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Workshop Manual c 2(0) AQ205, 430, 431, 432, 434 Workshop manual AQ205, 430, 431, 432, 434 Contents Page Safety Precautions ................................................................................................ 2 General information ............................................................................................... 5 Repair instructions ................................................................................................ 6 Presentation .......................................................................................................... 8 Cooling system ..................................................................................................... 9 Lubricating system .............................................................................................. 11 Fault tracing, engine ............................................................................................ 12 Chapter 1 Overhaul data ................................................................................. 13 Chapter 2 Special tools ................................................................................... 19 Chapter 3 Wiring diagrams .............................................................................. 23 Chapter 4 Cylinder head with related parts ..................................................... 27 4A Fault tracing and repair procedures, fuel system ........................... 29 4B Removing the related parts ............................................................. 63 4C Overhauling the cooling system ..................................................... 65 4D Overhauling the valve system ........................................................ 67 4E Assembling the cylinder head ......................................................... 73 4F Installing the related parts ............................................................... 75 Chapter 5 Engine block with related parts ....................................................... 77 5A Removing the related parts ............................................................. 79 5B Overhauling the crankshaft assembly ............................................ 81 5C Overhauling the camshaft ............................................................... 91 5D Overhauling the balance shaft ........................................................ 97 5E Fault-tracing and remedial action, ignition system .......................... 99 5F Installation of related parts ............................................................ 111 Safety Precautions Introduction This Workshop Manual contains technical data, descriptions and repair instructions for Volvo Penta products or product versions contained in the contents list. Ensure that the correct workshop literature is being used. Read the safety information and the Workshop Manual “General Information” and “Repair Instructions” carefully before starting work. Important In this book and on the engine you will find the following special warning symbols. WARNING! If these instructions are not followed there is a danger of personal injury, extensive damage to the product or serious mechanical malfunction. IMPORTANT! Used to draw your attention to something that can cause damage, product malfunction or damage to property. NOTE! Used to draw your attention to important information that will facilitate work or operations. Below is a summary of the risks and safety precautions you should always observe or carry out when operating or servicing the engine. Immobilize the engine by turning off the power supply to the engine at the main switch (switches) and lock it (them) in the OFF position before starting work. Set up a warning notice at the engine control point or helm. Generally, all servicing should be carried out with the engine switched off. Some work (carrying out certain adjustments for example) requires the engine to be running. Approaching a running engine is dangerous. Loose clothing or long hair can fasten in rotating parts and cause serious personal injury. If working in proximity to a running engine, careless movements or a dropped tool can result in personal injury. Avoid burns. Take precautions to avoid hot surfaces (exhausts, turbochargers, charge air pipes and starter elements etc.) and liquids in supply lines and hoses when the engine is running or has been turned off immediately prior to starting work on it. Reinstall all protective parts removed during service operations before starting the engine. Check that the warning or information decals on the product are always clearly visible. Replace decals that have been damaged or painted over. Engine with turbocharger: Never start the engine without installing the air cleaner (ACL). The rotating compressor in the Turbo can cause serious personal injury. Foreign objects entering the intake ducts can also cause mechanical damage. Never use start spray or similar to start the engine. The starter element may cause an explosion in the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury. Avoid opening the filler cap for engine coolant system (freshwater cooled engines) when the engine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant can spray out. Open the coolant filler cap carefully and slowly to release pressure before removing the cap completely. Take great care if a cock, plug or engine coolant line must be removed from a hot engine. It is difficult to anticipate in which direction steam or hot coolant can spray out. Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid skin contact with hot oil. Ensure that the lubrication system is not under pressure before commencing work on it. Never start or operate the engine with the oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be ejected. Stop the engine and close the sea cock before carrying out operations on the engine cooling system. Only start the engine in a well-ventilated area. If operating the engine in an enclosed space, ensure that exhaust gases and crankcase ventilation emissions are ventilated out of the working area. Always use protective goggles where there is a danger of pieces of metal, sparks from grinding, acid or other chemicals being thrown into your eyes. Your eyes are very sensitive, injury can lead to loss of sight! Avoid skin contact with oil. Long-term or repeated contact with oil can remove the natural oils from your skin. The result can be irritation, dry skin, eczema and other skin problems. Used oil is more dangerous to health than new oil. Use protective gloves and avoid using oil-soaked clothes and rags. Wash regularly, especially before meals. Use the correct barrier cream to prevent dry skin and to make cleaning your skin easier. Most chemicals used in products (engine and transmission oils, glycol, petrol and diesel oil) and workshop chemicals (solvents and paints) are hazardous to health Read the instructions on the product packaging carefully! Always follow safety instructions (using breathing apparatus, protective goggles and gloves for example). Ensure that other personnel are not unwittingly exposed to hazardous substances (by breathing them in for example). Ensure that ventilation is good. Handle used and excess chemicals according to instructions. Be extremely careful when tracing leaks in the fuel system and testing fuel injection nozzles. Use protective goggles! The jet ejected from a fuel injection nozzle is under very high pressure, it can penetrate body tissue and cause serious injury There is a danger of blood poisoning. All fuels and many chemicals are inflammable. Ensure that a naked flame or sparks cannot ignite fuel or chemicals. Combined with air in certain ratios, petrol, some solvents and hydrogen from batteries are easily inflammable and explosive. Smoking is prohibited! Ensure that ventilation is good and that the necessary safety precautions have been taken before carrying out welding or grinding work. Always have a fire extinguisher to hand in the workplace. Store oil and fuel-soaked rags and fuel and oil filters safely. In certain conditions oil-soaked rags can spontaneously ignite. Used fuel and oil filters are environmentally dangerous waste and must be deposited at an approved site for destruction together with used lubricating oil, contaminated fuel, paint remnants, solvent, degreasing agents and waste from washing parts. Never allow a naked flame or electric sparks near the batteries. Never smoke in proximity to the batteries. The batteries give off hydrogen gas during charging which when mixed with air can form an explosive gas – oxyhydrogen. This gas is easily ignited and highly volatile. Incorrect connection of the battery can cause a spark which is sufficient to cause an explosion with resulting damage. Do not disturb battery connections when starting the engine (spark risk) and do not lean over batteries. Never mix up the positive and negative battery terminals when installing. Incorrect installation can result in serious damage to electrical equipment. Refer to wiring diagrams. Always use protective goggles when charging and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte contains extremely corrosive sulfuric acid. If this comes into contact with the skin, wash immediately with soap and plenty of water. If battery acid comes into contact with the eyes, immediately flush with copious amounts of water and obtain medical assistance. Turn off the engine and turn off power at main switch(es) before carrying out work on the electrical system. Clutch adjustments must be carried out with the engine turned off. Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine/reverse gear when lifting the drive unit. Always check that lifting equipment is in good condition and has sufficient load capacity to lift the engine (engine weight including reverse gear and any extra equipment installed). To ensure safe handling and to avoid damaging engine components on top of the engine, use a lifting beam to raise the engine. All chains and cables should run parallel to each other and as perpendicular as possible in relation to the top of the engine. If extra equipment is installed on the engine altering its center of gravity, a special lifting device is required to achieve the correct balance for safe handling. Never carry out work on an engine suspended on a hoist. Never remove heavy components alone, even where secure lifting equipment such as secured blocks are being used. Even where lifting equipment is being used it is best to carry out the work with two people; one to operate the lifting equipment and the other to ensure that components are not trapped and damaged when being lifted. When working on-board ensure that there is sufficient space to remove components without danger of injury or damage. Components in the electrical system, ignition system (gasoline engines) and fuel system on Volvo Penta products are designed and constructed to minimize the risk of fire and explosion. The engine must not be run in areas where there are explosive materials. Always use fuels recommended by Volvo Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. The use of lower quality fuels can damage the engine. On a diesel engine poor quality fuel can cause the control rod to seize and the engine to overrev with the resulting risk of damage to the engine and personal injury. Poor fuel quality can also lead to higher maintenance costs. Observe the following rules when cleaning with high-pressure water jets. Never direct the water jet at seals, rubber hoses or electrical components. Never use a high pressure jet when washing the engine. General information About the workshop manual This workshop manual contains technical specification, descriptions and instructions for the standard versions of AQ205A, 430A, 430B, 431A, 431B, 432A and 434A.The product designation and number should be given in all correspondence about the product. This Workshop Manual shows the work procedures for a 431A. Please note that the illustrations used do not always fully correspond with other engines. The repair methods are identical on other versions unless otherwise stated. Important differences are described separately. NOTE! The engine 431A was introducted and for one year sold under the designation AQ205 A. As AQ205A and 431A are identical products, the later designation been used in this workshop manual. This Workshop Manual has been developed primarily for Volvo Penta service workshops and qualified personnel. Persons using this book are assumed to have a grounding in marine drive systems and be able to carry out related mechanical and electrical work. Volvo Penta is continuously developing their products. We therefore reserve the right to make changes. All the information contained in this book is based on product data available at the time of going to print. Any essential changes or modifications introduced into production or updated or revised service methods introduced after the date of publication will be provided in the form of Service Bulletins. Replacement parts Replacement parts for electrical and fuel systems are subject to statutory requirements (US Coast Guard Safety Regulations for example).Volvo Penta Genuine parts meet these requirements. Any type of damage which results from the use of non-original Volvo Penta replacement parts for the product will not be covered under any warranty provided by Volvo Penta. Repair instructions The working methods described in the Service Manual apply to work carried out in a workshop.The engine has been removed from the boat and is installed in an engine fixture. Unless otherwise stated reconditioning work which can be carried out with the engine in place follows the same working method. Warning symbols occurring in the Workshop Manual (for their meaning see Safety information) WARNING! IMPORTANT! NOTE! are not in any way comprehensive since it is impossible to predict every circumstance under which service work or repairs may be carried out. For this reason we can only highlight the risks that can arise when work is carried out incorrectly in a well-equipped workshop using working methods and tools developed by us. All procedures for which there are Volvo Penta special tools in this Workshop Manual are carried out using these. Special tools are developed to rationalize working methods and make procedures as safe as possible. It is therefore the responsibility of any person using tools or working methods other than the ones recommended by us to ensure that there is no danger of injury, damage or malfunction resulting from these. In some cases there may be special safety precautions and instructions for the use of tools and chemicals contained in this Workshop Manual.These special instructions should always be followed if there are no separate instructions in the Workshop Manual. Certain elementary precautions and common sense can prevent most risks arising. A clean workplace and engine eliminates much of the danger of injury and malfunction. It is of the greatest importance that no dirt or foreign particles get into the fuel system, lubrication system, intake system, turbocharger, bearings and seals when they are being worked on. The result can be malfunction or a shorter operational life. Our joint responsibility Each engine consists of many connected systems and components. If a component deviates from its technical specification the environmental impact of an otherwise good engine may be increased significantly. It is therefore vital that wear tolerances are maintained, that systems that can be adjusted are adjusted properly and that Volvo Penta Genuine Parts as used.The engine Maintenance Schedule must be followed. Some systems, such as the components in the fuel system, require special expertise and special testing equipment for service and maintenance. Some components are sealed at the factory for environmental reasons. No work should be carried out on sealed components except by authorized personnel. Bear in mind that most chemicals used on boats are harmful to the environment if used incorrectly. Volvo Penta recommends the use of biodegradable degreasing agents for cleaning engine components, unless otherwise stated in a workshop manual. Take special care when working on-board, that oil and waste is taken for destruction and is not accidentally pumped into the environment with bilge water. Tightening torques Tightening torques for vital joints that must be tightened with a torque wrench are listed in workshop manual “Technical Data”: “Tightening Torques” and are contained in work descriptions in this Manual. All torques apply for cleaned threads, screw heads and mating surfaces. Torques apply for lightly oiled or dry threads. If lubricants, locking fluid or sealing compound are required for a screwed joint this information will be contained in the work description and in “Tightening Torques” Where no tightening torque is stated for a joint use the general tightening torques according to the tables below. The tightening torques stated are a guide and the joint does not have to be tightened using a torque wrench. Dimension Tightening Torques Nm lbf.ft M5 6 4.4 M6 10 7.4 M8 25 18.4 M10 50 36.9 M12 80 59.0 M14 140 103.3 Tightening torques-protractor (angle) tightening Tightening using both a torque setting and a protractor angle requires that first the recommended torque is applied using a torque wrench and then the recommended angle is added according to the protractor scale. Example: a 90° protractor tightening means that the joint is tightened a further 1/4 turn in one operation after the stated tightening torque has been applied. Locknuts Do not re-use lock nuts that have been removed during dismantling as they have reduced service life when re-used – use new nuts when assembling or reinstalling. For lock nuts with a plastic insert such as Nylock® the tightening torque stated in the table is reduced if the Nylock® nut has the same head height as a standard hexagonal nut without plastic insert. Reduce the tightening torque by 25% for bolt size 8 mm or larger. Where Nylock® nuts are higher, or of the same height as a standard hexagonal nut, the tightening torques given in the table apply. Tolerance classes Screws and nuts are divided into different strength classes, the class is indicated by the number on the bolt head. A high number indicates stronger material, for example a bolt marked 10-9 indicates a higher tolerance than one marked 8-8. It is therefore important that bolts removed during the disassembly of a bolted joint must be reinstalled in their original position when assembling the joint. If a bolt must be replaced check in the replacement parts catalogue to make sure the correct bolt is used. Sealants A number of sealants and locking liquids are used on the engines. The agents have varying properties and are used for different types of jointing strengths, operating temperature ranges, resistance to oil and other chemicals and for the different materials and gap sizes in the engines. To ensure service work is correctly carried out it is important that the correct sealant and locking fluid type is used on the joint where the agents are required. In this Volvo Penta Service Manual the user will find that each section where these agents are applied in production states which type was used on the engine. During service operations use the same agent or an alternative from a different manufacturer. Make sure that mating surfaces are dry and free from oil, grease, paint and anti-corrosion agent before applying sealant or locking fluid. