil screen 2 Oil pump 3. Safety valve 4 Oil cooler 5. Oil distribution housing 6 Relief valve 7 Piston cooling valve 8 Main lubrication channel, piston cooling 9. Piston cooling nozzle 10 Oil filter 11 Main lubrication channel, lubrication 12 Main bearings 13 Other lubrication points Control valves Three spring-loaded valves control the oil flow in the engine. Two of these (6 and 7) are located in the oil distribution housing, the third (3) is mounted between the oil pump and delivery line. Safety valve The relief valve (3) acts to protect the pump and oil cooler in case of abnormally high oil pressures. The valve opens if the oil pressure is too high and releases oil back to the oil pan. Opening pressure may be achieved when the engine is cold (viscous oil) or at high engine speeds (RPM). Opening pressure 750 kPa. Reduction valve Relief valve (6) controls oil pressure in the engine. The valve keeps oil pressure at the correct level. Excess oil is directed back to the oil pan. Piston cooling valve The piston cooling valve (7) regulates the flow of oil to piston cooling. The valve is closed at oil pressures below 2.5 kPa. When the engine is started and idled the valve is closed. This stops the pistons being cooled unnecessarily. Valve location in the oil distribution housing 6 Reduction valve 7 Piston cooling valve Piston cooling The pistons are subject to very high temperatures. Most of the heat from the pistons is transferred to the cylinder block via the piston rings and film of lubricating oil. Some heat is transferred to the crankcase via the connecting rods. To further increase the cooling effect oil is sprayed into the piston from below. This decreases piston temperature significantly. This achieves longer piston, piston ring and piston lining service life, reduces the risk of the piston ring grooves sooting up and reduces oil consumption. Piston cooling oil is sprayed through fixed nozzles, one for each cylinder, into a channel on the underside of the piston. The oil is led through the channel to the top of the piston. When it has circulated through the piston the oil passes through drain channels and down to the oil pan. Oil pump The oil pump is of the gear-wheel type. The pump sucks oil through the oil screen and suction pipe to the pump suction side. The oil screen, integrated with the suction pipe, removes large particles from the oil before they reach the pump. Oil cooler Circulating lubricating oil transports heat away from the hottest parts of the engine and evens out temperature differences within the engine. Heat is removed from the lubricating oil in the oil cooler. All engines have a tubular oil cooler located on the right-hand side of the engine under the heat exchanger. Oil circulates between the tubes while seawater passes through the tubes. Oil filter The engine oil filter is of full flow type, which means that all the oil is filtered before it enters the lubrication system. On engines with early model oil distribution housings (please refer to the “General” chapter), the oil for piston cooling does not pass the filter, however. The filter element is made of folded filter paper. The oil filter has a built-in by-pass valve to secure engine lubrication if the filter becomes blocked. Crankcase ventilation To prevent excess pressure, and to separate fuel vapor, water vapor and other gaseous combustion products, the engine is equipped with a ventilation device connected to the rear of the valve housing or the rear valve lifter inspection housing. On all S.O.L.A.S versions and early model versions of the 31/41/42WJ series, the oil mist is separated by a replaceable paper filter before the crankcase gases are exhausted. When this filter is blocked, a pressure relief valve opens. Later models of 31/41/42WJ have an oil trap in the valve housing, which separates any oil mist before the gases are directed to the air filter via a plastic hose. The KA(M)D42/43 has a similar system, with an oil trap in the valve housing, but here the gases are directed through a rubber hose which exhausts underneath the air filter. On the KAD32 a combination of the above-mentioned systems is required. In other words, it has both a paper filter and an oil trap in the valve housing. The KA(M)D44/300 has a unique system. In this, the crankcase gases are directed down to an oil trap located beneath the injection pump. Any oil is returned to the sump via a drain hose. Repair Instructions General If possible a condition test should be carried out before every major service correction, so that the engines condition can be established and any contributory fault causes discovered. A condition test requires the engine to be run so this should be carried out before removal of the engine or any components is begun. For further information about the Condition Test see the Workshop Manual “Engine Body”. Action before repairing in the boat 1 Cut off battery supply. 2 Clean the outside of the engine. NOTE! Ensure that the cleaning residues are collected for destruction and do not accidentally affect the environment. See also warning text under point 12. 3 Work requiring action to cooling system: Close sea cock and drain coolant from the sea water and freshwater systems respectively. Work requiring action to a seawater cooling system: Close seawater cooling cocks and drain engine coolant. WARNING! Ensure that all sea water intakes are properly closed and that water cannot enter when removing cooling system components. Action before lifting the engine out of the boat 4 Cut off battery supply, remove battery terminals from the starter motor. 5 Disconnect the engine wiring-instruments connector. Disconnect power trim wiring (Aquamatic engines only). 6 Disconnect sea water connections. 7 Disconnect the exhaust system. 8 Close the fuel cocks. Remove the fuel connections. 9 Disconnect the throttle cable. Disconnect transmission cable (engines with reverse gear only). 