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use regarding; temperature range, curing time and any other instructions for the product. Two different basic types of agent are used on the engine and these are: RTV agent (Room temperature vulcanizing). Use for gaskets, sealing gasket joints or coating gaskets. RTV agent is clearly visible when a component has been dismantled; old RTV must be removed before the joint is resealed. The following RTV agents are mentioned in the Service Manual: Loctite® 574, Volvo Penta 840879-1, Permatex® No. 3, Volvo Penta P/N 1161099-5, Permatex® No. 77. Old sealant can be removed using methylated spirits in all cases. Anaerobic agents. These agents cure in an absence of air. They are used when two solid parts, for example cast components, are installed face-to-face without a gasket. They are also commonly used to secure plugs, threads in stud bolts, cocks, oil pressure switches and so on. The cured material is glass-like and it is therefore colored to make it visible. Cured anaerobic agents are extremely resistant to solvents and the old agent cannot be removed. When reinstalling the part is carefully degreased and then new sealant is applied. The following anaerobic agents are mentioned in the Service Manual: Loctite® 572 (white), Loctite® 241 (blue). NOTE! Loctite® is the registered trademark of Loctite Corporation, Permatex® is the registered trademark of the Permatex Corporation. Presentation The serial number plate is located at the rear of the engine block on the port side (as seen from the rear). Engines manufactured before March 1988 have the plate located on the starboard side. The engine is a 6-cylinder, sea water cooled gasoline engine. The thermostatically controlled cooling system is supplied with sea water from a crankshaft drive impeller pump. A separate circulation pump forces cooling water through the engine block to maintain an even operating temperature. The cooling water also circulates through the exhaust system to keep it cool. The 430A, 431 A (late models) and the 430B, 431B, 432A, 434A have a modified cooling system with a different cooling water flow through the thermostat housing and the exhaust risers. The 430, 431, 432 and 434 have a displacement of 4293 cm3 (262 cu.in.). The 400-engines use a breakerless electronic ignition system. Engine cooling system Cooling system up to serial no. 4100130994 Engine cooling system 1. Inlet 2. Impeller pump 3. Thermostat housing 4. Circulation pump 5. Outlet Cooling channels in the thermostat housing, thermostat closed. Cooling channels in the thermostat housing, thermostat open. 1. Cooling water from the impeller pump 2. “By-pass’’ to the outlet chamber 3. Outlet to exhaust manifold 4. Cooling water from the engine block 5. Outlet to the circulation pump Cooling system, serial numbers from 4100130995 and upwards Cooling system 1. Inlet 2. Impeller pump 3. Thermostat housing 4. Circulation pump 5. Outlet Cooling water passages in the thermostat housing, Cooling water passages in the thermostat housing, thermostat closed. thermostat open. 1. Cooling water from the impeller pump 2. Outlet to the exhaust risers 3. Outlet to the exhaust pipe 4. Cooling water from the engine block 5. Outlet to the circulation pump Engine lubricating system Lubricating system, from the strainer to lubrication points 1. Oil strainer 2. Oil pump with relief valve 3. Oil filter 4. Hydraulic valve lifters 5. Oil gallery 6. Drive for oil pump Fault tracing procedure, engine Engine does not start Engine stops Engine does not reach correct operating r/min at full throttle, or knocks Engine runs unevenly or vibrates abnormally Engine gets abnormally hot Cause X Main switch not switched ON, discharged battery, open circuit in electrical cables, main fuse or 8A fuse in instrument panel blown. X X Empty fuel tank, closed fuel cock, clogged fuel filter. X X X Water or impurities in the fuel X X X X Faulty spark plugs X Moisture in the distributor or on the ignition cables X X Faulty electronics unit X X Idle speed not adjusted correctly X Faulty rev counter X Boat loaded abnormally X Growth on boat hull and on outboard drive X Damaged propeller X Clogged cooling water intake or cooling channels. Faulty impeller or thermostat. Incorrect ignition setting (too late) X Wrong fuel grade in relation to ignition setting. X Wrong propeller diameter or wrong propeller pitch X 430B, 431B, 432A, 434A. Faulty fuel pump. Alternator belts or other alternator faults. Chapter 1 Overhaul data Technical data* (Measurements are given in mm unless otherwise specified) General Type designation ................................................................................ 430A/431 A, 430B/431 B, 432A/434A Method of operation ........................................................................... 4-stroke Max. output ......................................................................................... See the sales literature Speed range for full load ................................................................... 4 100 – 4 500 r/min (430A/B) 4 400 – 4 800 r/min (431A/B, 432A, 434A) Max. cruising speed ........................................................................... 300 - 500 r/min lower than the max. speed attained Idling speed ........................................................................................ 750 r/min Compression ratio ............................................................................. 9.3:1 Compression pressure at engine starting speed ............................. 10 – 11 kp/cm2 Engine type ........................................................................................ 90° V engine Number of cylinders ........................................................................... 6 Bore .................................................................................................... 101.6 (3.962") Stroke .................................................................................................. 88.4 (3.448") Swept volume ..................................................................................... 4.293 dm3 (261.972 cu.in.) Weight with drive, without oil (DP/SP) ............................................... 355/351 kg (781/772.2 lb) Cylinder block Material ............................................................................................... Cast iron Bore, standard .................................................................................... 101.58 – 101.66 (3.961 – 3.964") Bore, oversize .................................................................................... 102.4 (3.994") Max. cylinder out-of-roundness ......................................................... 0.05 (0.002") The cylinder barrels should be rebored when the wear exceeds ............................................................................... 0.13 mm (0.005") (if the engine oil consumption is abnormal) Max. cylinder conicity ......................................................................... 0.025 (0.001") Pistons Material ............................................................................................... Aluminium Piston clearance ................................................................................ 0.069 (0.003") Pistons, standard ............................................................................... 101.595 – 101.608 (3.9998 – 4.0003"1) 101.608 – 101.620 (4.0003 – 4.0008") Pistons, oversize ................................................................................ 102.4 (4.03") Piston rings Piston ring gap, measured at the opening of the ring compression ring, upper .................................................................... 0.25 – 0.76 (0.010 – 0.030") compression ring, lower .................................................................... 0.25 – 0.89 (0.010 – 0.035") Piston ring gap, oil ring ...................................................................... 0.38 – 1.65 (0.015 – 0.064") Oversize, piston rings ........................................................................ 0.76 (0.030") * For AQ205A, see technical data for 431A. 430A/431 A, 430B/431 B, 432A/434A Compression rings Upper ring, chromium-plated, marking up Number on each piston ..................................................................... 2 Height ................................................................................................. 1.98 (0.077") Piston ring clearance in slot upper ring ........................................................................................ 0.03 – 0.11 (0.001 – 0.004") lower ring ........................................................................................ 0.03 – 0.11 (0.001 – 0.004") Oil rings Number on each piston ..................................................................... 1 Height ................................................................................................. 4.74 (0.185") Piston ring clearance in slot .............................................................. 0.05 – 0.20 (0.002 – 0.008") Piston pins Forced fit Fit in the connecting rod, negative clearance ................................... 0.02 – 0.04 (0.0008 – 0.0016") Diameter, standard ............................................................................. 23.50 – 23.55 (0.917 – 0.918") Max. piston pin clearance in piston ................................................... 0.025 (0.001") Crankshaft Axial crankshaft clearance ................................................................. 0.05 – 0.15 (0.002 – 0.006") Main bearings Main bearing journals, journal no. 1 (from the front) ............ 1 2 and 3 4 Diameter, standard .................................................................... 62.179 – 62.212 62.181 – 62.204 62.176 – 62.199 (2.425 – 2.427") (2.425 – 2.426") (2.425 – 2.426") Bearing clearance .................................................................... 0.025 – 0.038 0.025 – 0.064 0.064 – 0.089 (0.0010 – 0.0015") (0.0010 – 0.0024") (0.0024 – 0.0035") 430A/431 A, 430B/431 B, 432A/434A Out-of-roundness, max. ..................................................................... 0.025 (0.0010") Conicity, max. ..................................................................................... 0.025 (0.0010") Main bearing shells 1st undersize ...................................................................................... 0.254 (0.010") 2nd undersize .................................................................................... 0.508 (0.020") Big end bearings Diameter, standard ............................................................................. 57.11 – 57.14 (2.227 – 2.228") Big end bearing clearance ................................................................ 0.033 – 0.076 (0.001 – 0.003") Out-of-roundness, max. ..................................................................... 0.025 (0.0010") Conicity, max ...................................................................................... 0.025 (0.0010") Big end bearing shells 1st undersize ...................................................................................... 0.254 (0.010") 2nd undersize .................................................................................... 0.508 (0.020") Connecting rods Axial clearance at crankshaft ............................................................ 0.15 – 0.36 (0.006 – 0.014") 430A/431 A, 430B/431 B, 432A/434A Camshaft Number of bearings ........................................................................... 4 Bearing journal, diameter .................................................................. 47.45 – 47.48 (1.850 – 1.852") Bearing journal, max. out-of-roundness ............................................ 0.025 (0.0010") Camshaft’s straightness, max. cast .................................................... 0.051 (0.0020") Axial clearance................................................................................... 0.10 – 0.30 (0.004 – 0.012") Cam lift intake .................................................................................................. 6.83 (0.267") exhaust ............................................................................................... 6.94 (0.271") Lift tolerance ....................................................................................... 0.05 (± 0.002") Valves Inlet Disk diameter ..................................................................................... 49.149 – 49.403 (1.917 – 1.927") Min. disk edge .................................................................................... 0.8 (0.031") Stem diameter .................................................................................... 8.65 – 8.68 (0.337 – 0.339") Oversize, 0.015" ................................................................................. 9.05 – 9.07 (0.353 – 0.354") Oversize, 0.030" ................................................................................. 9.43 – 9.45 (0.368 – 0.369") Valve seat angle ................................................................................. 45° Cylinder head seat angle .................................................................. 46° Width of seat in cylinder head ........................................................... 0.80 – 1.60 (0.031 – 0.062") Exhaust Disk diameter ..................................................................................... 37.97 – 38.23 (1.481 – 1.491") Min. disk edge .................................................................................... 0.8 (0.031") Stem diameter .................................................................................... 8.63 – 8.68 (0.337 – 0.339") Oversize, 0.015 .................................................................................. 8.75 – 8.76 (0.341 – 0.342") Oversize, 0.030 .................................................................................. 9.05 – 9.07 (0.353 – 0.354") Valve seat angle ................................................................................. 45° Cylinder head seat angle .................................................................. 46° Width of seat in cylinder head ........................................................... 1.60 – 2.40 (0.062 – 0.093") Valve guides Clearance, valve stem – guide, inlet valve ....................................... 0.025 – 0.094 (0.0010 – 0.0040") Clearance, valve stem – guide, exhaust valve ................................. 0.025 – 0.120 (0.0010 – 0.0047") Valve springs – inlet, exhaust Length unloaded ................................................................................ 51.6 (2.012") Length at a load of 334 – 370 N (34.0 – 38.0 kp) ............................. 44.0 (1.716") Length at a load of 853 – 905 N (87.0 – 92.5 kp) ............................. 31.7 (1.236") Lubrication system Oil quality ............................................................................................ Service SG Viscosity ............................................................................................. SAE 20W/50 (15W/50) Oil capacity excl. oil filter .................................................................... 3.8 l (1.016 US gall.) Oil capacity incl. oil filter .................................................................... 4.2 l (1.123 US gall.) Oil pressure at idling speed, hot engine ........................................... 0.7 kp/cm2 Oil pressure at full speed, hot engine ............................................... 2.50 – 3.16 kp/cm2 430A/431A 430B/431 B 432A/434A Fuel system Fuel quality, min. ........................................... 91 octane (RON) Fuel pump Mechanical pump, supply pressure at 1 000 r/min ..................... 0.32 – 0.46 kp/cm2 Electrical pump, supply pressure (min.) at 12 Volts ................ 0.07 kp/cm2 0.07 kp/cm2 Electrical system 430A/430B, 431A/431B, 432A/434A Battery Ground connection ....................................... Negative Voltage .......................................................... 12 Volts Capacity ........................................................ 60 Ah (min.) Battery electrolyte specific gravity fully charged battery .................................. 1.275 – 1.285 g/cm3 battery to be recharged at ......................... 1.230 g/cm3 Alternator Type ............................................................... Alternating current Max. output .................................................... 700 W (50 A) Starter motor Starter motor output ...................................... 0.96 kW (1.3 hp) Ignition system 430A/430B 431A/431B 432A/434A Spark plugs ................................................... Volvo Penta part no. 876046-4 AC MR43T or equivalent Spark plug gap .............................................. 0.9 (0.035") Firing order .................................................... 1-6-5-4-3-2 Stroboscope setting 3 300 r/min ................................................. 21° BTDC 2 500 r/min ................................................. 16° BTDC basic setting ............................................... 8° BTDC/1800 r/min 8° BTDC/750 r/min 0° BTDC/750 r/min Distributor, air gap ......................................... 0.20-0.25 (0.008-0.010") 0.20-0.25 (0.008-0.010") Cooling system (sea water cooled) 430A/430B, 431A/431B, 432A/434A Thermostat starts to open at ......................................... 62°C (144°F) fully open at................................................ 72°C (162°F) Fresh water cooling system (accessoire) Thermostat starts to open at ......................................... 68°C (155°F) fully open at................................................ 83°C (182°F) Tightening torques Nm kpm lbf. ft. Lubrication lock fluid Cylinder head bolts, 1st tightening ........................... 50 5 36 Permatex 2nd tightening ........................................................... 90 9 66 Main bearing bolts .................................................... 108 11 80 Molykote Big-end bearing caps ............................................... 61 6.2 45 oil Flywheel bolts ........................................................... 82 8.2 60 oil Flywheel housing bolts ............................................. 41 4.1 30 oil Center bolt, crankshaft, front ..................................... 82 8.2 60 oil Bolts for camshaft gear ............................................. 24 2.4 17.5 oil Intake manifold bolts ................................................. 41 4.1 30 oil Exhaust manifold bolts .............................................. 35 3.5 26 Permatex Riser, bolts ................................................................. 25 2.5 18.5 Permatex Spark plugs ............................................................... 20 2 14.5 Dry Bolts for oil pump ...................................................... 90 9 66 oil Oil pan bolts .............................................................. 11 1.1 8 oil Oil pan nuts ............................................................... 22 2.2 16 oil Timing gear casing bolts ........................................... 14 1.4 10.3 oil Valve cover bolts ....................................................... 6 .6 4.5 oil Oil drain plug ............................................................. 27 2.7 19.8 oil Circulation pump bolts (coolant) .............................. 41 4.1 30 Permatex Distributor bracket bolts (430A/B, 431A/B) .............. 46 4.6 34 oil Distributor bracket bolts (432A/434A) ...................... 27 2.7 20 oil Carburetor bolts ........................................................ 13 1.3 9.5 oil Retainer, push rod guides ........................................ 16 1.6 11.8 oil Rocker arm screws (430B, 431B, 432A, 434A) ....... 47 4.7 34.8 oil Balance shaft, drive (432A, 434A) ............................ 20 2.0 14.8 VP 1161053-2 or Locktite 242 Balance shaft, bearing retainer (432A, 434A) ......... 14 1.4 10.4 VP 1161053-2 or Locktite 242 18 Chapter 2 Special tools 9986052 Valve spring compressor 884359-1 Drift for fitting seal in flywheel housing 884944-0 Tool for guiding the connecting rod and protection for connecting rod bolt 884528-1 Puller for crankshaft gear 884529-9 Drift for fitting timing gear casing seal 884530-7 Drift for fitting crankshaft drive 884943-2 Tool for fitting oil strainer 884608-1 Tool for removing and fitting the front vibration damper 884682-6 Fixture and drift for removing and fitting wrist pin 884596-8 Drift for fitting primary shaft in flywheel housing 884599-2 Drift for fitting sealing ring in flywheel housing 884609-9 Locating pin for removing and fitting exhaust manifold 884613-1 Drift for choke lever 884614-9 Break tool for carburetor linkage 884615-6 Measuring tool for float level 884616-4 T-measure, inch scale 884617-2 Angle scale for choke valve 884618-0 Vacuum pump 884619-8 Holder for choke lever 884620-6 Support for carburetor 884621-4 Adjuster key 884991-1 Reamer kit for valve guide, inlet and exhaust 884627-1 Puller for rocker arm bolt 884628-9 Tool for removing and fitting camshaft bearings 884629-7 Tool for fitting rocker arm bolt 884630-5 Tool for cleaning valve guide 884632-1 Reamer for rocker arm bolt, 0.013 in oversize 884691-7 Tool for venting screw (when setting fuel/air mixture) 885050-5 Fixture for support 884838-4 Drift for fitting sealing ring in flywheel housing 885163-6 Connector for the basic ignition timing 432A, 434A 9998113-6 Drift for removing and fitting the bearing housing to the balance shaft 22 Chapter 3: Wiring Diagram Wiring Diagram 430A, 431A 1. Oil pressure gauge 9. Fuse 8 Amp 17. Oil pressure sender 2. Temp gauge 10. Alternator 18. Distributor 3. Voltmeter 11. Starter motor 19. Ignition coil 4. Tachometer 12. Automatic choke 20. Relay 5. Instrument lights 13. Automatic fuse 40 Amp 21. Resistor 6. Key switch 14. Main switch (optional) 22. Fuel gauge (alternative) 7. Switch, instrument lights 15. Battery (optional) 23. Connector adapter 8. Fuse 8 Amp 16. Temp sender Color AWG mm2 SB = black LBL = light blue 16 1.5 PU = purpur R/Y = red/yellow 13 2.5 LBN = light brown BN = brown 10 6.0 R = red W = white 8 10.0 GR = grey Wiring diagram, 430B, 431B Cable colors SB = Black PU = Purpur LBN = Light Brown R = Red GR = Grey LBL = Light Blue R/Y = Red/Yellow BN = Brown W = White Y = Yellow LR = Light Red Cable areas AWG mm2 16 1.5 13 2.5 10 6.0 8 10.0 1. Tachometer 2. Oil pressure gauge 3. Temperature gauge 4. Voltmeter 5. Switch, instrument illumination 6. Instrument illumination 7. Key circuit breaker 8. 8A fuse, ignition 9. 8A fuse, starter 10. Connector, neutral position switch 11. Connector, safety contact 12. Connector, instrument illumination (optional) 13. Connector, outlet, max. 20A 14. Connector, outlet, max. 5A in total (main panel + flybridge panel) 15. Connectors, engine/instrumentation* 16. Extension cabling 17. Alternator 18. Starter motor 19. Automatic choke 20. 