10 Remove the propeller shaft from the reverse gear (engines with reverse gear only). Remove screws on flywheel casing (Aquamatic engines only, if the boat is in the water) 11 Remove the engine pads from their seats and lift out the engine. Actions after lifting out the engine 12 Clean the engine IMPORTANT! Observe the following rules when cleaning with high-pressure water jets. Be extremely careful that water does not penetrate engine components. With the high pressure function connected the water jet must never be directed at sealed joints (shaft seals for example), joints with gaskets or rubber hoses and electrical components. 13 Drain engine oil. 14 Remove reverse gear (if necessary) Engine fixture attachment Fixture 9999946 is used to attach the engine to unit stand 998 6485. The fixture is secured to the right-hand side of the engine as illustrated below. NOTE! It is important that the instructions for the number and size of screws is followed so that a secure attachment of the engine is obtained. Necessary screws: 41/42/43/44/300 series 2 screws M12x30 mm 2 screws M16x30 mm The following components must be removed from the engine before the fixture can be attached and the engine installed on the stand: Compressor (42/43/44/300 series), heat exchanger with expansion tank, oil cooler with oil distribution housing, front engine mounting, oil pipe to turbocharger (TC), dipstick pipe NOTE! On later version engines the dip stick pipe cannot be removed in this position. To avoid crushing the dip stick pipe the engine fixture must be modified slightly. Checking oil pressure Special tools: 999 6398, 999 6591 1 Remove oil pressure switch on oil filter bracket (32/ 42/43/44/300). On other engines the oil pressure switch is located on the cylinder block behind the oil cooler. 2 Install nipple 6591. Connect manometer 6398 to the nipple . 3 Start the engine and read off the manometer. Check that the oil pressure corresponds to the values contained in the Workshop Manual “Technical Data”. 4 Remove the nipple and manometer. Install the oil pressure sensor. Corrective action to counter low oil pressure • Oil temperature too high. If the oil temperature is too high the oil becomes less viscous and oil pressure drops. Check the cooling system for blockages. Check thermostat function. • Incorrect oil grade (viscosity) If the oil is too thick (incorrect viscosity or oil contaminated with soot particles) it will take too long for the oil pressure to rise after the engine is started, especially when the weather is cold. If the oil has an abnormal soot contamination (even though oil changes have been made at the correct intervals and the correct grade of oil has been used) the cause of the fault could instead be: – incorrect combustion due to fuel grade – injector malfunction – incorrect injection timing – engine wear exceeds tolerances (piston rings, valve guides etc leaking oil) The oil is too thin (incorrect viscosity) because it has been contaminated with fuel. This can be because of incomplete combustion due to: – injector malfunction – incorrect injection timing The fault is most easily detected by low oil consumption. Low oil consumption is obvious when oil burnt is replaced by fuel keeping the level constant. • Oil filter blocked If the oil filter is blocked the filter by-pass valve opens and the oil flow resistance in the filter becomes higher than normal. This can be detected by a pressure drop when the engine is idling or at operating temperature. • Defective relief valve • Defective piston cooling valve • Defective oil pump Worn or leaking oil pump. • Worn main and/or crankshaft bearings Replacing oil filter Special tool: 999 9179 1 Place a container beneath the filter when removing to avoid spillage. Clean filter bracket. Remove filter using tool 9179. 3 Apply oil to the gasket of the new filter. Hand-tighten the filter until the gasket comes into contact with the filter bracket. Then twist a further ¾ turns. 4 Fill with engine oil and turn the engine with the starter motor (at the same time as the stop lever on the injection pump is twisted) until the oil pressure gauge gives a reading. Note. Turn the engine with the starter motor with the stop arm activated when replacing the oil filter, oil cooler or other components in the lubrication system. This cannot be done on the KAMD/KAD44 engine as this does not have a manual stop arm on the fuel injection pump. 5 Start the engine and check for leakage around the oil filter. Replacing oil pan gasket 1 Drain or suck out engine oil. 2 Remove the oil pan. Remove the old gasket. Clean the mating surfaces on the oil pan and cylinder block. 3 Install the oil pan together with a new gasket. Tighten screws to 15 Nm. Replacing lubrication pump (oil pan removed) Removing 1 Disconnect oil return and delivery pipes at the oil pump. 2 Remove the oil delivery pipe and brackets from the cylinder block. Remove pipes and bracket. 3 Remove the cylinder block reinforcement panel. NOTE! Do not drop the spacer washers between thepanel and the engine block. Remove the screws for the first main bearing cap. 4 Remove the oil pump together with the main bearing cap. Remove the bearing shells from the bearing cap. 5 8 Remove main bearing cap from the oil pump bracket. Installing Screw main bearing cap into place on the oil pump bracket. Tighten screws to 24 Nm. Oil and install the main bearing shells in the bearing cap. Lift the oil pump into position. Install the oil pump and tighten main bearing cap screws. Tighten screws. For tightening torques see Workshop manual, “Technical data”. 9 Install cylinder block reinforcement panel. Do not forget the spacer washers between the panel and the engine block. 10 Install the oil delivery pipe in the pump and cylinder block. Use new O-rings Note. Check the ends of old oil delivery pipes for cracks before reinstalling. Install the safety valve between the oil delivery pipe and the pump. NOTE! Turn the safety valve as illustrated when installing. Reconditioning oil pump Install the oil suction pipe bracket (splash bulkhead) NOTE! The screws have special washers (spring washer) Install the oil suction pipe with new sealing rings and fix it and the oil drain pipe with hose clamps. Only engines intended for V-drive Special tools: 999 6860 1 Remove main bearing cap from the oil pump bracket. 2 Remove intermediate gear. 3 NOTE! Engines intended for V-drive have a unique oil suction pipe and splash bulkhead. Pull oil pump sprocket from the shaft. Use puller 999 6860. Remove key and brass washer NOTE! There is no brass washer on late pump versions. 4 Remove the screws holding the pump housing. Remove the pump housing from the bracket. 59 Remove impeller from housing. Screw the pump housing into place on the bracket to act as a guide when reaming the bushings. Check pump housing for scratches and wear. Check seal between the bracket and pump housing. If there is a leakage the mating surfaces are black. The pump housing must not be scratched. 10 Check the gear flanks, outside diameters and ends of impellers for wear. Replace bushings in the pump housing and bracket if the radial play between the shaft and bushing is 0.15 mm or more. Press the bushings out of the bracket and pump housing using an appropriate drift. Press new bushings into place in the bracket and pump housing. Ream the bushings in the pump housing and bracket until they fit exactly (diameter 16.016–16.034 mm). 11 Remove screws. Remove pump housing from bracket. Clean all swarf from the pump housing and bracket. 12 15 Lubricate the impellers and bushings with engine oil. Reinstall the impellers in the housing. Check the impeller axial play with a feeler gauge. For the correct play, see Workshop Manual, “Technical data”. Check the impeller backlash with a feeler gauge. For the correct play, see Workshop Manual, “Technical data”. Move the impellers to the bracket. Install the pump housing and tighten the screws. Check that the impellers run easily and are not hitting the pump housing by turning the pump shaft one turn. 16 Install the key. NOTE! There is no brass washer on late pump versions so do not reinstall it. Heat oil pump gear to 180°C ± 20°C and tap the gear onto the shaft with a plastic mallet. Note. There should be a 1.5±0.3 mm clearance between the bracket and gear. Reconditioning oil cooler Check that the clearance between the bracket and gear is 1.5±0.3 mm. NOTE! The above measurement applies to late version and early version pumps that do not have a brass washer installed. Screw main bearing cap into place on the oil pump bracket. Tighten screws to 24 Nm. (early version) Special tools: 884 635 1 Remove endplate. Take 4 longer M8 screws and screw these in approximately 5 mm. Position the oil cooler on the screws, ensure that it is supported by all screws. Tap the insert loose with tool 884 635 and a plastic mallet. Remove the insert and O-rings. 2 Clean and inspect components. Use new O rings and gaskets when reinstalling. For the drain cock/nipple threads use sealing compound Loctite® 572. Install intermediate gear. Tighten screws to 24 Nm. Reconditioning oil cooler Oil cooler, test pressurization Special tools: 999 6033 (later version) 1 Remove endplate. Carefully tap the insert loose using a rubber mallet. Use a block of wood between. Clean and inspect components. Use new O-rings when installing. Apply a thin layer of grease to the end plate mating surfaces to the oil cooler housing before assembly. Remove oil cooler from the oil distribution housing. Install brackets 999 6033 on the cooler with sealing ring 471 637. One of the brackets is located with the nipple opposite the oil intake with sealing ring (1) between, the other bracket is located so that the oil outlet is blocked. 2 Connect suitable test pressurization equipment to the compressed air hose and the nipple opposite the oil intake. Increase the pressure slowly until the manometer displays 0.6 MPa. The pressure must not drop for two minutes. If the pressure drops there is a leak and the oil cooler insert must be replaced. Group 23 Fuel system Design and function General EDC system The main components of the fuel injection system are the fuel tank and tank unit, feed pump, Fuel filter, fuel injection pump, injectors and fuel lines. Fuel is drawn up from the fuel tank by feed pump (1) and is forced through fine filter (2) to injection pump (3). Excess fuel escapes back to the tank via connection (7). This means that the return fuel flushes through (cools) the injection pump’s fuel chamber. This evens out fuel temperature so it is the same for all the cylinders and prevents gas bubbles forming in the fuel line. The fuel injection pump then forces a quantity of fuel (corresponding to the power required) through delivery lines (4) to injectors (5) which atomize the fuel in the combustion chambers. Excess fuel from the injectors runs back via return line (6). Certain of the illustrations in this chapter have been put at our disposal be Robert Bosch AB. Instead of a conventional fuel injection pump with a mechanical governor, the KA(M)D44/300 engine has an EDC (Electronic Diesel Control) system. The main components of the EDC system are the control module, an electronic fuel injection pump and a number of sensors which provide the control module with information. The control module processes the information from the sensors so that the correct quantity of fuel is injected. Because the boost pressure and charge air temperature are monitored continuously there is a smoke limiter function built into the EDC system. The quantity of air available is calculated. This regulates the quantity of fuel injected. The control module also has a built-in diagnostic function which allows service technicians to quickly find the source of faults. For further information see Workshop Manual “EDC fuel injection system”. Fuel injection system 1 2 3 4 Feed pump Fine fuel filterInjection pumpDelivery lines 5 6 7 InjectorReturn line Fuel return connection Injection pump The injection pump is mounted on a flange and is driven by the timing gears. 