40A automatic fuse 21. Main power switch (optional) 22. Battery 23. Temperature sensor 24. Oil pressure sensor 25. Distributor 26. Ignition coil 27. Resistor 28. Relay 29. Relay 30. Fuel pump 31. Connector 32. Insulator (some engines only) * NOTE! The terminals in the engine’s round connector and the instrument panel’s rectangular connector are numbered differently. The numbers shown in this wiring diagram show the number of pins in the connector, not the electrical connection between the connectors. The connectors are coupled electrically in accordance with the wire colors, i.e. with the pin opposite in the diagram. Wiring diagram, 432A, 434A Cable colors SB = Black PU = Purpur LBN = Light Brown R = Red GR = Grey LBL = Light Blue R/Y = Red/Yellow BN = Brown W = White Y = Yellow LR = Light Red Cable areas AWG mm2 16 1.5 13 2.5 10 6.0 8 10.0 1. Tachometer 2. Oil pressure gauge 3. Temperature gauge 4. Voltmeter 5. Switch, instrument illumination 6. Instrument illumination 7. Key circuit breaker 8. 8A fuse, ignition 9. 8A fuse, starter 10. Connector, neutral position switch 11. Connector, safety contact 12. Connector, instrument illumination (optional) 13. Connector, outlet, max. 20A 14. Connector, outlet, max. 5A in total (main panel + flybridge panel) 23. Temperature sensor 15. Connectors, engine/instrumentation* 24. Oil pressure sensor 16. Extension cabling 25. Distributor 17. Alternator 26. Ignition coil 18. Starter motor 27. Resistor 19. Automatic choke 28. Relay 20. 40A automatic fuse 29. Relay 21. Main power switch (optional) 30. Fuel pump 22. Battery 31. Connector * NOTE! The terminals in the engine’s round connector and the instrument panel’s rectangular connector are numbered differently. The numbers shown in this wiring diagram show the number of pins in the connector, not the electrical connection between the connectors. The connectors are coupled electrically in accordance with the wire colors, i.e. with the pin opposite in the diagram. 26 Chapter 4 Cylinder Head This chapter covers the cylinder head and related parts as follows: Procedure Page 4A Fault-tracing and repair, fuel system ............................................................. 29 4B Removing related parts.................................................................................. 63 4C Overhauling the cooling system .................................................................... 65 4D Overhauling the valve system ....................................................................... 67 4E Assembling the cylinder head ........................................................................ 73 4F Installing the related parts .............................................................................. 75 Quick guide: Replacing the thermostat: Follow points 1-3, page 65. Overhauling the sea water pump: Follow points 7-8, page 66. 28 Chapter 4A Cylinder Head Fault-tracing and repair procedures, fuel system The fault-tracing procedure only covers problems in the carburetor and fuel system. The symptoms described can also be caused by malfunction of the ignition or electrical system, a dirty hull, damaged propeller or drive, incorrect trim angle or a worn engine. Check these possible causes of the fault before any work is started on the carburetor. IMPORTANT! Remember the danger of fire. Always have a fire extinguisher nearby! Switch off the ignition when working with the fuel system. All checks and repairs must be done with the engine stopped! Run the engine room blower for 2 to 3 minutes before starting work. IMPORTANT! Be aware of the fire hazard. Always have a fire extinguisher near at hand. CAUSE SYMPTOMWill not startStarts but stops againDifficult startingPoor idling (too fast or slow)Runs on, post ignitionHesitates when acceleratingLoss of power during normalaccelerationLoss of power during fastacceleration or at high speedSuddenly stopsPoor fuel economyIrregualr runningCORRECTIVE ACTION Empty fuel tank X X Fill fuel tank Closed fuel cock X X Open the fuel cock Clogged fuel filter X X X X 1) Faulty fuel pump X X X X Replace the pump Blocked fuel line X X Blow clean all fuel lines Carburetor flooding X X 2) Not enough fuel in the carburetor X X X X 3) Choke not functioning correctly X X X X X X 4) X X X 5) (Excl. Holley 2010.) Corrective Action 1. Replace or clean the fuel filters. The engine has 2 fuel filters: one large main filter fitted at the fuel pump and a filter fitted in the carburetor at the fuel inlet. The main filter must be replaced, the carburetor inlet filter either cleaned or replaced. Note! Certain installations can have additional filters or water separators, for example before the fuel cock. Ensure that all filters are clean. 2. Check by removing the flame arrester and looking down into the carburetor with the engine stopped. If the engine is flooding, there will be fuel flowing in the venturi. To stop the flooding, check the needle and seat, and the float. Replace the needle and seat if there is leakage. Check that the float can move freely. If the carburetor is flooding due to contamination, then the complete carburetor must be removed and cleaned. 3. Check the needle and seat function and float level. Adjust the float level as specified under “Overhauling the Carburetor”. 4. General: Clean the choke mechanism and check that linkage and choke valve is not sticking or seized. When replacing parts or disassembling, adjustment of the choke and the vacuum break (excl. Holley 2010) must be completed. The engine starts but stops again: Check the choke warm-up function and that the electrical connections are undamaged. Correct any sticking, check setting. Holley 2010, 4160: Check the vacuum piston. Correct any sticking. Check that there is no air leakage at the cork gasket. The engine is difficult to start: The choke valve is not closing, check setting. 5. Check operation and make sure it is not sticking. Adjust as per specification in “Overhauling the Carburetor”. (Excl. Holley 2010.) CAUSE SYMPTOMWill not startStarts but stops againDifficult startingPoor idling (too fast or slow)Runs on, post ignitionHesitates when acceleratingLoss of power during normalaccelerationLoss of power during fastacceleration or at high speedSuddenly stopsPoor fuel economyIrregualr runningCORRECTIVE ACTION Loose or leaking vacuum hose X X X Repl. the hose. Rochester Carburetor sucking air, vacuum leak X X X 6) Accelerator pump faulty/incorrectly adj X X X X 7) Air valve sticking/incorrectly adjusted X X X 8) Contamination in carburetor X X X X X X Clean the carburetor Idling speed incorrectly adjusted X X X 9) Choke incorrectly adjusted X X X X Ádjust the choke setting 6. Check the gaskets and the mounting hardware. The carburetor should be tightened to a torque of 13 Nm (1.3 kpm/9 lbf.ft). Do not over tighten. Holley 4160: Check that the vacuum housing diaphragm or the cork gasket at the sealing face is not leaking. If leaking the secondary plates will not open fully. 7. Remove the flame arrestor and the cover. Check the function and setting of the accelerator pump, and the ball valve. Check that there is no contamination in the accelerator pump fuel passages. Clean and blow through with compressed air. 8. Check the function and adjust the mechanism as per specification under “Overhauling the Carburetor”. 9. Adjust the idle to the correct speed as per Technical Data. Overhauling and Checking the Rochester 4ME Carburetor, 431A, 431B, VP No. 856138-3 Functional Description The carburetor is a four barrel, two-stage, down-draught carburetor. 1. Carburetor Construction, Rochester 4ME. 1. Linkage for choke valve 2. Screw for the choke valve shaft 3. Choke valve lever 4. Choke valve shaft 5. Choke valve 6. Choke valve screw (2) 7. Screw for carburetor air horn (short) 8. Screw for carburetor air horn (long) 11. Secondary fuel needle hanger 13. Screw for carburetor air horn (countersunk 2) 14. Control lever for pump 15. Shaft for pump lever 16. Carburetor air horn, complete 17. Fuel needle, secondary 18. Pump, complete 19. Spring, pump return 20. Gasket, carburetor air horn – fuel bowl 21. Float, complete 22. Float shaft, complete 23. Spring, holder for primary fuel needles 24. Intermediate piece, fuel bowl 29. Protection plate, secondary venturi 30. Lever, choke rod (lower part) 31. Fuel needle, primary (2) 32. Main jet, primary (2) 33. Power piston for fuel needles, primary 34. Spring 35. Holder, ball pump discharge 36. Ball, check valve accelerator pump 37. Float needle and seat, complete (standard) 38. Fuel bowl, complete 39. Choke cover with spring 43. Arm 45. Locking screw 46. Locking washer 47. Chock housing 49. Shaft with lever 50. Seal 52. Spring, adjuster screw idle 53. Screw, idle speed adjustment 54. Spring, filter discharge 55. Filter, fuel intake 56. Gasket, fuel filter 57. Filter nut, fuel intake 58. Rod for vacuum break 59. Vacuum break, complete 60. Bracket for vacuum break 62. Hose for vacuum break 63. Gasket, throttle body – fuel bowl 64. Throttle Body, completer 65. Fastening screw, throttle lever 66. Linkage, secondary valve 68. Lever 69. Linkage, accelerator pump 71. Spring, fuel needle idle mixture 72. Fuel needle, idle mixture 73. Fastening screw, throttle body to fuel bowl 75. Gasket, throttle body – inlet manifold 2. The first stage (primary side) consists of two 1 3/8 (35 mm) barrels where the fuel is metered through a combination of fixed main jets and tapered fuel needles (32). The up and down movement of the fuel needles (31) in the main jets is controlled by a spring loaded power piston (33). The power piston is regulated by manifold vacuum. The primary side is also equipped with an accelerator pump consisting of a spring loaded piston (18) that moves in a fuel filled well. Movement of the piston is controlled by a lever (14) that is connected by linkage (69) to the throttle mechanism. When the throttle is opened it pushes the piston down into the well forcing fuel through the accelerator pump check valve (36) to a passage and into the primary venturi. The accelerator pump piston contains a check valve on the piston plunger itself. When the piston moves downward into the fuel well the valve is closed. When the piston moves upwards, the valve opens allowing the fuel well to fill and any gas to escape. The accelerator pump check valve closes when the pump piston moves upward preventing air from being sucked into the pump well. 3. The second stage (secondary side) consists of two 2 1/4" (57 mm) venturis controlled by a mechanical set of throttle plates as well as a vacuum operated air valve. When the primary side throttle is completely opened, linkage (66) opens the mechanically operated secondary throttle plates located at the bottom of the carburetor bore (16). This exposes the vacuum operated secondary air valve, mounted at the top of the carburetor bore (16), to manifold vacuum. As the air valve opens an eccentric cam mounted on the air valve shaft lifts the hanger (11) and in turn the secondary needles (17). The tapered needles lift out of a fixed orifice which meters the fuel proportionate to the air flow through the venturi. The higher the needle is lifted the more fuel is delivered to the secondary venturi. 4. The fuel bowl is centrally located between the two primary venturis, which makes for a short fuel transfer distances to both the primary and secondary fuel circuits. The float (21) is made of a closed cell plastic material hung on a lever, which pivots on a shaft (22). The other end of the lever operates the float needle which works in a brass seat (34). The incoming fuel must first pass through a spring loaded filter (55). Should the filter become blocked so that fuel cannot flow through, the fuel pump pressure will overpower the spring pressure (54) and bypass the clogged filter element. 5. Idle System. The primary side of the carburetor incorporates an idle system to supply the correct air/fuel mixture during idle and off-idle operation. The idle circuit is necessary since airflow through the venturi at these slow engine speeds is insufficient to obtain efficient metering through the main metering system. Fuel flows from the main jets to the main well. It then passes through the idle passage where it is picked up by the idle tube. At the top of the idle tube it mixes with air from the idle air bleeds and flows down another passage, through an idle channel restriction, and exits through the idle discharge hole below the slightly opened throttle plate. The idle discharge hole has an adjustment screw (53) to provide the correct mixture setting. Turning the screw in (clockwise) leans the mixture out and turning it out (counter-clockwise) richens the mixture up. 6. Vacuum break. The secondary air valve is controlled by a vacuum break (59). It consists of a spring loaded diaphragm which is connected to the air valve by a piece of linkage (58). When manifold vacuum exceeds 127-152 mm Hg (5-6" Hg) the diaphragm fully retracts by overcoming the spring tension. In this position the linkage (58) is in the rearmost of the slot of the air valve lever and the air valve is consequently closed. During acceleration or when the engine under load manifold vacuum drops and the diaphragm spring overcomes the effect of the vacuum on the diaphragm and presses it outward. The linkage (58) extends and moves forward in the lever groove and allows the air valve to open. The vacuum connection to the diaphragm has a restriction to provide gradual opening of the air valve. This is done so that the heavier fuel gets a chance to start to flow to the secondary discharge nozzles to prevent a lean mixture. 7. The carburetor has an electric choke. There is a bimetallic spring which keeps the choke valve in the closed position when the engine is cold. Upon starting the bimetallic spring is electrically heated and the spring begins to unwind. As it unwinds it begins to open the choke valve by means of the choke arm (43) and linkage (1). When the choke shaft (49) turns as the choke opens it releases the lock for the secondary air valve and allows the secondaries to operate if required. As the spring pressure holding the choke closed decreases the vacuum underneath will gradually take over so that the valve will continually open until the spring is completely unwound. The electric heating of the choke is done in two stages with a built-in thermostat monitoring the temperature of the choke housing. If it is sufficiently hot, due to the rising heat from the engine, the spring will be heated rapidly. In this condition the bimetallic spring is already partially unwound due to the engine heat, the choke valve will open much faster. Therefore little or no choke is used when starting a warm engine. 8. Carburetor Air and Fuel System 1. Carburetor cover 2. Primary barrel (first stage) 3. Secondary barrel (second stage) 4. Fuel bowl 5. Accelerator pump (primary barrel) 6. Primary venturi with discharge nozzle 7. Secondary valve 8. Air valve (secondary) 9. Fuel channel secondary barrel 10. Channels, idle system 11. Fuel channel primary barrel 12. Accelerator fuel channel (primary) 13. Fuel needle (secondary) 14. Fuel pipe (secondary) 15. Main jet (secondary) Overhauling and checking 11. Place the carburetor in the fixture 884620-6. Remove the arm for the choke intermediate linkage at the choke valve. Remove the small TORX screw for the secondary hanger (in the middle of the secondary air valve) and pull out the hanger together with the nee- dles. 9. Removing the carburetor Remove the carburetor protective cover, wrench size 10 mm. Remove the flame arrestor, wrench size 11 mm. Remove the throttle cable from the throttle mechanism. Remove the fuel line, wrench size 17 mm. Remove the carburetor, together with the brackets for the protective cover, wrench size 1/2". NOTE! Do not forget to disconnect the electrical connections to the choke. 10. Dismantling the carburetor cover NOTE! Before opening the carburetor, it must be cleaned if it is dirty externally. Clean carefully using a brush and carburetor cleaner, thinners or other denatured alcohol. WARNING! Always work in well ventilated areas. No open flames! IMPORTANT! Never use more cleaner than absolutely necessary and minimize your exposure to these solvents as they may be harmful. The carburetor must never be immersed in cleaning fluid to remove dirt. Rubber or plastic components can be damaged by certain types of cleaning agents. Hold the carburetor in the horizontal position with the flame arrestor installed. If compressed air is used for drying and blowing clean, pull a plastic bag over the flame arrestor. Blow from above and downward. Do not direct the air in from underneath the carburetor. Remove the flame arrestor and wipe both the upper edge and underside clean with a clean lint-free rag. 12. Push in the pin for the accelerator pump lever, using drift 884613-1, only far enough to release the lever. When reassembling, the pin is pressed in with a screwdriver. 13. Remove the center stud. Remove the two countersunk screws in the carburetor bore, remove the two baffle screws and the three short and two long screws. All the screw heads are TORX 20. Pry loose the carburetor cover carefully so that it releases from the gasket. Lift the cover and remove the vacuum break linkage. NOTE! Be careful not to let the accelerator pump fall from the cover. 14. Checking and adjusting the float level Remove the fuel bowl spacer to allow better accessibility. Hold the float shaft (1) in position while measuring, see diagram. Lightly press the float arm (2) against the float valve. Measure from the upper edge of the fuel bowl to the top of the float (3), 4.8 mm (3/ 16") from the tip of the float. Use T-gauge 884616-4. The float level should be 6.6 mm (0.26") Adjusting: Remove the float and bend the float arm (4) up or down. Check after adjusting that the float hangs straight. 15. Replacing the needle and seat Remove the carburetor cover gasket, being careful where the primary needles pass through the gasket. Remove the return spring for the accelerator pump (1). Remove the power piston together with the primary needles as one unit (2). This is done by repeatedly pressing down and quickly releasing the piston. Never use tools to do this. Remove the fuel bowl plastic spacer (3). Remove the power piston return spring. Remove the float and float needle together by pulling them out by the float hinge pin (4). The float needle and float hinge pin can now be removed from the float. Remove the seat and remove the seal. 16. Adjusting the air valve spring Loosen the locking screw (1) approximately 1/4 turn using a Torx driver, TRX10. Turn the adjuster screw (2) counter-clockwise until the air valve is partly opened. Turn the adjuster screw clockwise until the air valve just closes, and then turn it another 7/8 turn. Lock with the locking screw (1). 17. Installing the carburetor cover Fit a gasket carefully over the primary needles and guide pins. Check that the gasket holes for the fuel passages are correctly centered. Install the vacuum break linkage to the air valve lever. Carefully lower the cover. Check that the accelerator pump locates correctly into the return spring. Install the secondary needles and hanger. 18. Install the two long screws, 6 and 7 and the two countersunk, 1 and 2. Install the baffle with screws 3 and 4. Install the remaining screws and tighten in the sequence shown in the diagram. Install the accelerator pump lever. 20. Checking and adjusting the choke lever • Remove the cover for the choke. • Close the choke valve (1) by pressing up the choke arm (2) – insert a 3 mm (3/16") drift into the hole in the choke housing. • The lower edge of the choke arm (4) should make light contact with the drift. • Adjusting: bend the linkage arm at (5), see diagram insert. 19. Checking and adjusting the accelerator pump stroke • Throttle valve (1) must be completely closed. • If necessary, bend away the stop tang (2) so that the primary throttle valve can be closed completely. (Diagram is with throttle arm removed.) • The linkage must be in the innermost hole on the accelerator pump lever (3). • Measure from the top of the carburetor (4) (by the bowl vent) to the pump rod at its upper position. The distance should be 9.1 mm (0.36"). Bend the accelerator pump lever (5) when adjusting. 21. The choke coil setting • Loosen the locking screw (1). • With the choke valve fully open (cold choke and engine), turn the choke cover (2) until the choke valve just closes. • Turn to the O-mark on the choke housing (3). • Tighten the locking screws. 22. The vacuum break setting •Place an angle gauge 884617-2 on the choke valve as per points 26-28. •Press the throttle arm tang lightly against the vacuum break rod (3). • The choke valve should open to the set number of degrees: 26°. Check on the bubble level. If necessary, adjust by bending the throttle arm tang (3). 23. Simplified setting (less accurate) • Press in the vacuum rod (5) • Press the valve arm tang lightly against the vacuum break rod (3) • Measure the valve opening (6) using a 3 mm (3/16") drill bit. • Where necessary, adjust by bending the throttle arm tang (3) 24. Checking and adjusting the choke unloader • Place an angle gauge 884617-2 on the choke valve as per points 26-28. The choke coil must be at the 0-mark (1). • Hold the throttle valve wide open. • Close the choke valve by pressing up the intermediate lever tang (2). Hold it in place using a rubber band (3). • The choke valve shall open (incl. linkage play) at 33° (4). • When adjusting, bend the tang (5). 