1 The pump is of the rotary type. All pumps, except those for the KA(M)D44/300, have a centrifugal governor. The KA(M)D44/300 engine has an electronic actuator. This actuator turns an eccentric cam which 2 acts on a control sleeve. The position of the control sleeve determines the quantity of fuel should be injected. The fuel shut-off system is controlled electrically with a solenoid valve. When the engine is stopped the fuel channel is closed. The pump mechanism is lubricated by the fuel. 3 Fuel injection pump KA(M)D44/300 1 Actuator 2 Eccentric cam 3 Control sleeve Overflow valve The overflow valve is located in the fuel injection pump. It limits feed pressure and ensures that the fuel injection system is bled continuously. If feed pressure is too high the valve opens and fuel returns to the fuel tank via the return line. Smoke limiter All engines except for the KA(M)D44/300*) have fuel injection pumps equipped with a pressure -dependent full load stop (usually called a “Smoke limiter”). This prevents the generation of exhaust smoke by opening the throttle rapidly at low engine speeds. The full load stop limits the length of stroke of the control rod (quantity of fuel), until the turbocharger has enough exhaust gases to produce full charge air volume. The full load stop is based on a diaphragm (6). This is acted on by the pressure in the intake manifold via a pressure hose. The diaphragm is connected to a sliding rod (8) the other end of which is conical. Guide pin (4) runs over the conical end of the sliding rod. It transfers the movement of the diaphragm to lever (3) which acts as a stop for full load. At low engine speeds, boost pressure is not sufficient to overcome spring pressure (7). The membrane remains in its original position. When boost pressure reaches a certain point, spring pressure is overcome and the sliding rod is pushed down. The guide pin is pressed further into the cone and the spring-loaded full load stop (1) follows it, allowing a greater quantity of fuel to be injected at full load. The quantity of fuel is connected to the mass of air produced by the turbocharger. If the turbocharger malfunctions or there is a reduction in charge air pressure for other reasons, there is no increase in exhaust gases, only a reduction in power. *) KA(M)D44/300 is not equipped with a smoke limiter. The corre sponding function is integrated in the Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) system. Smoke limiter (not KA(M)D44/300) 1 Governor spring 2 Governor cover 3 Stop lever (stop limiter) 4 Locating pin 5 Adjuster nut 6 Diaphragm 7 Thrust spring 8 Sliding rod 9 Cone 10 Adjustment screw, full load quantity 11 Adjustment lever 12 Tension lever 13 Start lever 14 Lever bearings Injector The injectors are of the KBAL type. Each injector basically comprises a nozzle holder and a nozzle (jet). The injector: • Atomizes the fuel to ensure ignition and combustion. • Together with air turbulence distributes fuel in the combustion chamber so that an optimal fuel / air mixture is achieved. Injector function When the fuel pressure increases to a set value (opening pressure), the nozzle needle (10), which is pressed into its seat by the spring (5) is raised. Fuel is sprayed into the engine through carefully calibrated holes in the nozzle body. For further information about the number and diameter of these holes, see, Workshop Manual “Technical data”. The injector opening pressure is determined by the tension of the spring which can be adjusted with shims (4). Injector 1 Hollow screw 2 Gaskets 3 Injector mounting 4 Shims for setting the opening pressure 5 Thrust spring 6 Thrust pin 7 Locating pin 8 Guide 9 Locating pin 10 Nozzle 11 Jet nut 2-spring injector (TAMD31S-A/41H-B, KA(M)D44/300) As the heading indicates this injector has 2 thrust springs. This allows two stage injection. The springs are calibrated so that a small quantity of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber first. This increases the combustion pressure a little. This prolongs injection and reduces combustion noise. The 2-spring injector also allows lower emissions when the engine is idling. Check opening pressure for the first stage. NOTE! These injector nozzles must not be reconditioned. An exchange program is in place. 2-spring injector 1 Injector holders 2 Shim 3 Thrust spring 4 Thrust pin 5 Guide 6 Thrust spring 7 Adjustment pin 8 Spring seat 9 Shim 10 Stop sleeve 11 Intermediate element 12 Jet nut 2-spring injector with needle lift sensor (KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300) The needle lift sensor is in the injector for cylinder 1. The measurement for this injector therefore represents all the injectors on the engine. The needle lift sensor sends a signal to the control module when fuel injection starts. The control module compares this signal with the signal from the engine speed sensor and calculates the difference between the calculated injection timing and the actual injection timing and carries out any corrections that are required. If the signal which represents the needle movement is missing, the injected fuel volume is limited and the injection timing is fixed.. If at the same time there is a fault in the engine speed (RPM) sensor the engine will stop. The needle lift sensor consists of a solenoid coil wound around a magnetic core. The coil is supplied with a direct current, regardless of temperature variation. When the injection begins the magnetic core, which is joined to the injector needle, moves upwards which causes a disturbance in the magnetic field. This in turn causes a voltage change in the voltage supply. By registering the change in voltage the control module can determine when the injection starts. NOTE! These injector nozzles must not be reconditioned. An exchange program is in place. 2-spring injector with needle lift sensor 1 Injector holders 2 Shim 3 Thrust spring 4 Thrust pin 5 Guide 6 Thrust spring 7 Adjustment pin 8 Spring seat 9 Shim 10 Stop sleeve 11 Intermediate element 12 Jet nut Feed pump If the injection pump is to work, it requires a supply of fuel at pressure. This function is carried out by a feed pump located on the left-hand side of the cylinder block. The diaphragm feed pump is driven by the camshaft. The feed pump has a hand pump which can be used to pump fuel to the filter and Injection pump if the engine is not running. The engine (camshaft) must be in the correct position for the hand pump to work. See also “Bleeding fuel injection system” Fuel filter The engine fuel injection system has a fuel filter. This fuel filter is disposable, and the filter insert is made of a spirally wound paper filter. A single or double (connected in parallel) water-separating pre-filter is also available as an accessory for the fuel injection system. Double pre-filters allow filters to be replaced while the engine is running. Return fuel cooler Certain models are equipped with a return fuel cooler. The cooler is the same type as that used for power steering and is loacetd on the intake water hose. Repair Instructions Instructions when working with the fuel injection system Take great care to ensure cleanliness when working with the fuel injection system. Clean the engine before removing components such as the fuel lines. Install protective caps on all connectors so that dirt cannot get into them. Inspect components in a separate room intended for that purpose. Some procedures (checking injectors for example) require special equipment and training. If you do not have this equipment or training, have an authorized diesel workshop carry out the work. Do NOT adjust the opening pressure or replace components in 2-spring injectors. Replace injectors instead. If a loss of engine power is suspected take account of factors such as how fouled the hull is, the propeller type, the load and load distribution, before adjusting the pump setting. IMPORTANT! Some components are sealed at the factory for environmental reasons. No work should be carried out on sealed components except by authorized personnel. If seals are broken by unauthorized personnel all warranties are invalid. When work has been carried out components must be resealed (BOSCH or VOLVO PENTA), so that the authorization number (stamp number) is easily legible. Removing fuel injection pump Note. Plug fuel lines and connections before disconnecting. This procedure applies to all engines contained in this Workshop Manual. Procedures that only apply to certain engines are indicated in the text (“Only applies to the KA(M)D44 engine”) for example. 1 Clean the fuel injection pump, piping and engine around the pump. 2 Remove the fuel line/hose between the fuel injection pump and fuel filter. Disconnect the leak-off pipe from the nozzles. Plug connections. 3 Applies to KA(M)D42/43/44/300 Remove oil and fuel filter and its bracket. 4 Remove the delivery line and plug connections. Note. The pipes are clamped together. Do not remove the clamps, remove the pipes together. 5 Does not apply to KA(M)D44/300 Remove smoke limiter hose. 6 Disconnect all electrical connectors on the pump. Note. Protect connectors from dirt. Remove seawater pump. WARNING! Risk of water entry, ensure that the sea cocks (reverse gear (transmission) engines) or the hose terminals on the shield (drive engines) are properly closed. 8 Slacken off flange screws. 9 Remove 3 pump mounting screws. Lift off the pump. NOTE! Do not forget to remove the support bracket under the pump! Send the pump to an authorized diesel workshop (Bosch) for inspection (if your own workshop does not have the specially trained personnel and test equipment necessary. Installing and setting up fuel 2 injection pump Special tools: 884 895, 884 954 31/32 series: 885 199 41/42/43/44P–B/44P-C/300 series: 885 139 44P–A series: 885 139, 885 301 Install the intermediate flange with new O-rings (applies to the 44/300 series). On other engines install a new O-ring on the fuel injection pump. Install the fuel injection pump. NOTE! If the stud bolts have been removed apply Loctite® 572 to their threads before reinstalling. This reduces the risk of oil leaks. Do not remove plugs before the fuel and delivery lines are reinstalled. IMPORTANT! Do not turn the engine with the fuel injection pump drive gear loose, This may damage the cogs or engine speed (RPM) sensor (32/42/43). Turn the pump shaft so that the hole for the flange screws corresponds to the hole in the camshaft gear (the gear can only be installed in one position). Tightening torques for flange screws 24 Nm. Install the bracket under the pump without tightening. 3 Install tool 884 895 in the flywheel housing. Turn the engine in the direction of rotation until the tool lug locks the flywheel. 46 Remove the center screw on the rear face of the fuel injection pump and install the dial indicator 884 954 with holders 885 139 (41/42/43/44/300 series) and 885 199 (31/32 series). Ensure that the indicator is pushed in 3–4 mm. Applies only to KA(M)D44P–A 5 Remove the pump’s reset cover. Use Torx 30 tool. Screw out the center screw on tool 885 301, oil the reset piston and install the tool on the pump. Tighten the center screw until it reaches the bottom. Applies to all engines 7 Release the locking lug on tool 884 895 and turn the engine back (against direction of rotation) approximately 30° (41/42/43/44/300 series) and approximately 45° (31/32 series) or until the clock “stops”. 8 Reset the clock 9 Turn the engine in the direction of rotation. Ensure that the clock does not move when the rotation begins, this is to ensure that the turning begins at “zero”. 10 When the locking pin “locks” the flywheel the dial indicator should be read off. Compare the read off value with Workshop manual “Technical data”. 11 If the injectors need to be adjusted, slacken off the pump securing nuts and turn the pump until the correct value is obtained. Turn clockwise (seen from the front) if value is too low (injection too late) and counter-clockwise if the value is too high (injection too early). Tighten the pump and dismantle tool 885 301 (44P–A series) and reinstall the reset cover. NOTE! The support bracket at the rear of the pump must block the cylinder block and pump before final tightening, so that no tensions are introduced. NOTE! Donut forget to remove tool 884 895 from the flywheel housing. 