25. Simplified setting (less accurate) • Follow point 24, except, measure the choke valve opening with a 4 mm (5/32") drill, instead of the angle gauge. Place the drill on the underside of the valve (by the float bowl vent). 26. Measuring with the angle gauge 884617-2 • The angle gauge can be used for measuring the choke valve opening angle. If the carburetor has been removed, it must be placed so that the throttle plates and linkage function in the same way as if the carburetor was installed on the engine. 27. Close the choke valve (1) and place the magnetic foot of the tool on the valve (2). Zero the degree plate and center the bubble level (4). 28. Adjust the degree plate to the angle given (33) (5). Adjust carburetor if necessary (as per 28 and 24) until the bubble level is centered. 29. Checking and adjusting the secondary valve opening ratio • The screw is set to the correct idle speed (1) • The choke valve is completely open (2) • The lever is against the tang (3) • Measure the clearance in the oval hole (4) 3 mm (1/8"). Do not touch the linkage rod during the measuring • When adjusting, bend the tang (at the arrow) 30. Adjusting the arm for the secondary valve (second stage) opening function •Open the primary valve until the arm touches the tang (1) •The arm (1) must be in the middle of the oval hole. •When adjusting, bend the tang (at the arrow) (3). Nikki carburetor 430A, 430B, VP No. 856845-3 Overhauling and checking 31. The carburetor’s structure and function The Nikki carburetor is a twin-port, single-stage down-draft carburetor. The diameter of the ports (venturi tubes) is 43 mm (1.68"). 1. Carburetor body and float chamber 2. Carburetor cover 3. Choke 4. Vacuum break 5. Fuel intake and filter 6. Carburetor float and mounting 7. Carburetor float needle valve 8. Venturi cluster 9. Acceleration pump 10. Return spring, acceleration pump 11. Power piston, maximum load 12. Power valve 13. Main jets 14. Non-return valve, acceleration pump 15. Idling mixture screw 16. Idle screw 17. Fast idle cam 18. Choke linkage 19. Choke throttle 20. Pump linkage 32.Description of functions The carburetor has two ports and two different measuring systems for fuel and air. The carburetor receives fuel via the main jets when the engine is idling or running at partial load. These main jets are of different sizes (190 on the choke side, 145 on the lever side) in order to ensure that fuel is distributed as evenly as possible in the engine. Fuel flows into the main fuel channels, one for each port. The carburetor contains fuel tubes for idling and partial-load systems and emulsion tubes for the main metering system and full-load system. 33. Idling system This provides the engine with fuel when the throttle is wholly or partially closed. It operates with the aid of negative pressure from the induction manifold. When the throttle is closed, the negative pressure at the opening (1) below the throttle is high. Atmospheric pressure prevails at the opening (2). This great difference in pressure forces air to rush into the mixing channel and take fuel with it. More air enters via a second choke tube (3). Fuel and air are mixed in the mixing channel (4) which leads out to the low speed jet (5). The amount of fuel and air is regulated using the mixture screw (6). The idling system has an extra opening (4) which begins to operate when the throttle begins to open and the negative pressure reaches the opening. This provides a smooth transition from idling speed to partial load. 34. Main metering system The system consists of emulsion tubes (7) which are recessed in the main fuel channels. The full-load system gradually begins to operate when the throttle begins to open and air flows down through the venturi tubes (ports). According to the venturi principle, the pressure then drops and the flow rate increases when the air passes the venturi tube’s tapered end. This is utilized in the carburetor by placing the fuel emulsion tube’s opening inside the venturi tube. This opening has been designed as a venturi cluster in order to increase the negative pressure still further. The main fuel channel (8) receives air via the hole (10). The fuel/air mixture will then be transported as a result of the difference in pressure between the venturi cluster and the fuel channel. The fuel and air are mixed in the emulsion tube (7) when air flows into the tube’s side holes. 35. Full-load system The full-load system is a part of the main metering system and complements the same when the engine is run at high speeds or at large loads. In these cases, the negative pressure in the induction manifold is at its lowest (close to atmospheric pressure) due to the large flow of air when the throttle is open fully. Extra fuel is supplied to the excess of air, as at full load it is desirable to attain as much power as possible. The negative pressure controls a spring-loaded vacuum piston (11) which opens an extra passage for fuel in addition to the main jet. This full-load valve is known as a “power valve”, is fitted with a return spring, and opens when the vacuum piston reaches the power valve’s plunger. When the vacuum in the engine increases, the vacuum piston will travel upwards again. The power valve is then closed by its return spring. 36. Acceleration pump This is a type of piston fitted with a return spring. This piston is actuated mechanically from the damper. During acceleration, the piston is pushed down into its cylinder and forces fuel from the pump barrel. The pressure of the fuel then opens the seat valve (12), upon which fuel arrives at two jets which direct the fuel towards the venturi clusters of the two ports. When the piston has stopped traveling downwards, the pressure in the fuel channel drops and the seat valve closes, which prevents air from entering the pump housing and prevents the channel from being sucked dry by the air flowing through the venturi tubes. The pump piston is forced upwards by the return spring, and the cylinder can again be filled with fuel from the float chamber via the aperture (13). 37. Choke This is electrical. On the choke cover is a bimetallic spring which holds the choke throttle closed with its spring action. When the engine is started from cold, the bimetallic spring is heated electrically. When the engine has cooled, the spring contracts and closes the throttle. Overhauling and checking 38. Removing the carburetor Remove the carburetor’s flame arrestor, spanner size 11 mm. Remove the throttle cable from the control mechanism. Unscrew the feed pipe, spanner size 17 mm. Remove the carburetor, spanner size 1/2". IMPORTANT! Do not forget to remove the choke’s electrical connection. 39. Removing the carburetor cover N.B.! If the outside of the carburetor is dirty, clean it before dismantling it. Clean this carefully using a brush and carburetor cleaner, paint thinner or denatured alcohol such as methylated spirit. WARNING! Work in a well ventilated area. There should be no naked flames in the working area. IMPORTANT! Do not use more cleaner than is absolutely necessary, and use it for as little time as possible. The carburetor must not be dipped in the cleaning fluid in order to loosen contaminants. The fluid may damage plastic and rubber parts. Replace all the carburetor’s gaskets and O-rings when overhauling it. The gasket surfaces should be cleaned using a mild solvent such as paraffin. All channels, jets and passages should be blown clean carefully using compressed air. Hold the carburetor horizontal with the flame arrestor fitted. If you are using compressed air to dry the carburetor and blow it clean, a plastic bag should be slipped over the flame arrestor to protect it. Blow the carburetor clean from the top downwards. Do not direct the flow of air in under the carburetor. Remove the flame arrestor and dry the upper and lower sides of the carburetor with a clean, lint-free rag. 40. Remove and clean the fuel filter. If the filter is extremely blocked, unfiltered fuel may reach the carburetor if the fuel pressure exceeds the spring pressure in the filter. If this is the case, the entire carburetor should be cleaned carefully. 41. Remove the pin for the acceleration pump linkage. 42. Remove the idle cam. 43. Remove the eight screws in the carburetor cover. If the cover is stuck, tap it lightly with the shaft of your screwdriver in order to loosen it. Undo the vacuum hose and remove the vacuum break and linkage as a single unit. 44. Checking and adjusting the float level, upper position Measure from the lower dot on the float to the carburetor gasket, which should be in position. Use a T-gauge, part no. 884616-4 (1). The float level should be at 10 mm (0.39"). When adjusting this level, bend the ball-float lever (2) in the direction of the arrow. After adjusting the level, check that the float (3) is straight. 45. Checking and adjusting the float level, lower position Turn the carburetor over and let the float (1) hang freely. Measure from the gasket to the joint on the tip of the float. The level (2) should be 35.6 mm (1.42"). When adjusting the level, bend the tang (3) in the direction of the arrow. Check that the float needle (4) does not stick at maximum deflection. 46. Replacing the float needle Remove the float by pressing out the float pin (1). The float needle can now be unhooked from the ball-float lever. NOTE! The float needle comprises three separate parts. Unscrew the jet using a screwdriver with a 10 mm (0.39") head. Screw on the new jet and fit a new gasket. Do not forget to fit the baffle (2) around the float needle. 47. Replacing the jets Unscrew the jets using a wide-blade screwdriver. The carburetor has two main jets (1) and a full-load jet (power valve) (2). The main jets in the 430DP and 430SP are of different sizes. Size 190 is fitted on the left-hand side (the choke side), and size 145 is fitted on the right-hand side (the lever side). 48. Fuel channels Blow the carburetor’s air ducts and fuel channels clean using compressed air. Remove the venturi cluster and blow it clean separately. 49. Venturi cluster, structure 1. Venturi cluster with jets for the main metering system 2. Emulsion tubes 3. Fuel tube, idling system 4. Acceleration pump jets 5. Air intake, main metering system 6. Air intake, idling system 7. Air intake, idling system 50. Setting the choke spring Loosen the locking screws (1). With the choke valve fully open (cold choke), turn the choke cover against the tension of the bimetallic spring until the choke closes. Then turn to the 0-mark (2) on the choke housing. Tighten the locking screws (1). 51. Checking the pressure relief of the choke Hold the throttle (1) fully open. Measure between the upper side of the choke throttle and the carburetor barrel. The gap width (2) should be 6 mm (0.23"). When adjusting this, bend the tang (3). Positions A and B refer to the order in which the linkages are fitted when the carburetor cover has been removed. Linkage A is fitted before Linkage B. 52. Setting the idling speed Connect a workshop tachometer to the engine. Turn the adjustment screw (1) and set the idling speed in accordance with Technical Data. 53. Fitting the carburetor cover Fit a new gasket. Check first of all that the float needle baffle is fitted correctly. Then lower the cover and check that the acceleration pump is positioned correctly in relation to the return spring. Fit the screw and tighten them all evenly and in the sequence shown in the figure. Fit all the linkages and the vacuum break. See also the figure for item 51. Holley 2010 carburetor 432A, VP No. 857248-9 Overhauling and checking 54. The carburetor’s structure and function 1. Carburetor body 2. Carburetor cover 3. Choke 4. Choke throttle, choke arm 5. Float 6. Carburetor float needle valve 7. Venturi cluster 8. Acceleration pump 9. Non-return valve, acceleration pump 10. Cam, acceleration pump 11. Throttle control bracket 12. Arm, acceleration pump 13. Full-load valve (power valve) 14. Main jets 15. Idling mixture screws 16. Idle screw 17. Float chamber ventilation The Holley 2010 is a twin-port, single-stage downdraft carburetor. The carburetor has only a few main parts and is therefore simple to take apart and easy to clean and check. The two ports are fed with fuel by an idling system, a main metering system, a full-load system and an acceleration pump. The carburetor body (1) is cast in a single piece and has twin ports (venturi tubes). The float and choke throttle are mounted on the carburetor cover (2). The float chamber has main jets and a vacuum-controlled full-load valve (power valve) located in the bottom. The float chamber also has an outlet directly to the accelera- tion pump. The float chamber is ventilated via a breather pipe which opens out over the twin ports. 55. Idling system This provides the engine with fuel when the throttle is wholly or partially closed. It operates with the aid of negative pressure from the induction manifold. When the throttle is closed, the negative pressure at the opening (1) below the throttle is high. Atmospheric pressure prevails at the opening (2). This great difference in pressure forces air to rush into the mixing channel and take fuel with it at the connection with the fuel channel. This fuel has been mixed with air in the idle chamber, which is located on the top of the reinforcement piece. See positions 7 to 9 in the figure below. The opening has idling jets (6) which regulate the flow of the fuel/air mixture. The idling system has extra openings (4) which also begin to operate when the throttle begins to open and the negative pressure reaches the opening. This provides a smooth transition from running on the idling system to running on the main system. Fuel is fed into the idling system’s fuel channel via the main jet (7). When the float chamber is at atmospheric pressure, the difference in pressure helps the fuel to be sucked in at point (3). The fuel channel has a restrictor (5) which controls the amount of fuel to the idling system. The float is made of plastic and is center-suspended. The float’s lever actuates the seat valve, which can be replaced. The inlet is fitted with a fuel filter made of brass mesh. 56. Main metering system This system works according to the venturi principle. This means that air which flows via the tapered end of a tube has the greatest flow rate, and the lowest pressure is found in the narrowest part. This is utilized in the carburetor by placing the fuel emulsion tube’s opening into the venturi tube. This opening has been designed as a venturi cluster (1) in order to increase the negative pressure still further. The emulsion is produced by fuel at atmospheric pressure being fed from the float chamber to the mixing channel (3) via the main jet (2). The fuel/air mixture is formed by air flowing out from the tubes (4) of the venturi cluster. These tubes have holes bored into the sides and are recessed in the main fuel channels. Air flows into the inlet opening (5) (where atmospheric pressure prevails), down into the tubes and into the holes in the sides of the tubes. The difference in pressure between the venturi cluster (1) where the fuel/ air mixture comes out (negative pressure) and the point (5) and the float chamber (atmospheric pressure) thereby provides the driving force for the transportation of the fuel. Extra air which helps to transport the fuel is taken in via position (6). The idling system’s vaporizing chamber is located at position (7), which chamber receives fuel via the tube (8) and air via the hole (9). The amount of air which flows through the venturi tube determines how much fuel is forced out of the float chamber. The air flow velocity in the venturi tube is at its greatest, the pressure in the venturi tube is at its lowest, and the amount of fuel being transported is at its greatest when the throttles are fully open. The main jets (which can be replaced) limit the flow of fuel. These jets are marked with a flow capacity expressed in cm3/min. 57. Full-load system The full-load system is a part of the main metering system and complements the same when the engine is run at high speeds or at large loads. In these cases, the negative pressure in the induction manifold is at its lowest (close to atmospheric pressure) due to the large flow of air when the throttle is open fully. Extra fuel is supplied to the excess of air, as at full load it is desirable to attain as much power as possible. The negative pressure controls a spring-loaded vacuum valve (1) which opens an extra passage for fuel in addition to the main jet. This “power valve” is numbered according to the vacuum at which it opens. For example, a “65” opens when the negative pressure drops to 6.5" of mercury. When the throttles start to close and the negative pressure rises, the spring action is overcome and the extra fuel passage is closed. This allows the carburetor to provide optimum efficiency so that fuel consumption is low at mid-range speeds, while still retaining the capacity for high power. 58. Acceleration pump This pump is of the diaphragm type and is located at the bottom of the float chamber. The acceleration pump has two functions: 1. To compensate for a shortage of fuel when the throttles open and air rushes in. This shortage of fuel is explained by the fact that fuel is considerably “heavier,” that is to say, it has a higher density than air. This leads to the fuel feed becoming sluggish when rapid changes are made to the throttle position, and a mixture of fuel and air which is too lean results. 2. To enrich the fuel mixture in order to compensate for the fuel which condenses on the surfaces of the induction manifold when the throttle is opened quickly at low speeds. A rapid drop in the negative pressure tends to condense the fuel. The pump is actuated mechanically by the damper. The damper is fitted with a plastic cam (1) which actuates the lever (2) of the acceleration pump via an intermediate le- ver. The design of the cam determines the capacity of the pump, and its profile determines how the fuel is distribut- ed when the throttle opens. Fuel runs down into the pump from the float chamber via the channel (3). When the pump lever pushes the pump diaphragm up (the diaphragm is fitted with a return spring) the feed channel is closed by the pump pressure via a plastic diaphragm (4). The fuel is then forced into a channel to a seat valve (5), which opens, and the fuel arrives at the jets (6). These jets force out a jet of fuel directed towards the venturi cluster in the ports. When the pressure in the fuel channel drops, the seat valve (5) closes, which prevents air from getting into the pump housing and the channel being sucked dry by the flow of air in the venturi tube. The seat valve consists of a ball, and a pin as a counterbalance. When the pressure in the pump housing drops, the fuel in the float chamber can open the non-return valve (diaphragm) by virtue of its own weight, and then it can run down into the pump housing. The return spring in the pump forces the pump diaphragm back simultaneously so that new pump capacity is created. 59. Choke This is electrical. On the choke cover is a bimetallic spring which holds the choke throttle closed with its spring action. When the engine is started from cold, the bimetallic spring is heated electrically. When the engine has started, the piston (which is controlled by negative pressure in the choke housing) drags the choke throttle to a set position, known as the “qualified position”. The bimetallic spring causes the choke throttle to continue opening. When the engine has stopped and cooled, the spring contracts and closes the throttle. Overhauling and checking Technical data VP 857248-9 Engine 432A, DP/SP Main jets left 76 right 80 Full-load valve (“power valve”) 65 Choke setting 7 marks from the left 60. Removing the carburetor from the engine Undo the carburetor’s protective cover, socket size 10 mm. Remove the electrical connection to the choke and the vacuum hose to the gasoline pump. Remove the throttle cable and the return spring. Undo the fuel pipe connections, spanner sizes 17 and 19 mm. WARNING! Avoid spilling fuel. 62. Removing the carburetor Remove the carburetor from the induction manifold, Allen key size 1/4". 61. Removing the carburetor cover NOTE! If the outside of the cover is dirty, clean it before opening the carburetor. Clean this carefully using a brush and carburetor cleaner, paint thinner or denatured alcohol such as methylated spirit. WARNING! Work in a well ventilated area. There should be no naked flames in the working area. IMPORTANT! Do not use more cleaner than is absolutely necessary, and use it for as little time as possible. The carburetor must not be dipped in the cleaning fluid in order to loosen contaminants. The fluid may damage plastic and rubber parts. NOTE! Replace all the carburetor’s gaskets and O-rings when overhauling it. The gasket surfaces should be cleaned using a mild solvent such as paraffin. All channels, jets and passages should be blown clean carefully using compressed air. Hold the carburetor horizontal with the flame arrestor fitted. If you are using compressed air to dry the carburetor and blow it clean, a plastic bag should be slipped over the flame arrestor to protect it. Blow the carburetor clean from the top downwards. Do not direct the flow of air in under the carburetor. Remove the flame arrestor and dry the upper and lower sides of the carburetor with a clean, lint-free rag. Place the carburetor in support no. 884620-6. Alternatively, fit four M8 or 5/16" screws of a minimum length of 45 mm (1.76") into the carburetor’s mounting holes in order to prop the carburetor up on “legs.” 63. Unscrew the carburetor’s center screw, spanner size 11 mm. 64. Remove the circlip which fixes the choke linkage in position. 