12 Install fuel and delivery lines. Use new copper washers. 13 Applies only to KA(M)D42/43/44/300 install oil and fuel filter and bracket. 14 Connect all electrical connectors on the fuel injection pump. 15 Install seawater pump. Use a new O-ring. IMPORTANT! Ensure that the sea cocks (reverse gear engines) or the hose connectors on the shield (drive engines) are open. 16 Bleed fuel system. 17 Start the engine and check for leaks. Fault-tracing fuel valve If the engine does not stop when the ignition switch is turned to the stop position, check the following points. • Check that there is power to the stop solenoid connector when the ignition switch is in its stop position. The cable should be live when the engine is stopped. • Connect connector and listen for clicking. Does the valve click when stop is connected? Check the plunge function if necessary. • Check that the cylinder block is connected to ground (–) when the ignition switch is in its stop position on bipolar motors. Setting up idling speed 31/32/41/42/43 series Special tools: 998 8460 The engine should be at normal operating temperature. that the throttle mechanism is operating normally (that the fuel injection pump throttle lever moves towards low idle when the throttle mechanism is moved to idling position and towards max when the throttle mechanism is moved towards wide open throttle. Adjust throttle mechanism if necessary. Check the air cleaner (ACL) is not clogged. Set up engine speed using workshop tachometer 998 8460. Do not use the boat’s instruments to set up engine speed. IMPORTANT! Seals may only be broken by authorized personnel. When work has been carried out components must be resealed (BOSCH or VOLVO PENTA), so that the authorization number (stamp number) is easily legible. Low idle 1 Run engine to normal operating temperature. 2 Low idle the engine and check engine speed (RPM). For engine speed (RPM), see Workshop Manual “Technical data”. 3 Adjust the engine speed (RPM) as necessary by screwing the adjustment screw (2) out or in. Lock the adjustment screw after adjustment is complete. High idle 5 Run engine to normal operating temperature. 6 Run the engine with no load at wide open throttle. Check that the throttle arm (1) hits the maximum engine speed (RPM) stop screw (3). 7 Check the engine speed (RPM) with a workshop tachometer. Adjust stop (3) if necessary to obtain the correct engine speed (RPM). For engine speed (RPM), see Workshop Manual “Technical data”. 8 When work has been carried out the adjustment screw components must be resealed (BOSCH or VOLVO PENTA), so that the authorization number (stamp number) is easily legible. KA(M)D44/300 series To set up the KA(M)D44/300 engines, see Workshop Manual “EDC fuel injection system”. Replacing feed pump 1 Clean around the pump. 2 Close fuel cocks. Disconnect fuel lines from the pump. 3 Remove the feed pump from the cylinder block. 4 Clean the feed pump’s mating surface on the cylinder block and install a new gasket. 5 Screw feed pump into place. 6 Vent fuel system. 7 Start the engine and check for leaks. Checking fuel supply pressure 31/32/41/42/43 series Special tools 999 6065, 999 6666. 1 Connect banjo nipple 999 6666 to pipescrew 969 299, drilled and threaded to M10x1 as illustrated. Connect the pipescrew to outlet side of the fuel filter, see the arrow on the filter cover. pressure is measured after the fuel has passed through the fuel filter). NOTE! Do not spill any fuel. Connect manometer 999 6065. 2 Run the engine at an increased engine speed. Reduce the engine speed (RPM) to low idling speed. Read off the pressure within 1 minute. The feed pressure should be 14.7–27.5 kPa (feed pump 860 320*) respectively 30-50 kPA on TAMD41H (feed pump 3582310*) Low feed pressure can be caused by a blocked filter or defective feed pump. Check for reduced flow (a trapped line for example). The feed pump can not be reconditioned. The feed pump must be replaced. *The pumps are identified using the P/N on the top of the pump housing. Checking fuel supply pressure KA(M)D44/300 series Special tools: 999 6065, 999 6666 VP replacement parts: 18 817 (6 x), 191 397, 861 057 (50cm), 861 079 (3 x), 943 471 (2 x), 947 043 (2 x), 947 975, 969 299 1 Close the fuel cocks 2 Remove any clamps for the wiring at the timing cover for better access. 3 Disconnect the fuel line between the fuel filter and the fuel injection pump. Do not spill fuel. Slacken off the nipples in the fuel filter and fuel injection pump. 4 Connect an approximately 50cm long fuel hose 861 057 with a banjo nipple 861 079, hose mounting 947 043 and hose clamp 943 471 at each end. 5 Connect each end of the fuel hose to the fuel injection pump using the short pipescrews 969 299 and 2 x copper washers 18 817. 68 Remove tool 999 6666. Connect nipple 191 397, copper washer 18 817 and banjo nipple 861 079. Connect modified tool 999 6666 and the other end of the fuel hose to the fuel filter using the long pipe- screws 947 975 and 3 x copper washers 18 817. Connect manometer 999 6065 with the manometer quick-release connectors to modified tool 999 6666. 9 Open the fuel cock. Run the engine at an increased engine speed. Reduce the engine speed (RPM) to low idling speed. Read off the pressure within 1 minute. The feed pressure should be 14.7–27.5 kPa (feed pump 860 320) respectively 30–50 kPa (feed pump 3582310*) The feed pressure downstream of the fuel filter should never drop below 0 kPa for any of the pumps. Low feed pressure can be caused by a blocked filter or defective feed pump. Check for reduced flow (a trapped line for example). None of the feed pumps can be reconditioned. The feed pumps must be replaced. * Feed pump 3582310 was introduced successively on the 44P-A series and is installed on all engines in the 44P-B/44P-C/300 series. The pumps are identified using the P/N on the top of the pump housing. Replacing injectors 31/32/41/42/43 series Special tools: 885 131 1 Applies only to TAMD31S-S Remove the protection cover over the injectors/delivery lines 2 Clean around the injectors and pipe connectors. 