65. Unscrew the three TORX 20 screws and lift off the choke housing. Unscrew the six TORX 25 screws and carefully remove the carburetor cover. Tapping it lightly with a plastic mallet or the shaft of a screwdriver may facilitate this. 66. Remove the acceleration pump from the float cham- 69. Remove the full-load valve using a 1" ring spanner. ber, TORX 20 screw head. When refitting this valve, tighten it to a torque of 11 Nm (1.10 kpm/8.14 ft. lb.). 67. Remove the pump diaphragm and the return spring. Leave the non-return valve diaphragm, shown in the figure, in place. Check that the diaphragms are un- damaged. 70. Remove the venturi cluster. NOTE! The non-return valve for the acceleration pump’s fuel channel is located beneath the hollow screw of the venturi cluster. 68. Remove the cover of the full-load valve, TORX 20 screw. 71. Unscrew the main jets from the float chamber using a wide-blade screwdriver of at least 8 mm (0.31") width. 72. Unscrew the idle screws of both ports. 73. Clean the inside of the carburetor body using a mild cleaning agent such as paraffin. All channels should be blown clean using compressed air. 74. Clean all the parts of the carburetor which you have removed. Blow all the channels in the venturi cluster and the hollow screw clean. Check that the diaphragms of the acceleration pump and the full-load valves are undamaged. 76. Replacing the float and seat valve Press out the float pin and remove the float. To replace the seat valve, unscrew the locking screws. The valve can now be unscrewed using the adjusting nut. NOTE! Do not lose the nut which is loose on the valve. Lubricate the O-ring before fitting it, and place new gaskets on the upper and lower sides of the adjusting nut. Adjustment 75. Checking the choke housing Remove the choke housing. Check that the choke’s vacuum piston does not jam. Blow the vacuum duct clean using compressed air. If necessary, remove the piston by unscrewing the choke spindle. Press in the stop rivet at the piston rod and pull out the piston. If necessary, polish the piston using an extremely fine emery cloth. Blow the vacuum duct clean using compressed air. Oil the shaft and the hub of the accelerating chamber lightly. Fit the parts. Do not forget to push the rivet back. 77. Adjusting the float level WARNING! Exercise extreme caution when adjusting the float level. There should be no smoking, naked flames or sparks in the working area. Beware of moving parts of the engine such as belts and pulleys. 78. Unscrew the level plug with the engine idling and the gears in neutral. Undo the locking screw and turn the adjusting nut until the fuel level is level with the bottom of the level hole. Increase the speed of the engine a few times with the gears in neutral to check the setting. Tighten the locking screw, holding it in position using a 16 mm (5/8") spanner. Replace the level plug. 79. Setting the idling speed The screws for controlling the idling mixture are located on either side of the carburetor body. If these screws have been removed, the mixture must first be adjusted to a basic setting. With the engine switched off, screw in the mixture control screws until they bottom. Do not screw them in too hard, as this may damage their seats. Then unscrew both screws a 3/4 turn (counterclockwise). 80. Run the engine up to operating temperature. Set the idling speed to 750 r/min using the idling mixture screw. Use a workshop tachometer. 81. Connect a vacuum gauge to the outlet on the induction manifold. Note the starting positions of the mixture control screws (screwdriver slot). Adjust both screws equally, 1/8 to 1/4 turn at a time until attaining the highest possible value on the vacuum gauge. Reset the idling speed to 750 r/min using the throttle stop screw. Then repeat the same procedure once more. 82. Setting the acceleration pump Check that the plastic cam is in position 2. Set the adjusting screw on the pump lever so that it is in contact with the pump rocker arm when the engine is idling. 83. Check the setting. The pump rocker arm will begin to move as soon as the plastic cam moves if the setting is correct. At the same time, the setting should allow the pump rocker arm to move slightly when the throttle is fully open. The clearance between the pump rocker arm and adjusting screw should be 0.40-0.50 mm (0.016-0.020") when the throttles are fully open. 84. Check the operation of the throttle with the throttle cable connected. Get someone to operate the throttle controls at the helm. The engine should be switched off. Remove the flame arrestor and observe the venturi cluster. The slightest acceleration by the throttle control handle should result in fuel being sprayed out from the jets towards the venturi. Adjust any clearance in the throttle control mechanism. 85. Adjusting the choke 88. Turn the choke cover so that the adjustment mark is aligned with the correct adjustment mark on the The choke is adjusted in three stages: basic setting, set- choke housing. This setting should be 7 marks fromting the choke spring, and setting the choke balance. the left. Tighten the choke cover. A. Basic setting C. Setting the choke balance 86. Bend a wire with a maximum diameter of 0.70 mm (0.027"). The bent end should be no more than 3 mm (0.12") long. 1. Push the wire into the piston groove until it bottoms. Pull this wire out together with the piston until the wire gets caught. 2. Push the closed choke throttle gently with your finger. 3. The distance between the lower side of the choke throttle and the wall of the carburetor body should be between 6.35 and 7.60 mm (0.25 and 0.30"). Measure this using a drill shank. 4. When adjusting this setting, turn the adjusting screw inwards (clockwise) to reduce the gap and outwards to increase it. B. Setting the choke spring 1. The choke should be set correctly as specified in sections A and B. 2. Throttles fully open. 3. Push the closed choke throttle gently. 4. Measure the distance between the lower side of the choke throttle and the wall of the carburetor body. This gap should be at least 7.10 mm (0.28"). 5. When adjusting the setting, bend the tang on the lever of the damper (below the choke housing). 87. Check that the ring of the bimetallic spring is positioned around the choke arm in the choke housing (if the choke has been dismantled). Holley 4160 carburetor 434A, VP No. 857382-6 Overhauling and checking 89. The carburetor’s structure and function 1. Carburetor body 2. Throttle housing 3. Float chamber, primary side 4. Float chamber, secondary side 5. Choke 6. Vacuum unit, secondary side 7. Float, primary side 8. Float, secondary side 9. Float valve, primary side 10. Float valve, secondary side 11. Fuel filter, gasket 12. Metering unit, primary side 13. Metering unit, secondary side 14. Main jets 15. Lever, acceleration pump 16. Idling mixture screws 17. Acceleration pump 18. Full-load valve (“power valve”) 19. Fuel jet, acceleration pump 20. Idle screw 21. Throttle control bracket 22. Feed pipe, primary and secondary sides 23. Feed pipe, acceleration pump 24. Cam, acceleration pump 25. Stop screw, secondary throttle The Holley 4160 is a four-port, dual-stage downdraft carburetor. The carburetor has two separate fuel systems, one for the primary side and one for the secondary side. The carburetor is structured in modules comprising float chambers (1), metering plates (2), throttle housing (3) and the carburetor housing (4) with its four ports (venturi). The diameter of the primary port is 34.00 mm (1.34"), and the diameter of the secondary port is 32.00 mm (1.26"). 90. Float chambers The float chambers accommodate floats which are suspended on one side. The lever of each float actuates a seat valve (1) which is located in a plastic baffle. This valve can be replaced. The inlet is provided with a brass mesh fuel filter. The primary side float chamber is linked externally to the secondary side float chamber. 91. First stage (primary side) The primary side has two ports which are fed with fuel from the idling system, main metering system, full-load system and the acceleration pump. 92. Idling system This provides the engine with fuel when the throttles are wholly or partially closed. Fuel enters from the float chamber via the main jet (1) and goes on to the main vaporizing chamber. From here, the fuel flows via a restrictor (2) into the idling mixture chamber. The fuel is mixed with air from the jet (3) in this idling mixture chamber. The fuel/air mixture is sucked down via a channel, where it is distributed. Some of the mixture goes to the opening (5), while most of it is fed to the idle port (6). Adjusting screws (7) control the amount of fuel/air mixture at the port (6). The disks open in order to provide a smooth transition from the idling system to the main metering system. 93. Main metering system This system works according to the venturi principle. This means that air which flows via the tapered end of a tube has the greatest flow rate, and the lowest pressure is found in the narrowest part. This is utilized in the carburetor by placing the fuel emulsion tube’s opening into the venturi tube. This opening has been designed as a venturi cluster (1) in order to increase the negative pressure still further. Fuel flows from the float chamber to the mixing channel (3) via the main jet (2). The fuel is then sucked up via the channel and is mixed with air from holes in the channel (4). These holes are linked to the constrictions (5) located in the carburetor’s air intake. The fuel/air mixture is sucked up via the main mixing channel and is fed to the opening on the fuel emulsion tube in the venturi cluster (1). 94. Full-load system The full-load system is a part of the main metering system and complements the same when the engine is run at high speeds or at large loads. In both cases, the throttles are fully open and the negative pressure in the induction manifold is at its lowest. The engine works with an excess of air, and more fuel must be supplied so that it can output more power. A spring-loaded full-load valve or “power valve” (1) regulated by the negative pressure in the induction manifold opens and allows more fuel to flow to the opening of the fuel emulsion tube. The full-load valve is numbered and shows the negative pressure at which it opens. For example, a valve marked “25” opens when the pressure drops to 2.5" of mercury. When the pressure in the induction manifold exceeds the opening pressure, the full-load valve closes and the extra fuel flow is throttled. This optimizes the carburetor and ensures that it uses a small amount of gasoline at mid-range speeds, while still retaining the capacity for high power output. 95. Acceleration pump This pump is of the diaphragm type and is located at the bottom of the float chamber on the primary side. The acceleration pump has two functions: 1. To compensate for a shortage of fuel when the throttles open and air rushes in. This shortage of fuel is explained by the fact that fuel is considerably “heavier”, that is to say, it has a higher density than air. This leads to the fuel feed becoming sluggish when rapid changes are made to the throttle position, and a mixture of fuel and air which is too lean results. 2. To enrich the fuel mixture in order to compensate for the fuel which condenses on the surfaces of the induction manifold when the throttle is opened quickly at low speeds. A rapid drop in the negative pressure tends to condense the fuel. The pump is actuated mechanically by the damper. The damper is fitted with a plastic cam (1) which actuates the lever (2) of the acceleration pump via a lever. The design of the cam and its position on the damper (holes numbered 1 and 2 respectively) determine the capacity of the pump, and the profile of the cam determines how the fuel is distributed when the throttle opens. The lever is provided with an adjusting screw (3). Fuel runs down into the pump from the float chamber via the open valve (3). When the pump lever pushes the pump diaphragm up, which diaphragm is fitted with a return spring, this closes and forces fuel into a channel to the metering plate. The fuel is then fed on to the jet (4) via a long, diagonal passage. This jet opens and allows the fuel to flow out into the opening on the carburetor’s venturi. When the pressure in the fuel channel has dropped, the valve (5) closes and prevents air from forcing its way into the acceleration pump housing and the passage from being sucked dry by the negative pressure in the venturi tube. When the throttles are closed, the pump rocker arm moves to its original position and the return spring pushes the diaphragm down. Fuel flows through the open valve (3) and fills the pump again. 96. Second stage (secondary side) The second stage has two ports (venturi) which are fitted with vacuum-controlled throttles. Fuel is fed to separate idling and main systems. The design and function are similar to those on the primary side. The throttle is coupled to the vacuum break (1) via an arm (2). A spring (3) is located on the upper side of the diaphragm which endeavors to hold the throttle closed. A channel links the vacuum break with the ports of the primary side. When a sufficiently large amount of air is flowing through the primary ports, the negative pressure on the upper side of the diaphragm will overcome the spring action and the secondary side’s throttle (4) will begin to open. If the negative pressure in the ports on the primary side is reduced, the spring will push down the diaphragm and thereby close the secondary throttle. There is also a linkage to the primary throttle whose task is to close the secondary throttle. This linkage is fitted for safety reasons, to prevent a broken diaphragm spring in the vacuum housing from locking the secondary throttle in the open position. 97. Choke The carburetor is fitted with an electric choke. The choke cover contains a bimetallic spring which closes the choke throttle when the engine is cold. When the engine is started from cold, the bimetallic spring is heated electrically. When the engine has started, the piston (which is regulated by the negative pressure in the induction manifold) drags the choke throttle to a preset position, known as the “qualified position.” The bimetallic spring causes the choke throttle to continue opening. When the engine is switched off and cold, the spring contracts and closes the throttle. Overhauling and adjustment Technical data VP 857382-6 Engine 434A, DP/SP Main jets primary left (lever side) 68 primary right (choke side) 59 Full-load valve (“power valve”) 25 Choke setting 5 marks to the right 98. Removing the carburetor from the engine Undo the carburetor’s protective cover, socket size 10 mm. Remove the flame arrestor, socket size 11 mm. Remove the electrical connection to the choke. Remove the throttle cable and the return spring. Undo the fuel pipe connections, spanner size 20 mm. WARNING! Avoid spilling fuel. 99. Remove the carburetor from the induction manifold, Allen key size 1/4". 100. Removing the carburetor NOTE! If the outside of the cover is dirty, clean it before opening the carburetor. Clean this carefully using a brush and carburetor cleaner, paint thinner or denatured alcohol such as methylated spirit. WARNING! Work in a well ventilated area. There should be no naked flames in the working area. IMPORTANT! Do not use more cleaner than is absolutely necessary, and use it for as little time as possible. The carburetor must not be dipped in the cleaning fluid in order to loosen contaminants. The fluid may damage plastic and rubber parts. All the carburetor’s gaskets and O-rings should be replaced when it is overhauled. The gasket surfaces should be cleaned using a mild solvent such as paraffin. All channels, jets and passages should be blown clean carefully using compressed air. 101. Hold the carburetor horizontal with the flame arrestor fitted. If you are using compressed air to dry the carburetor and blow it clean, a plastic bag should be slipped over the flame arrestor to protect it. Blow the carburetor clean from the top downwards. Do not direct the flow of air in under the carburetor. Remove the flame arrestor and dry the upper and lower sides of the carburetor with a clean, lint-free rag. 102. Place the carburetor in support no. 884620-6. Alternatively, fit four M8 or 5/16" screws of a minimum length of 45 mm (1.76") into the carburetor’s mounting holes in order to prop the carburetor up on “legs”. 103. Remove the float chamber’s screws on the primary side. Remove the float chamber and the metering unit together with the gaskets. NOTE! The gaskets can be left in place. Tap the parts lightly using the shaft of a screwdriver or a plastic hammer. Pull out the feed pipe between the float chambers. Replace the O-rings in the connections on the float chambers. 104. Clean away any remaining pieces of gasket using a mild cleaning agent such as paraffin. Never use a knife or a piece of metal, as this may scratch the surfaces. 105. Repeat this procedure on the secondary side. Remove the metering unit and the gasket. Discard the gasket. Remove the plate and gasket on the carburetor body. Loosen the gasket using a solvent. 106. Dismantle the choke. First remove the locking pin which retains the choke linkage. IMPORTANT! Note the choke setting in relation to the thermostat housing and choke housing so that the thermostat housing may be replaced in the same position. 107. Remove the choke thermostat housing by removing the three cross-head screws. Remove the choke housing. 110. Clean the inside using a brush and a mild cleaning agent such as paraffin. Clean away any remaining pieces of gasket using a mild solvent such as paraffin. Never use a knife or a piece of metal, as this may scratch the surfaces. Blow the idle vents clean using compressed air. IMPORTANT! Steel wire or similar must not be used for cleaning the fuel channels. 108. Remove the linkage to the vacuum break from the arm of the damper. Remove the circlip with pliers. Remove the vacuum break from the carburetor body. 109. Remove the throttle housing, which is held in position by 8 screws. Tap it with a plastic hammer so that the gasket loosens. Discard the gasket. No more parts in the throttle housing are to be removed. 111. Remove the acceleration pump cover (1), the diaphragm (2) and the spring from the float chamber on the primary side. Clean this in the same manner as described above. IMPORTANT! Take care to ensure that no solvent comes into contact with the float or the diaphragm in the pump. Check that the diaphragm is not damaged. 112. Check that the non-return valve (rubber seal) (3) is undamaged so that the pump can fill up without problems. If necessary, replace the gasket. Clean the holes in the float chamber before putting on the new seal. 113. Remove the fuel line nipple. Check the fuel filter (4) and clean it if necessary. Put on a new gasket and fit the nipple in the float chamber. 114. Replacing the float, primary and secondary sides Remove the float (1) by removing the circlip on the float pin (2). Pull out the float and its spring. Remove the float valve. The needle and seat are located behind a baffle (3). This guard is fixed in a groove in the float chamber. Pull the guard out of the float chamber. Lift up the needle (4) from the seat (5). Unscrew the seat. Put a new gasket under the seat. Replace the parts in reverse order. Ensure that the lever (6) on the needle is positioned correctly. Adjust the float as described in the section entitled Adjusting the float level. 115. Replacing the jets Unscrew the main jets using a wide-blade screwdriver of at least 8 mm (0.31") width. Unscrew the idle needle with the cork gaskets. Pull the acceleration pump pipe out of the metering plate. Discard the O-rings. Remove the full-load valve (“power valve”) on the primary side, socket size 1". Brush the metering plate clean and blow all the passages clean using compressed air. Fit the full-load valve and a new gasket. Tighten the valve to a torque of 11 Nm (1.10 kpm/ 8.14 ft.lb.). Fit the main jets. Fit the idle needles and new cork gaskets. Replace the acceleration pump pipe and fit new, lightly oiled O-rings. 116. Replacing the diaphragm in the vacuum break, secondary side Undo the 4 screws. Tap the cover lightly with the shaft of a screwdriver to separate the parts. The spring and the diaphragm (1) can now be replaced. Blow the jet (2) clean. Replace the cork gasket (3). Remove the ejector jet and gaskets (1) in the accelera- tion pump. Turn the carburetor body over and let the nee- dle (2) in the jet drop into your hand. Blow this clean us- ing compressed air. Always fit new gaskets. Avoid removing anything else from the carburetor body. Adjusting the carburetor 118. Adjusting the float level WARNING! Exercise extreme caution when adjusting the float level. There should be no smoking, sparks or naked flames in the working area. Beware of moving parts of the engine. The primary and secondary floats are both adjusted in the same way. Drain the float chamber of gasoline and remove the float chamber. Turn the float chamber upside-down. Carefully bend the bent tang (1) which is in contact with the float valve. Adjust the tang so that the float is parallel to the float chamber when it closes the valve (hold the float chamber upside-down). Clean away any remaining pieces of gasket, fit a new gasket and replace the float chamber. 117. Replacing the acceleration pump cam Note the position (numbering on the screw hole) in the washer on the damper. Press the acceleration pump feed arm down. Unscrew the cam. Fit a new cam in the same hole. 119. Setting the acceleration pump Check that the plastic cam is fitted and that its upper hole is in the position marked 1. Set the adjusting screw on the pump lever so that it is in contact with the pump rocker arm when the engine is idling. Check the setting. If the setting is correct, the pump rocker arm will begin to move as soon as the plastic cam moves. At the same time, the setting should allow the pump rocker arm to move slightly when the throttle is fully open. The clearance between the pump rocker arm and adjusting screw should be 0.25-0.40 mm (0.010-0.016") when the throttles are fully open. Check the operation of the throttle with the throttle cable connected. Get someone to operate the throttle controls at the helm. The engine should be switched off. Remove the flame arrestor and observe the venturi cluster on the primary side. The slightest acceleration by the throttle control handle should result in fuel being sprayed out from the jets towards the venturi. Adjust any clearance in the throttle control mechanism. 120. Adjusting the choke The choke is adjusted in three stages: basic setting, setting the choke spring, and setting the choke balance. A. Basic setting Push the choke piston against the adjustable stop screw (1) using a steel wire or the like. Be careful not to damage any parts. Push the choke housing arm closed so that there is no play in the linkage to the throttle. Check the choke opening. The distance between the lower side of the choke throttle and the wall of the carburetor body should be 6.50 mm (0.26"). Measure this using a drill shank. Adjust using the stop screw, inwards for a smaller opening and outwards for a larger opening. IMPORTANT! Ensure that the stop screw is not screwed so far out that the piston can pass the screw and thereby sustain damage. B. Setting the choke cover Check that the ring of the bimetallic spring is coupled to the choke arm (if the choke has been dismantled). Turn the choke cover so that the adjustment mark is aligned with the correct adjustment mark on the choke housing. This setting should be 5 marks to the right of the 0 mark (see figure). If a richer or leaner mixture is required while the engine is warming up, the choke cover can be turned one mark at a time. Turning the cover counterclockwise (left) makes the mixture richer, while turning it clockwise (right) makes it leaner. Never adjust this by more than two marks from the position specified – see above. C. Setting the choke balance The choke should be set correctly. The primary throttle should be fully open. Push the closed choke throttle gently. Measure the distance between the lower side of the choke throttle and the wall of the carburetor body. This gap should be 7.60 mm (0.30"). When adjusting the setting, bend the stud (1) on the damper. 121. Secondary throttle stop position Unscrew the adjusting screw until the throttles are fully closed. Screw in the screw until it makes contact with the lever stop lug. Screw in the screw a further 1/4 turn. Check that the throttles cannot be turned so far in that they get stuck in the ports. Adjust the screw again if required. 122. Idling adjustment Start by setting the idling mixture by screwing in the idling mixture screws until they bottom gently against the seats. IMPORTANT! Tighten them only gently, otherwise the jets and seats may be damaged. Then screw the jets out by 3/4 turn. Run the engine up to operating temperature. Set the idling speed to 750 r/min using the idle screw. Turn the idling mixture screws in so that the engine speed decreases. Unscrew both screws until the engine is running at the correct speed. Unscrew the screws to the same extent on both sides. The idling speed should be 750 r/min. 62 Chapter 4B Cylinder heads Removal of related parts 1. Remove the carburetor’s protection cover, wrench size 10 mm. Remove the flame arrester, wrench size 11 mm. 3.Remove the carburetor together with the brackets for the protection cover, wrench size 1/2". NOTE! Do not forget to loosen the choke’s electrical connection. (Illustration shows the 431-engine.) 2. Loosen the throttle wire from the control mechanism. Unscrew the fuel pipe, wrench size 17 mm. 4. Remove the hoses from the thermostat housing. (Il- lustration shows an early version.) 5.Remove the spark plug cables from the spark plugs. Loosen and pull out the distributor, wrench size 9/16". 6. Loosen the temperature sender connection, wrench size 3/8". 7.Loosen the cable loom at the rear right hand side (if the right hand cylinder head is to be removed). Wrench size 9/16". 9.Remove the exhaust manifold(s). Unscrew the two outer bolts and replace them with guide pin 884609-9. The pipe can then hang on these until the remaining four bolts have been removed. Wrench size 9/16" 10. If the left hand cylinder head is to be lifted, the alter- nator and any servo pump must be removed. Wrench size 14 mm. Slacken the alternator belt first, wrench size 13 mm. 8. Remove the intake manifold, socket size 9/16". Chapter 4C Cylinder heads Overhauling the cooling system 1.Remove the coolant hoses from the thermostat hous- ing. Check the condition of the hoses. (Illustration shows an early version.) 2. Remove the thermostat housing from the intake mani- fold, socket size 9/16". (Early version.) 4. Where necessary, check the thermostat opening temperature by immersing the thermostat in hot water. The thermostat should start opening at 62°C (144°F) and should be fully open at 72°C (162°F). 5. Loosen the belt tensioner and remove the V-belt. Wrench size 13 mm. 3.Remove the circlip and take out the thermostat. Use two screwdrivers. Early style of thermostat housing has a circlip with eyelets for circlip pliers. 6.Remove and inspect the circulation pump. Wrench size 9/6". Any evidence of damage or wear requires the replacement of the pump as an assembly. Re- move the pulley and install it on the new pump. Wrench size 5/8". 7. Remove the collant hoses from the sea water pump. Remove the pump bracket from the pump. Wrench size 1/2". Remove the pump bracket from the engine block. Wrench size 14 mm. Remove the pump from the harmonic balancer, 5/16" (Allen wrench). 8. Remove the pump cover and pull out the pump housing using slip joint pliers. Remove the circlip and separate the pump and bearing housing. Take care of the seal ring and washer. Check the ball bearing and replace if necessary. Lubricate the ball bearing thoroughly with grease and assemble the pump in the reverse order. Install the cover using a new gasket. Changing the exhaust riser’s gaskets 9. When changing the gaskets between the exhaust pipe and the exhaust riser, the new configuration, including a flange, should be used. The new gaskets have been fitted in engines with serial numbers from around 4100137346 and upwards, but they should also be used in older engines. 10. Drain the cooling water from the exhaust pipe and riser by undoing the hose at the nipple (A). Remove the exhaust riser. Carefully clean the gasket surface on the exhaust pipe and riser. Fit the new gaskets as shown in the figure. NOTE! The middle gasket should be turned so that the flange and the word “UP” are facing upwards. 11. Fit the exhaust riser and tighten the screws. Tightening torque: 25 Nm (2.50 kpm/18.50 ft.lb.). Fit the hose. Chapter 4D Cylinder heads 1. Remove the valve cover(s) and remove the gasket. Wrench size 3/8". (Early models Torx TX 27.) Overhauling the valve system Carry out steps 1-10 in 4B. 2. Remove the rocker arms and push rods, socket size 5/8". Remove the valve lifters if the engine block is to be overhauled. NOTE: Place the rocker arms, rocker arm balls, push rods and valve lifters in the same order as were in the cylinder heads. Mark their position so they can be installed in their original position when reassembling. 3. Remove the cylinder head(s) and remove gasket. Socket size 5/8". 4. Remove the valves and springs. Use tool 9986052-0. 5.Remove the valve lock, upper washer, lower washer and spring. Remove the O-ring from the valve stem and take out the valve. NOTE! Place the valves in a marked rack, so that they can be fitted back to their original seats. 6. The intake valve has an extra seal on the valve guide. Carefully remove the upper circlip using a small screwdriver or similar. Pry apart and remove the lower circlip using circlip pliers. Remove the seal. 7. Remove any carbon deposits and remains of gaskets (1) from the cylinder head. Make sure there are no cracks in the combustion chamber, valve seats or coolant channels (2). 8.Check the flatness of the cylinder head. Use a steel ruler and feeler gauge. A = Lengthwise direction B = Diagonally 9. Clean the valve guides using tool 884630-5. 10. Clean the valve seats using a reamer. The valve seat angle should be 46°. The same angle applies for intake and exhaust. The seat width should be 0.80-1.60 mm (0.031-0.062") for intake and 1.60-2.40 mm (0.062-0.094") for exhaust. 11. Check the valves and valve guides for wear. (Lower the valve approx. 1.5 mm (1 /16") when checking. Permitted clearance: Exhaust: 0.025-0.120 mm (0.001-0.0047") Inlet: 0.025-0.094 mm (0.001-0.0037") 12. Where the clearance is excessive, the valve guides 16. Check the wear on the rocker arm bolts. Bolts with should be reamed to the next oversize. Use reamer damaged threads or that are loose in the cylinder kit 884991-1 which contains reamers for 0.015" OS head must always be replaced with new ones. and 0.030" OS. The appropriate oversize valve should then be used. 13. If necessary, machine the valves in a valve grinding machine. The angle should be: Exhaust valve: 45° Inlet valve: 45° Minimum valve edge height after machining: 0.8 mm (0.0315") 14. Ensure that valves and valve seats are seating properly. Apply marking dye to the valve seating surface and rotate it with light pressure against the seat. If the dye is not evenly distributed over the entire valve seat surface (the valve is not sealing correctly), the valve should be re-machined or the seat should be reground , and a new check carried out until the desired result is obtained. 17. Pull out the rocker arm bolt using tool 884627-1. Place the longer sleeve on the bolt and tighten the nut to the end of the thread. Unscrew the nut and lengthen the sleeve length with the shorter sleeve, pull out the remaining part of the bolt. 430A, 431A: 18. If necessary, ream to oversize. Use tool 884632-1. NOTE! Installation of O.S. rocker arm bolt must al- ways be preceded by reaming as the cylinder head can be cracked otherwise. 15. Check the valve springs (without damper): Length without load: 51.6 mm (2.03") Length with 334-370 N: 44.0 mm (1.70") Length with 853-905 N: 31.7 mm (1.25") 430A, 431A: 19. Fit new rocker arm bolt. Apply a thin coating of hypoid oil to the bolt’s press surface. Tap down the bolt until it bottoms using tool 884629-7. NOTE! Place the cylinder head completely flat on a piece of wood or similar to avoid damage to the sealing surfaces or deformity. 430B, 431B, 432A, 434A: 20. Spread a little oil on the new rocker screws. Fit the screws in the cylinder head. Tightening torque: 47 Nm (4.70 kpm/34.8 ft.lb.). 21. Clean the cylinder head so that no dirt or swarf remains in e.g. the valve guides. Blow clean with compressed air. 22. Install the valves. Lubricate the valve stem and fit the valve in its original seat. Fit new seals on the inlet valve guide. 23. Assemble the valve spring (with damper) (1), spring protector (2), valve spring retainer (3) (inlet) and rotator (4) (exhaust). Compress the spring with the valve spring compressor, and install the seal ring (5) in the valve stem bottom groove. Fit the valve keepers (6) in the upper groove by using grease to keep them in place. Remove the valve spring compressor and install the remaining valves. A = Inlet valve B = Exhaust valve VALVE LIFTERS If there is noise in one or more of the lifters, all lifters should be disassembled and cleaned. Noise can have other causes than faulty lifters. See fault diagnosis below. FAULT DIAGNOSIS VALVE LIFTERS • Spontaneous noise when starting the engine: This is quite normal and is due to oil having been drained from the lifters when the engine has been stopped for some time. It takes a few seconds for the lifters to fill again after starting. • Spontaneous noise at idling, disappears with increased engine speed: This is an indication of worn valve ball or dirt in the lifters. • Noise at idling or when engine oil is hot, quiet at higher engine speed or with cold engine oil: Lifters that leak a lot of oil. • Noise at high engine speed, but quiet at low speed: Oil level above max on the oil dipstick – the crankshaft whips the oil to foam, which causes the noise in the lifters. Too low oil level – the oil pump sucks air at high engine speed or when the boat rolls. Air in the oil can cause noise in the lifters. 24. Press down the piston using a push rod and remove the circlip using a screwdriver. Release the push rod and remove the internal parts. 1. Roller 2. Lifter body 3. Plunger spring 4. Ball check retainer 5. Ball check spring 6. Ball 7. Plunger 8. Oil metering valve 9. Push rod seat 10. Retaining ring 25. Loosen the ball holder using a screwdriver. Clean all parts and inspect them carefully. If any of the internal parts are found to be worn the complete valve lifter should be replaced. 26. Place the ball and spring in the piston and fit the ball holder using a screwdriver. 27. Place the piston spring on the piston and insert into the valve lifter. NOTE! The oil holes in lifter body and piston must line up. Fill the lifter with SAE 20 oil and press down the piston using a 3 mm (1/8") drift (1) so that the oil holes align. NOTE! Do not pump the piston. Insert a 1.5 mm (1/16") drift (3) through the oil hole (2) so that the piston is locked in its bottom position. Remove the 3 mm (1/8") drift and fill the lifter with SAE 20 oil again. Fit the valve, push rod seat and circlip. Press down the seat and remove the 1.5 mm (1/16") drift. 28. Coat the bottom of the lifter with “Molykote” or equivalent and install the lifters in their original lifter-bores. NOTE! New valve lifters should always be used when a new camshaft has been installed. Fill the lifters with oil and coat the bottom with “Molykote” or equivalent. Chapter 4E Cylinder heads Assembling the cylinder head Valve Mechanism 1. Make sure that the contact surfaces are clean. The cylinder head bolts and hole threads in the block must be clean so as not to affect the tightening torque. 2. Apply a thin coating of sealing compound, Locktite 518 or similar, to both sides of the gasket. (Applies to steel gaskets only). Use a short fibre roller or brush. NOTE! Composite gaskets should be fitted dry. 3. Locate the cylinder head gasket. Fit the cylinder head. Fit in the head on the two guides. 5.Install the push rods in the same location they had when removed. Fit the rocker arms, rocker balls and rocker arm nuts in the same order they were re- moved. When rocker arms or rocker balls are in- stalled, they should be lubricated with “Molykote” or equivalent. 4. Fit the cylinder head bolts. Apply “Permatex” or similar sealing compound. Tighten in two steps and in the order illustrated above. The arrow indicates the front direction. Step 1 50 Nm (5 kpm/36 lbf.ft) Step 2 90 Nm (9 kpm/66 lbf.ft) Adjusting the valve clearance 430A, 431A 6. The engine has hydraulic valve lifters, and can be adjusted during re-assembly. Tighten the adjustment nut until the rocker arm touches the valve and push rod and a slight resistance can be felt when turning the push rod. Thereafter tighten 3/4 additional turn. A. Turn the engine until the no. 1 piston is in the firing position. Check the marking on the vibration damper. Valves for no. 4 should be rocking. NOTE: With the engine in this position, the following valves can be adjusted: Exhaust: 1-5-6 Inlet: 1-2-3 B. Turn the engine one revolution (360 degrees) until the No. 4 piston is in firing position, no. 1 valves should be rocking. Check the marking on the vibration damper. With the engine in this position, the following valves can be adjusted: Exhaust: 2-3-4 Inlet: 4-5-6 Adjusting the valve clearance 430B, 431B, 432A, 434A 7. Engines fitted with rocker arm screws with collars do not require the valve clearance to be set. The rocker arm nut needs only to be torque-tightened. Tightening torque: 27 Nm (2.70 kpm/20 ft.lb.). Chapter 4F cylinder heads Installing the related parts Installing the intake manifold 1. Fit the intake manifold using new gaskets and seal the surfaces A and B with silicone rubber, part No. 841261-1. All sealing surfaces must be clean. Tighten according to sequence C and torque to 47 Nm (4.7 kpm/34 lbf.ft) according to D. The arrow indicates front direction. NOTE! Do not forget the engine’s lifting eyes. The eye with two holes should be fitted on the right hand side – rear, the other one on the left hand side – front. 2. Fit the valve covers; use new gaskets. Tighten to 10 Nm (1 kpm/7.5 lbf.ft). Wrench size 3/8". (Early models Torx TX 27.) 3. Fitting the exhaust manifold Screw in the two guide pins 884609-9 and hang on the exhaust manifold. Use new gaskets and spring washers. Locate the gaskets with the metal side facing outwards. 4. Tighten the manifold and replace the guide pins. Apply “Molykote” or similar to the bolt threads. NOTE! The alternator bracket is fastened with the two front bolts on the left hand exhaust manifold. Tighten to 35 Nm (3.5 kpm/25 lbf.ft). Wrench size 9/16". 5. Fit any steering servo pump with bracket on the left hand cylinder head. Do not forget the clip for the coolant hose to the thermostat housing. Wrench size 14 mm. 6.Fit the alternator bar and the V-belt to the alternator and any steering servo pump. The V-belt should be tensioned so that it can be depressed 8-10 mm (0.315"-0.394") midway between the pulleys, using thumb pressure. Engine 430A/B, 431A/B 7.Fit the bracket for ignition coil and main fuse. Engine 430A/B, 431A/B 8. Fit the distributor as follows: Screw out the No. 1 spark plug. Hold a finger over the spark plug hole and rotate the engine slowly until there is compression (i.e. the No. 1 valves do not rock). Set the ignition mark on the vibration damper right opposite “0” on the ignition setting plate. Turn the distributor rotor so that it points between the spark plug cables for No. 1 and No. 6 in the distributor cover. Fit the distributor and connect the electrical cables. NOTE! Do not forget the gasket between intake manifold and distributor. Engine 432A, 434A 9. See chapter Electronic ignition system, Fitting, Distributor pages 103-104. 10. Install the carburetor with new gaskets. At the same time, fit the brackets for the carburetor cover; do not forget the spacer sleeves between bracket and carburetor for the front bracket. (Certain models only.) Tighten to 16 Nm (1.6 kpm/11.6 lbf.ft). Fit the fuel pipe. 11. Connect the electrical cables for the choke and tem- perature sender. Chapter 5 Engine block This chapter covers the engine block and related parts as follows: Procedure Page 5A. Removing the related parts ........................................................................... 79 5B. Overhauling the crankshaft assembly .......................................................... 81 5C. Overhauling the camshaft ............................................................................ 91 5D. Overhauling the balance shaft, 432A, 434A ................................................. 97 5E. Fault-tracing and repair, ignition system ....................................................... 99 5F. Installing related parts ................................................................................. 111 78 Chapter 5A Engine block Removal of related parts 1. Remove the starter motor and flywheel housing. Wrench size 9/16". 4.Loosen the belt pulleys and remove the circulation pump. Remove the pulley from the vibration damp- er. Sleeve size 5/8" 2. Remove the fuel pump and sea water pump. Wrench sizes 3/8" and 17 mm for the fuel pump, 5/16" Allen wrench and 14 mm for the sea water pump. 3. Remove the fuel filter. 80 Chapter 5B Engine block Overhauling the crankshaft assembly Removal 1. Remove the front vibration damper. Use puller 884608-1. 