3 Remove the return line between injectors and plug connections. 4 Only applies to 42/43 series Remove the fuel and oil filter and the bracket. 5 Remove the delivery line and plug connections. NOTE!The delivery lines must under no circumstances be bent. Replace damaged delivery lines. 6 Remove nuts on injector yokes and remove. 7 Turn the injector using a PU-15 wrench pulling it up at the same time. If the injector cannot be pulled up be hand use puller 885 131. Otherwise water might get into the engine. 8 Clean mating surface between copper sleeves and injectors. 9 Install the new injectors. 10 Install injector yokes. Tighten to: 24 Nm. 11 Install return line with new copper washers. 12 Install the delivery lines. 13 Only applies to 42/43 series Install the oil and fuel filter and the bracket. 14 Start the engine and check for leaks. 15 Applies only to TAMD31S-A Install the protection cover over the injectors/delivery lines. Replacing injectors KA(M)D44/300 series Special tools: 885 263 1 Clean around the injectors and pipe connectors. 2 Remove the return line between injectors and plug connections. 3 Remove fuel and oil filter and the bracket. 4 Remove the delivery line and plug connections. NOTE!The delivery lines must under no circumstances be bent. Replace damaged delivery lines. 5 Applies only to KA(M)D44P-A Remove the valve cover. Remove the seal against the valve cover (the O-rings, washer and spring) on each injector. Inspect the valve cover gasket. If it is undamaged the gasket does not need to be changed. 6 Applies only to KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300 Remove the clip on the rubber grommet for the cable to the injector on cylinder 1. Separate the connector. Remove the screws for the valve cover. Carefully press the rubber grommet in using a screwdriver at the same time lifting the valve cover slightly. Insert the cable through the hole. Remove the valve cover. Remove the seal against the valve cover (the O- rings, washer and spring) on each injector. NOTE! The springs on cylinder 1 cannot be removed before the injector is removed from the cylinder head. Inspect the valve cover gasket. If it is undamaged the gasket does not need to be changed. 7 10 Remove the injectors. If the injector cannot be pulled up by hand use puller 885.263. This is to ensure that the copper sleeves do not come up with the injector. 8 Clean the mating surface between the copper sleeves and the injectors. See “Cleaning copper sleeves”. 9 Install the nozzles. Do not forget the lower O-ring on the nozzles. NOTE! Ensure that the plane of the return line is as straight as possible. Tightening torque 24 Nm, socket 13 mm. Install the seal against the valve cover (the O-rings, washer and spring) on each injector. Applies only to KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300 Ensure that the cut out in the sealing washer corresponds to the split pin and the injectors cable terminal (only cylinder 1) Applies only to KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300 Thread the washer and spring onto cylinder 1 before installing it. Press the springs together and install the injector yoke in position. Thread the lower O-ring onto the nozzle. Inspect the valve cover gasket. If it is undamaged and securely fixed to the cover, the gasket does not need to be changed. If it needs to be replaced carry out the following: Thoroughly clean the position of the gasket. Apply a thin layer of silicon P/N 116 1231-4 to the valve cover. Apply the new gasket and allow it to harden in the silicon before installing the valve cover. NOTE! The gasket join is located as per Fig. Applies only to KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300 Insert the cable for the injector through the valve cover. Press the rubber grommet into place at the same time as the valve cover is lowered against the cylinder head. Install the retaining clip. Connect the cable to the engine cable harness. Check that the cable is clear of the rocker arms through the oil filler hole. 12 Install valve cover. 13 Install return line with new copper washers. 14 Install the delivery lines. 15 Install the oil and fuel filter and bracket. 16 Start the engine and check for leaks. Needle lift sensor, checking (only to KA(M)D44P-B/44P-C/300) Special tools: 998 8452 Carry out a check of the needle lift sensor in injector nozzle 1 as follows: Separate the connector (see ”Injector, replacement” point 6). Connect an ohmmeter 998 8452 and measure the resistance between the connector pins. Resistance should be 100±10 ohm at 20°C. In cases where the value lies outside the given range the injector must be replaced. Reconditioning injectors (only 1-spring injectors) 1 Clean the outside of the injector. 2 Dismantle the injector. If several nozzles are being cleaned at the same time, ensure that pins and sleeves that belong to the injector are not mixed up. To avoid mixing them up place nozzles in a nozzle rack or in different compartments. 3 Clean the injector. Use an ultrasound wash. If there is no ultrasound wash available, clean at the nearest Bosch workshop. 4 Check injector nozzle carefully. Inspect using an illuminated lens or nozzle microscope. The nozzle microscope can also be used for the nozzle sleeve. If the seat has been pushed down replace the nozzle pin together with the nozzle sleeve. If the damage is minor grind using a nozzle grinder. 5 Check other components. 6 Dip the nozzle components in pure diesel to oil. 7 Assemble the injector nozzle using the same thickness of shims for opening pressure as before. Cleaning copper sleeve Special tools: 885 289 1 Press the mounting sleeve over the brush to keep it together before securing it in a drill. 