3. Loosen the three bolts for the camshaft gear and re- move the gear and chain. Wrench size 1/2". 2. Remove the timing gear cover, wrench size 3/8". 4.Remove the rear vibration damper. Remove the fly- wheel. Loosen four bolts completely and two bolts part way. 5. Pry off the flywheel, the partially loosened bolts will 8. Remove the oil pump. Wrench size 5/8". act as stops. Remove the bolts and remove the flywheel. 6.Turn the engine and remove the oil dipstick pipe, wrench sizes 21 mm and 9/16". Remove the oil pan. Wrench sizes 3/8" and 1/2". 9.Measure the crankshaft axial clearance (end play) Min. 0.05 mm (0.0020") Max. 0.15 mm (0.0059") 7.Remove the crankshaft gear (only when replacing drive or crankshaft or grinding the crankshaft). Use puller 884528-1. 10. Measure the connecting rods axial clearance (side play) on the crankshaft journal. Min: 0.15 mm (0.0059") Max: 0.36 mm (0.0142") Pistons Piston rings 11. Remove pistons and connecting rods. Each connecting rod and bearing cap should be marked, beginning from the engine’s timing gear end. Cylinder 1, 3 and 5 are located in the left hand cylinder block and 2, 4 and 6 in the right hand block (engine turned right side up). Loosen the big end bearing cap, wrench size 9/16". Press out the piston and connecting rod through the cylinder. Use tool 884944-0 on the connecting rod bolts as protection and guide when pressing out. 12. Place piston with connecting rods in order in a rack. Measure the cylinder bores using a cylinder indicator. Measuring for the greatest wear should be done immediately below the upper turning point and diagonally across the engine. Measuring for the smallest wear is done at the lower turning point. For cylinder bore, see “Technical Data”. Measure the pistons using a micrometer perpendicular to the piston pin hole and approx. 6 mm (0.236") from the lower edge. For piston diameter, see “Technical Data”. 13. Remove the piston rings using piston ring pliers. Clean the piston ring grooves. 14. Measure the new piston ring gaps using a feeler gauge. Insert the ring approximately 6.5 mm (1/4") into the cylinder in which it is going to be used. If necessary, increase the gap using a special file. The gap should be: Upper compression ring 0.25-0.76 mm (0.010-0.030") Lower compression ring 0.25-0.89 mm (0.010-0.035") Oil ring 0.38-1.65 mm (0.015-0.065") 18. Press in the wrist pin using tool 884682-6. The wrist15. Measure the piston ring clearance by first rolling the pin is interference fitted in the connecting rod bypiston rings in the groove. Measure the clearance in 0.02-0.04 mm (0.0008-0.0016"). several places using a feeler gauge. The clearance should be: Compression rings: 0.03-0.11 mm (0.0012-0.0042") Oil ring: 0.05-0.20 mm (0.002-0.008") 16. Press out the wrist pin using tool 884682-6. 17. Clean the parts thoroughly and measure the wrist pin using a micrometer and the wrist pin hole of the pis- ton with an inside micrometer. If the combined clear- ance is more than 0.025 mm (0.0010"), the piston and wrist pin should be replaced. 19. Install the piston rings. Use piston ring pliers. Start with the oil ring. The compression ring marking should face towards the top of the piston. Turn the piston rings so that the gaps are spaced 120° apart from each other. Crankshaft seal 20. The rear crankshaft seal can be replaced after the flywheel housing and flywheel have been removed. Pry out the seal using a screwdriver at the tabs shown in the diagram. 24. Check the connecting rod and main bearing journals. Use a micrometer. Measure in several places around the circumference and lengthwise. The out of round for both big end and main bearing journals must not exceed 0.025 mm (0.0010"). The taper must not exceed 0.025 mm (0.0010") on any of the journals. If the measured values are near or exceed the above, the crankshaft should be machined to the nearest undersize. See “Technical Data.” If the engine is to be completely overhauled, refer to point 187, page 149, Camshaft overhaul. Assembly 21. Before installing the new crankshaft seal, it should be lubricated with engine oil. Press in the crankshaft seal until it bottoms. Gasket for crankshaft seal housing 22. The crankshaft seal housing gasket can be replaced after the flywheel housing, flywheel, oil pan and crankshaft seal have been removed. When refitting the seal holder tighten the bolts to 13-16 Nm (1.3-1.6 Kpm/9.5-11.7 lbf ft). Crankshaft 23. Remove the crankshaft. Place the marked main bear- ing caps and bearing insert in the same order as they were in the block. 25. Locate the main bearing inserts in the block and main caps. NOTE! The main bearing closest to the flywheel also functions as a thrust bearing. 26. Lubricate the bearing inserts and install the crankshaft. NOTE! Do not lubricate the backside of the bearing. If the crankshaft has been machined, it must have been thoroughly washed and cleaned. 27. Lubricate the main bearing insert in the caps and in- stall them according to the previous marking. NOTE! The arrow marking points towards the front of 30. Install the crankshaft seal housing with a new gasket, the engine. tighten the bolts to 13-16 Nm (10-12 lbf.ft). Press in the crankshaft seal until it bottoms. The seal should be lubricated with engine oil. 28. Coat the bolt threads using “Molykote” or equivalent. Torque the all the main bearing caps to 108 Nm (11 kpm/80 lbf.ft) except the rear one. The rear bearing cap bolts shall be torqued to 14-16 Nm (1.4-1.6 kpm/ 10-12 lbf.ft). 29. Using a lead mallet, carefully strike each end of the crankshaft so that the crankshaft settles in place. First move it backwards, and then forwards. Retorque all the main bearing caps to 108 Nm (11 kpm/80 lbf.ft). 31. Fit the bearing shells in the connecting rod and caps. Lubricate the cylinder bores, pistons and connecting rod bearings with engine oil. Turn the crankshaft so that the rod journal is the bottom position for the cylinder where the pistons will be installed. Fit the pistons in their original cylinders according to the marking done earlier. Screw tool 884944-0 onto the connecting rod bolts. Check that the marking on the piston is facing the front of the engine and that the piston ring gaps are 120° displaced from each other. Use a piston ring compressor and push the piston down into the bore using a hammer handle. 32. Pull the connecting rod in place and remove the tool 884944-0. Fit the connecting rod caps according to the markings. Lubricate the threads and tighten using a torque wrench. Tightening torque; 61 Nm (6.2 kpm/ 45 lbf.ft). Check that the crankshaft can be turned. Lubricating oil pump Overhauling 33. Remove the oil pump cover (5). Mark the gear wheels (3, 4), so that reassembly can be done with the same tooth engagement. Remove the gears. Remove the pressure relief valve. Knock out the lock pin (8) and remove the spring (7) and piston (6). Do not remove the oil strainer (10) unless it will be replaced. Clean all parts and dry with compressed air. Check that the pump housing is not worn or that the drive shaft has no play due to wear. If the pump housing or the gear wheels are worn, the entire pump should be replaced. Reassemble in the reverse order. The cover (5) should be torqued to 9 Nm (0.9 kpm/6.6 lbf.ft). 34. Replacing the oil strainer: Hold the pump in a vice, using protective jaws. Reference or mark the angle of the strainer. Remove the old strainer. Install the new strainer using tool 884943-2. Install the oil pump. Torque to 81-94 Nm (8.2-9.5 kpm/ 60-69 lbf.ft). Wrench size 5/8". 35. Install the crankshaft gear. Use tool 884530-7. 36. Install the camshaft gear according to points 24-28, chapter 5C. 37. Clean the oil pan gasket surfaces. Place the new gasket on the block. Put a small bead of sealing agent (silicone, part no. 841261-1) on the corners of the oil pan, see arrows. 38. Install the oil pan. Torque the bolts to 11 Nm (1.1 kpm/ 8 lbf.ft) and the nuts to 22 Nm (2.2 kpm/16 lbf.ft). 39. Install the flywheel. Coat the inside with an anti-rust agent, “Tectyl” or equivalent. Lubricate the threads and torque diagonally to 82 Nm (8.2 kpm/59 lbf.ft). NOTE! Use a drift as a counterhold as shown in the picture. 40. Install the rear vibration damper. 41. Install the front vibration damper. Apply a thin coat of oil to the journal and the vibration damper’s contact surface against the sealing ring. Use tool 884608-1. Hold still by inserting a screwdriver in the flywheel ring gear. Overhauling the flywheel housing (13" flywheel) 430A, 431A 42. This flywheel housing is designed for a 13" flywheel. The shaft is mounted in two ball bearings in the housing. 43. Inspect the flywheel housing and replace defective parts. Press in and out bearings and seals using tools 884359-1, 884596-8 and 884599-2. Note how the seals are fitted (what way they are facing) before removal. Remove in the following order: Remove seal (1) and the retainer rings (3) and (4). Press the primary shaft (2) together with the bearing (5). Remove the retaining ring (6) before pressing the bearing off the primary shaft. Thereafter, remove the seal (9) and retainer ring (8). Bearing (7) can then be pressed out. Assemble in the following order: Press on front bearing (7) and fit the retainer ring (8). Press the rear bearing (5) onto the primary shaft and secure with retainer ring (6). Press in the primary shaft into the flywheel housing and install retainer rings (4) and (3). Install a new seal ring (9). NOTE! Carefully grease the seals before they are installed. Turn the seals the correct way when installing. Fill the space marked “A” with water resistant bearing grease. Replace the plug (10) with a grease nipple. Use a grease gun and force grease out through the rear bearing (4). Install a new seal ring (1). NOTE! Install it with the “opening” facing outwards. Overhauling the flywheel housing (14" flywheel) 430B, 431B, 432A, 434A 44. This flywheel housing is designed for a 14" flywheel. The shaft is mounted in a ball bearing in the housing and in a sliding bearing in the crankshaft. 45. Inspect the flywheel housing and replace any faulty parts. Bearings and seals are pushed in and out using special tools 884838, 884596 and 884359. Note how the sealing rings are fitted (the direction in which they are turned) before removing them. Dismantle in the following order: Remove the seal (1) and the circlips (2). Push out the shaft (3) and the bearing (4) using a rubber mallet. Then remove the seal (5), followed by the circlip (6). Push the bearing off the shaft. Fit in the following order: Put on the new sealing ring (5) using special tool no. 884838. NOTE! The seal should be fitted with the opening facing outwards. Push a new bearing onto the shaft. Use special tool 884596. Put on the circlip (6). Fill cavity (A), between the bearing and the sealing ring, with water-resistant ball bearing grease. Fit the shaft in the flywheel casing. Use special tool no. 884596 and push the shaft into position. Ensure that the circlip (6) abuts against the groove in the tool. Put on the circlips (2). Fill the cavity (B) with water-resistant ball bearing grease. Fit a new outer seal (1) using special tool 884359. NOTE! The opening on the sealing ring should face outwards. 46. Coat the exposed portions of the primary shaft with rust inhibitor before installing the flywheel housing. Lubricate the bolts and install the flywheel housing. Torque to 41 Nm (4.1 kpm/30 lbf.ft). Wrench size 9/16". 47. Install the protection plate to the flywheel housing. Wrench size 5/16". 90 Chapter 5C Engine block Overhauling the camshaft Removal 1. Remove the related parts according to 4B, remove the valve system acc. to 4D steps 1-2. The cylinder heads do not need to be removed. 2. Remove the circulation pump and the sea water pump bracket. Wrench size 9/16". 3. Remove the sea water pump, Allen key 5/16". 7. Check the chain and chain gear wear. Tighten one end of the cam chain by turning the crankshaft or camshaft. Measure the distance from a reference point on the engine block to the tensioned chain’s outer edge midway between the chain gears. Tighten the cam chain’s other end and measure again from the same reference point. The slackness should be max. 9.5 mm (0.374") at the chain’s midway point. 8. Remove the cam chain gear and the chain. Wrench size 1/2". 6. Remove the timing gear casing, wrench size, 3/8". 4. Remove the belt pulley, wrench 5/8". 5. Remove the vibration damper, use puller 884608-1. Replacing the camshaft bearings 9.430A/431A (mech. fuel pump): Remove the fuel pump. Wrench size 17 mm for the fuel pipe, 1/2" for the pump bolt. 10. 430A/431A (mech. fuel pump): Remove the interme- diate piece and pull out the push rod. Wrench size 3/8". 15. Remove oil pan, flywheel housing, rear vibration damper, flywheel and crankshaft. The main bearings can be replaced with the engine completely or partly disassembled. If cylinder head and pistons are not removed, the connecting rod bolts should be taped to prevent damage to the crankshaft. Tape also the connecting rods to the engine sides to keep them out of the way when replacing bearings. 16. Tap out the camshaft plug; use a wooden stick or sim- ilar with a dia. of approx. 45 mm (1.772") and 500 mm (19.685") length. 17. Install tool 884628-9. Press out the two middle bear- ings first. 18. When removing the front and rear camshaft bearings, the puller and drift should be used that included in 884628-9. 11. Carefully pull out the camshaft. Be careful not to damage the camshaft bearing surfaces in the block. Removal is made easier if two long 5/16" bolts are screwed into the camshaft and used as a handle. 12. Check the camshaft bearing journals using a micrometer. If they are out of round by more than 0.025 mm (0.0010"), the camshaft must be replaced. Also check the camshaft for straightness. If the run out is more than 0.038 mm (0.0015"), the camshaft must be replaced. 13. Check the cams’ lift height. It should be 5.94 mm (0.234") for the intake valve and 6.53 mm (0.257") for the exhaust valve. Tolerance for the lift height = ±0.05 mm (0.0020"). 14. Inspect the camshaft bearings in the block for wear. Replace if necessary. Installing camshaft bearings 19. Install the front and rear bearings using the puller and drift included in tool 884628-9. NOTE! The camshaft bearings should be installed with the oil holes located as per Fig. 20. 22. Install a new camshaft plug, seal with “Permatex” or equivalent. Fit the plug flush or max. 0.80 mm (0.030") deeper than the end surface. Fit the crankshaft, fly- wheel and rear vibration damper. 20. Installation positions for camshaft bearing oil holes. The diagram shows the engine turned the right side up seen from the front, (camshaft timing gear side). The front bearing has two oil holes, other bearings, one. 21. Install the two middle bearings using tool 884628-9 with the oil hole position as per Fig. 20. Remove the tool and check that all oil holes are aligned correctly. Installing the camshaft 23. Oil the camshaft bearing surfaces with engine oil and install the camshaft. Be careful not to damage the camshaft bearings. NOTE! If a new camshaft is installed, all the cam lobes should be coated with “Molykote” or equivalent. When installing a new camshaft, all new valve lifters should also be installed, see Chapter 4D. 24. Fit the cam gear with the chain loose. Turn cam and crankshaft so that their markings coincide with each other. Check using a ruler. 25. Screw on the cam chain gear. Tighten to 24 Nm (2.4 kpm/17.3 lbf.ft). Wrench size 1/2". Lubricate the cam chain with engine oil. 26. Replace the timing gear cover seal. The seal is removed from the front using a large screwdriver. NOTE! Be careful not to damage the cover. Install a new seal using tool 884529-9; support with a wooden block when installing. NOTE! The seal should be installed with the lip facing inward. 27. Clean the gasket surfaces on the engine block and timing cover. Place a 3 mm (1/8") bead of silicone sealer on the joints, see arrows. 28. Brush the gasket with a sealer and place it on the cover. Lubricate the oil pan gasket upper edge with a little engine oil and install the timing cover. Tightening torque 14 Nm (1.4 kpm/10 lbf.ft), socket size 3/8" 29. Install the oil pan using a new gasket. Lubricate the oil pan gasket’s upper side with a little engine oil (sealing surface towards the timing gear casing). Torque the bolts to 11 Nm (1,1 kpm/7.8 ft lbf.ft) and the nuts to 22 Nm (2.2 kpm/115.6 lbf.ft). Refer to point 37, chapter 5B for installation of the oil pan. 32. Install the belt pulley bolt. Tighten to 82 Nm (8.2 kpm/ 59 lbf.ft). Wrench size 5/8". 33. Install the cylinder heads according to chapter 4E, page 67. Install the sea water pump, Allen key 5/16", and the pump bracket, wrench size 14 mm. Install the circulation pump, wrench size 14 mm. 30. Fit the vibration damper. Apply a thin coating of oil to the bearing journal and on the vibration damper’s contact surface against the sealing ring. Use tool 884608-1. 31. 430A, 431A: Lubricate the fuel pump push rod and install it together with the mounting plate and gasket, wrench size 3/8". Install the fuel pump, wrench size 3/ 8". Fit the fuel line, wrench size 17 mm. 96 Chapter 5D Engine block Overhauling the balance shaft, 432A, 434A 3. Remove the two screws (TX30) for the bearing retainer. Knock out the balance shaft using a plastic mallet. 1. The engines have been provided with a balance shaft for operation with fewer vibrations. The balance shaft is built into the engine block between the rows of cylinders and is driven by the camshaft using a gear wheel at the front of the engine. The balance shaft runs at the same speed as the crankshaft. As the camshaft rotates at half the speed of the crankshaft, the gear ratio is 1:2. The balance shaft is mounted in a roller bearing at the back and in a ball bearing at the transmission. Removal 2. Remove additional parts as described in chapter 4B. Remove the cooling water hoses from the water pump. Remove the water pump and the transmission cover. 4. Fit the balance shaft in a vice. NOTE! Use protective pads. Remove the screws (TX12) for the balance shaft drive. Remove the drive from the shaft and pull off the bearing using a standard tool. 5. Knock out the expansion plug from the inside of the engine. Use a drift suitable for the purpose. NOTE! Note the position of the bearing bushing in the engine block (same position as when fitting). Knock 9. Fit the balance shaft in the engine block. Turn the balout the bearing bushing using drift no. 9998113. ance shaft and camshaft so that the markings on the Check the bearings, bearing bushing, drive and bal-drives face each other. Tighten the screws (TX30) of ance shaft for any wear. the bearing retainer. Use Volvo Penta 1161053-2 or Loctite 242. Tighten the screws to a torque of 14 Nm (1.40 kpm/10.36 ft.lb.). Fitting 6. Oil the bearing bushing with engine oil and fit it using drift no. 9998113. NOTE! Ensure that the bushing is positioned correctly in the engine block. 7. Spread Permatex on the sealing cover. Knock the cover into the engine block using a drift suitable for the purpose. 8. Push the bearing onto the balance shaft. Slip the bearing retainer onto the shaft. Fit the drive on the shaft (TX12) using Volvo Penta 1161053-2 or Loctite 242. Tighten to a torque of 20 Nm (2.00 kpm/14.8 ft.lb.) + 35°. Chapter 5E Engine block Fault-tracing and repair, ignition system 430A/B, 431A/B Prestolite Electronic ignition system 430A/B, 431A/B Description 2. The system is a breakerless transistorized ignition system that provides very stable and accurate ignition timing. The electronic module is not affected by moisture, extreme temperatures or vibration. It is also protected from excessive voltage and reversed polarity. The system is independent of engine speed and functions at all speeds above 0 rpm. Few components and a simple fault-tracing makes it very easy to service. Function 3. The system construction and external appearance is that of a “traditional” ignition system with an ignition coil and distributor. The distributor has been changed so that the breaker points and the condenser have been replaced by an electronic module. 4. The ignition coil has a high voltage output and is matched to the electronic module. A ballast resistor is not used. The impulse sender is in the form of a toothed wheel with 6 teeth that corresponds to the cam on the distributor shaft for breaker point systems. 1. Ignition system 1. Oil pressure gauge 2. Temperature gauge 3. Voltmeter 4. Rev counter 6. Key switch 7. Switch, instrument lighting 8. Fuse, 8 Amp slow-action 11. Starter motor 13. Circuit breaker 14. Main battery switch (accessory) 15. Battery 18. Distributor 19. Ignition coil Wire sizes AWG mm2 16 1.5 10 6.0 Cable colors SB = Black PU = Purple R = Red 5. A sensor is mounted next to the impulse sender, which records the presence or absence of teeth. The sensor functions as a metal detector. The electronic module sends a current to a fine wire coil in the sensor. The coil functions as an oscillator that creates a magnetic field. The field is affected by the presence of the teeth of the impulse sender. Each pulse, or “interference”, that the impulse sender creates in the magnetic field causes a transistor to electrically close or open the primary voltage to the ignition coil, performing the same function as breaker points. 6. When a tooth is right opposite the sensor and the magnetic field is disturbed a low frequency current is sent to the electronic module. The transistor is in the “off” position and no current flows to the ignition coil. This corresponds to breaker points being open. 7. When there is a gap right opposite the sensor, the magnetic field is not disturbed by the presence of metal and a high frequency current is sent to the electronic module. The transistor is in “on” position, providing primary voltage to the ignition coil. This position corresponds to breaker points being closed. The ignition advance is controlled by centrifugal weights and the dwell angle is determined by the air gap between the sensor and the impulse sender. Cleaning 8. Before starting any fault-tracing, all components in the ignition system must be thoroughly cleaned. Use a mild degreasing agent or special purpose cleaner. Dry the ignition coil, ignition wires and distributor. The distributor cap should also be dried on the inside. 9. Inspect the ignition wires, one at a time and inspect the contact points for pitting, etc. Use a moisture-repelling spray such as Volvo Universal oil part No. 1161398-1 or equivalent. Clean the spark plug insulators. Clean the primary wiring in the same way. Fault-tracing 10. Fault-tracing is carried out in two steps: Fault-tracing the secondary circuit (high voltage) Fault-tracing in the primary circuit (low voltage) Always start the fault-tracing in the secondary circuit. Trouble in the ignition system often occurs due to several different reasons. Do not stop the fault-tracing when one cause of the trouble has been found! The entire fault-tracing procedure must be followed. WARNING! In case of trouble in the high voltage secondary circuit arcing and sparks can occur. Before starting to work, make sure that there is no fuel or gas leakage. Ventilate the boat and run the engine room blower (if fitted) 2-3 minutes before commencing work. WARNING! The high voltage secondary circuit produces a voltage of more than 10000 V. It is very dangerous to come in contact with any of these high voltage components. The ignition must be switched off when working with the high voltage circuit, and should only be switched on when performing function tests. Fault-tracing the secondary circuit (high voltage circuit) 11. The secondary circuit fault-tracing includes: • ignition coil • distributor cap • rotor • ignition cables • spark plugs 12. Ignition coil Check that the coil is dry and clean. Make sure that there are no cracks in the top of the ignition coil. Inspect the condition of the ignition wire connections and insulation. Check that the primary wires are connected correctly and are making good contact. Install the circulation pump, wrench size 14 mm. 13. Distributor cap and rotor Make sure that the parts are clean and dry, and that there are no cracks. Replace even if there is the smallest crack or if the contact points are heavily corroded or burnt. 14. Ignition wires Make sure that the ignition wires are clean and dry. Check that there is good electrical contact and that the insulation is not damaged. Be extra careful when inspecting the coil wire. The resistance of the ignition wires should be 0 W, test using an ohm meter. 15. Spark plugs Check the spark plugs for wear and deposit build up. Make sure that the insulator is not cracked. 16. Start the engine If the engine starts and runs smoothly, there is no need to continue the fault-tracing. 17. Engine does not start Connect the inductive sender for a timing light around the ignition wire between the ignition coil and distributor. Connect the light to the power source. Have someone crank the engine with starter motor. Check if the light starts to flash. If so, the primary circuit (low voltage) is working correctly. 18. Timing light does not flash; carry out points 13-15 again. Also make sure that the starting difficulty is not due to a problem in the fuel system or that the ignition timing has been altered. For ignition setting please refer to point 35. 19. If the timing light still does not flash, remove the distributor cap and rotor. Rotate the engine so that one of the impulse sender teeth stop right opposite the sensor. Check that the distributor shaft is not bent. Check the air gap between the impulse sender and sensor. The distance should be 0.20-0.25 mm (0.0078-0.0098"). Adjust if necessary. 20. Re-fit the distributor cap. Repeat point 17. If the timing Fault-tracing in the primary circuitlight still does not flash, the primary circuit voltage (low voltage) should be measured with voltmeter. 21. Troubleshooting of the primary circuit includes: • battery • supply circuit battery-ignition coil • check of ignition coil resistance • check of electronic module 22. Make sure that the battery connections are clean and making good contact. Clean and grease with an electrically conductive grease, e.g. CRC’s copper paste or similar. If the battery seems to be in poor condition, carry out a thorough battery test and replace the battery if necessary. 23. Measuring the voltage in the primary circuit Rotate the engine so that the sensor lines up between two teeth on the impulse sender, corresponding to the breaker points being closed. Turn the starter key to the ignition position. The primary circuit is now engaged. The value V-1 should be between 12 and 13 V. If lower, charge the battery. Should the battery seem to be in poor condition, a more thorough battery test should be carried out and the battery replaced if necessary. NOTE! Always carry out a voltage drop test according to points 31-34, even if the problem has been found. 24. Connect the voltmeter between the ignition coil + con- nection and ground. This voltage (V-2) should be max. 1 V lower than V-1. Normally 0.5 V lower value. 25. If V-2 has a lower value, the reason for the voltage drop must be found, refer to points 31-34. 26. Connect the voltmeter between the ignition coil – con- nection and ground. This voltage V-3 should be be- tween 4 and 8 V. If less than 4 V – see point 29. If more than 8 V, carry on according to point 30. 29. V-3 shows less than 4 V. Remove the connection from the coil – connection and connect only the voltmeter to the – connection. If the voltmeter now shows 12-13 V, it indicates that the ignition coil is not at fault and that there is a short circuit in the electronic module. If the same value is obtained, it indicates a faulty coil. There is an open circuit in the primary winding. Replace the coil. 27. Now place a screwdriver in the opening in front of the sensor. V-3 should now read between 12 and 13 V. Should the voltmeter show correct values, although the ignition is not functioning, this indicates a fault in tie ignition coil. Test the coil by measuring the resistance between + and – connections (R2) in the primary circuit. The resistance should be 1.25-1.4 W at 20°C (68°F). Then measure the resistance of the secondary circuit (R1). It should be 9.4-11.7 kW at 20°C (68°F). If necessary, replace the ignition coil. NOTE! Remove the ignition coil connections when measuring. 28. Connect the timing light according to point 17. Install the distributor cap and rotor. Turn the engine. If the timing light does not light, there is also a fault in the electronic module. Replace the electronic module. 30. V-3 is more than 8 V, typically 12-13 V, the same as for the coil + connection. This indicates poor or no connection to ground between the distributor and engine block. Such a fault is unusual, however. Check the distributor ground connection. If there is no fault there, replace the electronic module. 31. Voltage drop – supply circuit battery to ignition coil A poor connection in this circuit leads to voltage drop to the ignition coil. This voltage drop often results in intermittent ignition failure, irregular ignition, backfiring, etc. Ignition timing 32. Rotate the engine so that the sensor stops right between two teeth on the impulse sender. 33. Connect the + side of a voltmeter to the battery + connection and the voltmeter - side to the ignition coil + connection. With the ignition switch on, the voltage V-4 should be less than 1 V, typically 1/2 V. Do not stop the test if the value is correct. 34. Look for poor contact by moving the wire connections at the battery, starter motor, solenoid, harness connections, starter key and ignition coil. Should a contact point change the voltmeter reading when this is carried out, the connection must be removed and the faulty connection corrected. WARNING! Sparking might occur, so make sure that the boat is properly ventilated. 35. Check the ignition timing using a stroboscopic timing light on the vibration damper. NOTE! A workshop rev counter should be used for ignition timing, not the boat instruments. The setting should be: 430A/B: 8° B.T.D.C. at 1800 rpm 21° B.T.D.C. at 3300 rpm 431A/B: 8° B.T.D.C. at 750 rpm (idling) 16° B.T.D.C. at 2500 rpm Delco Voyager Electronic Ignition System 432A, 434A 1. Distributor cap 2. Rotor 3. Pulse generator 4. Coil 5. Electronic unit 6. Timing shaft 7. Ignition coil 8. Power supply connection, tachometer connection 9. Ignition leads (6) See also the wiring diagram for the 432A/434A Description and function 36. The ignition system is a breakerless, electronic high energy system (HEI) with a magnetic induction sensor (pulse generator), a distributor with a rotor, an electronic unit and a dry-type ignition coil. It is characterized by the fact that is has few components, and it has precise and stable timing. The electronics are protected against moisture, insensitive to extreme temperatures, shaking and vibration. The cams and points on the timing shaft have been replaced by a magnetic pulse generator. The system operates independently of the engine speed. Pre-ignition is regulated automatically in the electronic unit, The pulse generator consists of a rotating solenoid with 6 teeth. There is a fixed solenoid around the rotating solenoid. The fixed solenoid also has 6 teeth (corresponding to the cams on the timing shaft in a system with breaker points). Inside the fixed solenoid is a fine wire coil, which is molded in plastic. When the solenoid rotates, a voltage is induced in the coil. This voltage is affected by the position of the solenoid teeth in relation to one another. When the teeth are directly opposite one another, the voltage is 0. We get a pulsating voltage with alternating polarity. In turn, the voltage makes a transistor in the electronic unit make and break the circuit of the primary current to the ignition coil. In this way, we get a precise electrical pulse which controls the primary current in the ignition system. In other words, the coil, teeth and transistor fulfil the same function as the points in a conventional ignition system. The electronic unit has a number of integral circuits comprising transistors, resistors, diodes and capacitors. In addition, there is a current-limiting circuit which regulates the primary current to the ignition coil to a maximum of 5.5 Amp. No ignition resistance units are required, and the electronic unit can thus operate at maximum power. Pre-ignition is regulated fully automatically and electronically in the electronic unit. Ignition timing 37. If the distributor has been removed, the crankshaft position should be checked and the distributor fitted in accordance with the section entitled “B. Ignition unsynchronized”, point 57. When setting the ignition timing, the following are required: – special tool no. 885163-6, connector for basic setting (disconnects pre-ignition regulation) – stroboscope and inductive sensor (ignition timing lamp) – workshop tachometer. 38. Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating temperature. Connect the ignition timing lamp, with the lamp’s sensor around the ignition lead to No. 1 cylinder. Connect up the workshop tachometer. The engine should be idling. Remove the blind plug (1) and connect connector no. 885163. 39. Connect the connector’s crocodile clip to the battery’s + terminal, for example B+ on the starter motor. The pre-ignition function will stop when this is connected. The engine speed will probably then decrease. IMPORTANT! The engine must be running when the crocodile clip is connected to the + terminal. Otherwise the ignition system’s electronics may be damaged. Iignition timing: 0° BTDC at 750 r/min. 40. Slightly undo the distributor clamp in the engine block and turn the distributor so that the engine timing is correct. Tighten the clamp. Tightening torque: 27 Nm (2.70 kpm/19.98 ft.lb.). Recheck the ignition after tightening. Troubleshooting 41. Ignition leads Check that the ignition leads are clean and dry. Check that there is good electrical contact and that the insulation is not damaged. Take special care when inspecting the lead from the ignition coil (an engine can quite easily run under normal conditions, but it may not start if there is tracking on the ignition leads). The resistance in the ignitions leads should be 0 ohm. Check this using an ohmmeter. 42. Spark plugs Check that the spark plugs are clean and that the electrodes are not worn. Also check that the insulator is not cracked. 43. Distributor cap and rotor Check that the parts are clean and dry and that there are no cracks. Replace any parts that are even slightly cracked or if the points of contact are heavily corroded or burned. 44. Checking B+ (12 Volt), ignition coil Remove the connector and leads from the tachometer/ ignition lock (gray/mauve) from the ignition coil. Connect a voltmeter, with its positive (+) connected to the pin for the mauve lead and its negative (–) to ground. Start the ignition. The voltmeter should display a value of at least 8 Volt. 45. Checking B+ (12 Volt), distributor 47. Distributor Connect the gray/mauve lead to the ignition coil. Remove the connector with brown/light red leads from the distributor. Connect a voltmeter, + to the pin for the light red lead and – to ground. Start the ignition. The voltmeter should display a value of at least 8 Volt. 46. Ignition coil Check the ignition coil for short-circuiting or breaks using an ohmmeter. Check this by measuring the resistance three times. Connect the ohmmeter as described in points 1 – 3 below. 1. The ohmmeter should display a very high resistance (infinite). Replace the coil if the value is incorrect. 2. The ohmmeter should display a very low resistance of 0.35-0.45 ohm. Replace the coil if the value is incorrect. 3. The ohmmeter should display a high, but not infinite, resistance, (7500-9000 ohm). Replace the coil if the value is incorrect. Remove the distributor cap, rotor and connector from the coil. Check the coil by connecting an ohmmeter to it as described in points 4 – 5. Also check the leads for breaks by bending and twisting them while measuring. 4. The ohmmeter should always display an infinitely high resistance. If this is not the case, the coil is faulty and should be replaced. 5. The ohmmeter should display a stable value of between 700 and 900 ohm, even when the leads are bent or twisted. If the resistance changes, there is a fault in the leads or in the coil. NOTE! It is normal for the resistance to change when the rotor shaft is turned. 48. Electronic unit The electronic unit shows only two symptoms of faults: no spark at the plugs, or pre-ignition inoperative. NOTE! When replacing the electronic unit, the contact surface with engine should be cleaned extremely carefully. Afterwards, grease the surface with silicone grease or with heat transfer paste designed for electronic components, Volvo Penta part no. 3851513-6. Replacing components, removal 51. Drive 49. Distributor Remove the high tension lead from the ignition coil and the contact piece from the electronic unit. Turn the crankshaft so that No. 1 cylinder is in the ignition position (both valves are fully closed). Remove the distributor cap. Note the position of the rotor and mark this position on the distributor. Also mark the distributor’s position in relation to the engine block in order to place it in the correct position when fitting it. If the engine’s crankshaft has changed position while the distributor is not connected, the ignition must be completely reset as described in the section entitled “B. Ignition unsynchronized”, point 57. Remove the distributor clamp (1) and pull the distributor out of the engine. Remove the gasket. Pull the rotor off the timing shaft. 50. Electronic unit Remove the leads from the coil. Remove the screws and the electronic unit. The unit may sometimes get stuck in the distributor and have to be prised out. IMPORTANT! Remove all heat transfer paste from the electronic unit and the distributor. Clean the contact surfaces carefully. Mark the position of the drive in relationship to the shaft so that it is replaced in the same position as before. Knock out the locking pin using a drift (diam. 4.5 mm/ 0.18") and pull off the drive, washer and star washer. Fitting 52. Electronic unit Ensure that the contact surfaces between the electronic unit and the distributor are clean. Spread heat transfer paste such as silicone grease, Volvo Penta part no. 3851513-6 on the electronic unit. NOTE! Heat transfer paste or silicone grease is necessary to prevent the electronic unit from overheating. Fit the unit to the distributor. 53. Drive 55. Distributor Fit the star washer, washer and drive on the timing shaft. NOTE! Note the drive – shaft markings. Knock the locking pin into the shaft. 54. Rotor Push the rotor firmly onto the timing shaft. NOTE! Note the rotor – distributor casing markings. 56. A. Ignition synchronized (The crankshaft/valves have remained in the same position while the distributor was removed.) There are markings for the rotor – distributor casing and distributor – engine block.) Turn the rotor approximately 60° counterclockwise in relation to the rotor – distributor casing markings. Place a new gasket over the hole in the engine block. Put the distributor into the engine and ensure that it is positioned correctly. NOTE! The rotor may need to be turned slightly in order to position the distributor correctly. Ensure that the distributor – engine housing markings are aligned. Fit the distributor clamp. The screws should be tightened only to the extent that the distributor can be turned, with a little resistance. Connect the leads from the ignition coil. Grease all the terminals in the distributor cap. Fit the distributor cap. Tighten the screws. Connect the leads to the ignition coil and spark plugs. See the section entitled “Ignition timing”, point 37-40. 57. B. Ignition unsynchronized (The crankshaft/valves have not remained in the same position while the distributor was removed.) This method is also used when no markings have been made between the rotor and distributor casing and distributor and engine block. Place No. 1 cylinder in the ignition position (both valves are fully closed) and ensure that the 0° marking on the vibration damper is directly opposite the marking on the engine block. No. 1 cylinder is now in the ignition position. Fit the distributor and a new gasket in the engine. When the distributor is in place, the rotor should be in the firing position for No. 1 cylinder – see figure. If you find it difficult to position the distributor correctly, press down gently on the distributor cap and rotate the crankshaft at the same time. Put the clamp on when the distributor is in the correct position. The clamp screw should be tightened only to the extent that the distributor can be turned, with a little resistance. Fit the distributor cap. Turn the distributor in the engine block so that the rotor is in contact with the terminal for No. 1 cylinder (spark plug). Tighten the distributor clamp. Check all the high tension leads and connect the ignition leads. Ensure that these leads are connected in the correct order. Connect the lead from the ignition coil to the electronic unit. Then continue with the section entitled “Ignition timing”, point 37 – 40. WARNING! Before starting the engine, ensure that no gasoline fumes can be detected on board and that the boat is sufficiently well ventilated. 110 Chapter 5F Engine block Installation of related parts 1. Install the flywheel housing. Lubricate the bolts and torque to 41 Nm (4.2 kpm/30 lbf.ft). Wrench size 9/16". 4.Install the circulation pump using new gaskets. Wrench size 9/16". 5.Install the belt pulley, socket size 5/8". 2. Install the protection plate to the flywheel housing. Wrench size 5/16". 3. Install the starter motor. Wrench size 9/16". 6. 430A, 431A: Install the fuel pump using new gaskets on both sides of the metal mounting plate. Grease the push rod to hold it in place while installing. Wrench size, 1/2" for the pump and 3/8" for the metal mounting plate. 7. Install the sea water pump, 5/16" Allen wrench. Install with rubber dampers, large washer, spring washer and bolts. 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Date:............................................................ Name: .......................................................... AB Volvo Penta Customer Support Dept. 42200 SE-405 08 Gothenburg Sweden tt00b0bcC wcO (_ 0I0000