2 Position the mounting sleeve over the copper sleeve. 3 Press the brush into the copper sleeve. Connect a power drill and clean the copper sleeve. 4 After cleaning blow away dirt using compressed air. Recommendations when adjusting opening pressure, set pressure and replacing injectors Injection takes place under extremely high pressure so that atomization and combustion is as effective as possible. With time opening pressure drops under that indicated for new injectors. This drop in pressure is normal and does not affect injector function or engine performance significantly. Adjusting the injector can shorten the injector nozzle service life. To avoid replacing and adjusting injectors unnecessarily follow the instructions for inspection below. Do not inspect an injector unless there is a definite indication that it is not functioning normally (excessive exhaust emissions for example). When testing an injector the most important things to look at are opening pressure, set pressure and seal. NOTE! On a 2-spring injector only the opening pressure for the first stage is possible to test. Spray pattern and creak are harder to judge and do not provide a clear indication of the condition of the injector. In the service literature we indicate set pressure in addition to opening pressure. These values apply to new indicators with new thrust springs. Because the set pressure of a new spring is somewhat higher than the opening pressure there is some margin for the spring to settle. Y Opening pressure X Operating period A1 New spring A2 Old spring A3 8–10 bar difference A4 The injector operates well despite the 10% reduction in opening pressure. When a new spring has settled, opening pressure drops by approximately 8–10 bar. Opening pressure will drop more over time, but the injector will still function normally. Research has shown that the pressure drop evens out at approximately 15% under opening pressure for a used spring. This drop in pressure is within the specified operating range. Seal test A seal test checks for leakage from the injector nozzle. If there is a leak it is between the point of the nozzle needle and the conical seal surface of the nozzle sleeve. Wipe the point of the nozzle dry. Pump up a pressure of 2 Mpa under injector opening pressure (first stage on a 2-spring injector) with a manometer connected. Keep pressure steady for 10 seconds. No fuel should drop off the point of the nozzle but it can be damp. Spray pattern and creak The condition of the injector nozzle is hard to determine based on spray pattern and creak. Injector nozzle creak can only be judged on new injectors. The injector nozzle may often operate well even though the spray pattern is imprecise. No judgement can be made of the spray pattern of a 2-spring injector as this is related to the test equipment used. The spray pattern can be very different to that of a 1spring injector. Adjusting opening pressure (1-spring injectors) 1 Connect the injector to a nozzle tester. 2 Pump hard several times to clean dirt and air out of the injector nozzle. Slowly press the tester lever down until the injector nozzle starts to eject fuel. 3 Read off opening pressure on the tester manometer. 4 If the opening pressure does not correspond with the specified value the setting can be changed by replacing the shims in the injector. Note. A maximum of 2 shims may be used. If the thickest shims are not sufficient, replace the spring. Opening pressure/set pressure For opening pressure and set pressure (new spring), see Workshop Manual “Technical data”. Spray pattern At a pump speed of 4–6 strokes a second the spray pattern should be the same and the fuel should be atomized. Plug pipe connectors and the point of nozzle after testing. Adjusting opening pressure (2-spring injectors) NOTE! These injectors must not be reconditioned. An exchange program is in place. Replacing fuel filter Special tools: 999 9179 1 Clean the filter mounting carefully. 2 Remove the filter using tool 999 9179. 3 Apply oil to the gasket of the new filter. Hand-tighten the filter until the gasket comes into contact with the filter bracket. Then twist a further half turn. 4 Bleed fuel system. Start the engine and check for leakage around the filter. Bleeding fuel system 1 Place a container beneath the fuel filter. Open the bleed nipple on the fuel filter holder. 2 Fill the fuel injection system by pumping the hand pump on the feed pump. When the fuel coming out of the bleed nipple is free of air bubbles close it. NOTE! If the pump effect is poor, turn the engine over slightly so that the pump drive cam changes position. 3 Bleed the fuel injection pump is it has been disassembled. Use the hand pump for approximately 30 seconds. This automatically bleeds the fuel injection pump. 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References to Service Bulletins Group No. Date Concerns ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 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Report form Do you have any complaints or other comments about this manual? Please make a copy of this page, write your comments down and post it to us. The address is at the bottom of the page. We would prefer you to write in English or Swedish. From: ............................................................................ ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... Refers to publication: ............................................................................................................................................ Publication no.: ..................................................................... Issued: .................................................................... Suggestion/reasons: ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................. Date:............................................................ Name: .......................................................... AB Volvo Penta Technical Information Dept. 42200 SE-405 08 Göteborg Sweden 7741732-7 English 09-2001